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On pages 14, 16, 21 and 22 John V. Bomford shonld 
be James V. Bomford. 

On pages 1 and 40 the letter dated Jnlv 12th, 1S56, 
shonld be July 12th, 1852. 

On pages 27 and 754 the letter from W. G. Moore, 
dated Angust 26, 1866, shonld be August -IQ, 1868. 

The letter from A. Coleman, on pages 26 and 603, 
should be from D. Coleman. 






J. BEYAJST GRIMES, Ciiaiema^^ 

D. H. HILL M. C. S. ^^OBLE 

R. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary. 

Copyright 1909 by The North Carolina Historical Commission. 


From W. B. Stipe. 

Lewisville X. C. June 30 1866. 

Enclosed I send a note whicdi 1 ^\TOte lor one tJoiin 
Cosby, a Freedman of your City which 1 hope your Ex- 
cellency will contrive [to get] to him and excuse me for 
troubling you with it. George is a bricklayer and plas- 
terer and I wish to employ him and feared if I wrote to 
him direct he might fail to get the letter and your Excel- 
lency being the only man with whom I am well acquainted 
in the City and on whom I could rely I have concluded to 
trouble you with it. 

He formerly belonged to the widow Cosby and lived in 
the west end of the city on a street leading from Hills- 
borough Street to the depot. 

I was very happy indeed to learn that you are again a 
candidate for Governor. 

Tlie people in my section of the State are very well 
satisfied with the able manner in which the onerous du- 
ties of the Executive othce have been discharged and I 
have every reason to hope that your support will again be 
almost unanimous with us. 

^\ ith my respects and best wishes I must close. 

To P. H. Winston. 

June 30 1866. 
Xew views make me desirous of official interview with 
you. Can you come here by early train and be my guest 
during your stay ? 


660 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

From B. 8. Hedrich. 

Washington^ D. C. July 1, '66. 

Yours of the 29tli is just received. I will see iu the 
morning what can be done in regard to the Collectorship at 
Wilmington. But for the determination of the Sec. of 
the Treasury to put Fuller in, he would have had no 
chance. Some of the Ship Masters complain that Fuller 
and his deputy are in the habit of "gouging" them, by 
making extra fees, such as compelling a man to take a 
temjDorary Register when he could just as well issue .the 
permanent Register at once. 

The Ex. P. Gr. is here but has not paid his respects to 
me. The Sentinel's irony about the most j^opular appoint- 
ment will not be understood out of the State. 

To W. H. Seioard.^ 

July 1866 

o/josmhTurne?.^ There Were but three men in the Legislature of this 
State in 1860-61 who stood out against Secession and 
every measure tending to a disruption of the Union till 
hostilities actually commenced and even afterwards. 
These three men were Sharpe, of Iredell, who died last 
year, Hon. Josiah Turner, of Orange, and myself. We 
three alone voted even in May 1861 against the call of a 
Convention to pass an ordinance of Secession. The yeas 
and nays called on all these questions show our votes. 

After hostilities commenced Turner entered the army 
on the Southern side, was severely wounded soon after- 
wards and left the service. He became a candidate for the 
Confederate Congress, and in a district composed of a 
very large majority of democrats and Secessionists he was 

This letter was written between the 1st and 3d of July. 


elected. He constantly combatted the doctrine of Seces- 
sion and in the Confederate Congress of 1864 and 1865 
constantly nrged a pacification on the basis of preserving 
the Union. He and Sharpe and I were Whigs of the origi- 
nal pannel — firm — many said — obstinate in our adhesion 
to the principles of that party. i\.nd here let me say di- 
gressively, as strongly indicative of the Union proclivi- 
ties of JSTorth Carolina that the trio have been constantly 
popular favorites after the first ebullitions in 1861. After 
the close of the war Turner filed his petition for pardon. 
He always in season and out of season denounced the Dem- 
ocratic part}^ as the source from which Disunion sprung. 
In this petition he went out of the way to assail democ- 
racy. Prior to 1860 Mr. Holden, editor of the Standard 
newspaper, had been a leading Democrat and Secessionist. 
In 1860 he abandoned his party and became an earnest 
advocate for the preservation of the Union. The antagon- 
ism between Turner and Holden prior to 1860 had been 
so vehement as to amount to personal hatred. After Hol- 
den became an advocate for Union, there was a superficial 
truce between them. The Standard even advocated Turner's 
election to the Confederate Congress over his secession 
opponent. The reconciliation was never Cordial. Dur- 
ing the latter years of the war the Standard advocated 
^']3eace and Independence". Turner regarded this posi- 
tion as mischievious, and went for Vance in preference to 
Holden for the Governorship in 1862. Mr. Holden as 
Provisional Governor refused to recommend Turner for 
pardon, on the ground, as I understand, that he regarded 
his petition as a "bill of indictment against the Demo- 
cratic party". He has not been pardoned. In the mean- 
time, other members of the Confederate Congress, who 
had been constant Secessionists, were pardoned — for in- 
stance, Bridgers, Arrington, Yenable, Lander — and many 
other conspicuous Secessionists, all of whom were recom- 
mended for pardon I believe, by Govr. Holden. 

662 North CAKOLiisrA Historical Commission. 

I believe tliere is not a more reliable union man in 
I^ortli Carolina, than Turner. The discrimination against 
him is the subject of much commentarv in the State. 
Will you not interest yourself and have his pardon issued ? 
It Avould give universal satisfaction except to a few who 
feel personal malice against him. If the form of his pe- 
tition be the only obstacle, I wull endeavor to get him to 
withdraw it, if this be allowable. I do not write this let- 
ter at his request or with his knowledge. I am prompted 
to do it by my regard for him personally and politically 
and beacuse I am sure it would greatly increase the al- 
ready cordial feeling of our people towards the President. 
The whole State would bless him if he would issue par- 
dons of Graham and Dortch — The former a Union man 
until the war begun — the latter a moderate Secessionist. 
I cannot conceive what rule of policy can make it expedi- 
ent to withhold their pardons, after Bridgers, Venable, Ar- 
rington and Lander are pardoned. If their pardons were 
issued their powerful voices will be raised at once in fa- 
vor of the national Union party. Graham ought to be a 
member of that Convention. 

The courteous manner in which you have treated me 
has emboldened me to obtrude on you in this long communi- 
cation — If it shall not meet with your approval I shall 
regret it. — It has been written without the knowledge of 
any person whatever. If you deem it expedient you may 
submit it to the perusal of any body, or do any thing with 
it which to you may seem proper. 

WAsiiixGT0]sr, D. C. 

From Charles C. Clarh 

JSTewbeein-, July 3, IS 66. 
'ed last mail. 

ke any recommendation i 
Assessor, because I have no acquaintance with the char- 

Eegarding railroad Yours of the 1st was received last mail. 

directors and State t n n n 

prosy. 1 arn wholly unable to make any recommendation for 

Coeeespojtdejstce of Jonathan Worth. 663 

acter and qnalitlc-atioiis of men who conld take the oath 
It does not matter who may receive the appointment. The 
oath has to be taken and the people are indifferent be- 
tween parties who can take it. 

]Sro dissatisfaction that I know of exists in regard to 
the appointment of Directors. The State's proxy, by a 
too excliisive intereonrse and cooperation with one set of 
men, called forth expressions of discontent as to his ap- 
pointment ; yet, I think, a little time will wear this away. 

Having been confined to the house since my return from 
Beaufort, by bilious indisposition, I have not had my 
usual promiscuous interchange of opinion, and am, there- 
fore, ignorant of ''the effect produced on the other side." 
As soon as I am well enough, I will advise you on this 
point. I may say, however, that, up to this time, I know 
of nothing at all unfavorable. 

You represent me very truly, in attributing to me a 
disposition to allay all strife between rival points on the 
road. It is unfortunate that any should have existed. 
The race of improvement is pre-eminently one of capi- 
tal, industry and enterprise combined, and the persever- 
ingly legitimate use of advantages which oSTature may have 
generously bestowed. These, certainly should not be fet- 
tered, or restricted, or destroyed, by unjust discrimina- 
tion, but should be put upon the same footing, governed 
by the same rules and stimulated by the same fostering 
regTilations. This is all we ask, and this we arewillino- 
to give. I am satisfied that none of the present Directors, 
whether appointed or elected, will ever be justly amenable 
to the charge of sectionalism. 

1 am strongly sympathetic with you. Governor, in the opposing conciiia- 

„ • • , n , , 1 -, • 1 1 1 1 tiou Of the oppo- 

opinion tnat tJie good men with whom we have been ac- sition. 
customed to co-operate so harmoniously in time past, but 
v\dio from mistaken patriotism and great timidity of pur- 
pose, voted for Holden in the last election, should be con- 
ciliated by all the legitimate means in our power — that is. 
if ''conciliate" be the right word. But do thev need con- 

664 iN^ORTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

ciliation? Thej acted under the temporary pressure of 
wliat thej deemed to be the only wise policy, and re- 
luctantly applied their hands to a work which did not en- 
gage their hearts. They voted for Holden from what 
some conceived to be a childish fear of the consequences 
of his defeat ; and thus influenced and controlled by their 
fears alone, they avowedly surrendered their cherished 
principles — ^but only for that occasion which, with them, 
was the turning point in our fate. Well, that occasion has 
passed — their fears have been dissipated — and the 
dreaded consequences have not been realized. Where then 
do they stand noiv ? To be sure if they are good men, and 
are to be relied on (and I have no reason to believe other- 
wise) they are already' within the fold, — not coming 
"home," but already seated in the old family mansion. Is 
not this necessarily the position of the good men, who do 
not encourage, affiliate or sympathize with, openly or se- 
cretly, that other class whom you appropriately style Radi- 
cals, represented probably by • old Gahagan in the West 
and Lev/is Thompson in the East ? The great difficulty 
with me is to draw the line of demarcation between these 
two classes. The South has had, as yet, no opportunity to 
prove itself by its works. The Convention, we all know, 
exhibited but few, very few, indications of any change for 
the better, having been Holdenish in the beginning, and 
having remained so to its final adjournment. Hence it 
was that I was opposed to perhaps unwillingly sustaining 
radicalism in any conceivable shape, whether openly 
avowed, or secretly fondled, and believed that the cir- 
cumstance not only justified, but called for the applica- 
tion of the axe to the very tap root of the evil. If some 
comely branches should adorn the fall of the tree, why 
such comely branches had no business being engrafted on 
such a trunk, or growing in such dangerous proximity to 
its scarred and knotty limbs. 

'Tis these radicals that I would conciliate— but not 


with their arms in their hands. As long as they shout 
crucify iis, and would infamously deprive us of privi- 
leges incident to free institutions, and inherent in 
American citizenship, just so long I would make them 
feel that the way of the transgressor is hard, and that there 
is no peace for the wicked. These are the men who either 
denounce, or encourage the denunciation of, yourself, and 
humble men of like faith and practice, as 'Secessionists', 
the latter day war saints, etc., etc.. These are the men 
who seize upon every nomination of a secessionist, or se- 
cretly encourage others to do so, to weaken you, and dam- 
age the State. I would slay them until they threw down 
their arms and begged for quarter — and then I would 
conciliate them as every true ]>enitent is conciliated, by be- 
stowing favors which should be emphatically the off- 
shoots of Free Grace. But if they demaneled favor — I'd 
give them the knife. If they cried for mercy — I would 
shower suitable blessings on their miserable heads. And 
all this too for the good of the people and the safety of 
the State. 

However, Governor, in these matters you had an ample 
opportunity of correctly judging; and, if I know myself, 
I would certainly subordinate all minor consielerations to 
the success of real concservative principles, of which you 
are undoubtedly the representative man. 

Respectfully tenelering you renewed assurances of my 
friendliest esteem anel regards. 

To B. S. Hedrick. 

Raleigh July J^tli 1866. 

The extreme pressure upon my time puts it out of my 
power to answer all your interesting letters. 

The agitations to get up opposition to me have thus far Failure to organize 
proved failures. The latest which seems, as I infer from ^ 


jSTokth Carolijnta Histokical Commission. 

Hold en and the 

the last standard, is still under advisement — to-wit, the 
runnins' of a straight Secessionist for Govr. and a Hoi- 
den man per se, as Lt. Govr. The men they purpose to 
use for this purpose are Genl. Mat. Ransom and R. P. 
Dick. I have no information warranting the belief that 
either of these gentlemen would assent to the arrangement. 
My information tends to the contrary. The mere pro- 
posal of such a combination is indicative of mutinious des- 

I am anxious to hear the effect of Holdeii's mission to 
Washington. It is surprising to me that so shrewd a man 
as the President should not before now have comprehended 
Tlolden. I think he is still a favorite of the president, 
and that he retains power to jaundise the president's mind 
against me and Graham and Turner and all the other 
true Union men of the State. It astonishes me that the 
Prest. does not understand and despise his malicious cun- 
ning and ig-noble sycophancy. 

I regard the proposed JSTational Convention at Phila- 
delphia as affording some hope of returning sanity in the 
Opinion as to the , If three f ourths of the States adopt the Howard amend- 

adoption of the j. x j i /^ 

uth amendment, uieut to xii's L cnstitution it may restore a worthless Union. 
It woTild he a re-rnion with detestation and abhor- 
rence between the lately alienated people. Iso Southern 
State, where the people are free to vote, will adopt it. If 
we are to be degraded we will retain some self-esteem by 
not making it self-abasement. It excludes from public 
confidence not only such men as Hanes, and Bat. Moore. 
John Pool, R. P. Dick, Jo. Turner, etc. — but every man 
who as a justice of the peace, constable, Post Master, etc., 
may have taken the oath to support the Constitution of 
the U. S., while it admits to office the most violent Seces- 
sionists w^ho may have taken up arms and fought through 
the vi^ar against the Union provided he had held no posi- 
tion prior to the war whereby he had taken the oath to 


support the Constitution of the U. S. — I would submit to 
confiscation or anv other cahimity which brute force can 
impose before I would be guilty of the self-degradation of 
voting for this amendment. The dispensing power re- 
tained for two thirds of Congress is the most destable fea- 
ture of the scheme. Honorable men could not get a dis- 
pensation from a Congress evidently under the lead of 
Thad. Stephens. Onlv sycophants and men mean 
enough to seek thrift by fawning, could obtain the dispen- 
sation. If we were voluntarily to adopt this amendment 
I think we would be the meanest and most despicable peo- 
ple on earth. I^obody in this State that I have heard of, 
except a few Holden men per se, will vote for it. 

I thank you most cordially for your successful efforts 
in obtaining pardons. I will cull out a small list, accord- 
ing to your suggestions, soon, and send it on. — If the 
Prest. would pardon Turner, Graham and Dortch. all of 
which he ought to grant without a moinent's hesitation, af- 
ter pardoning Bridgers, Arrington, Lander and Yenable. 
he would be more popular in this State than anybody has 
been since the days of Genl Washington. The withhold- 
ing of these pardons is a political blunder. It is never 
expedient to do wrong. 

AYxisnixGToy, D. C. 

To D. D. Ferehee.^ 

Raleigh, Juhj 5 1866. 
I am called upon bv the Sec. of the Treasurv to rec- Regarding Federal 

' , , - " . , appointments. 

ommend a fit man, who can take the oath, as assessor m the 
first Internal Eevenue District, being the same as the 
first Cono-ressional District. 

' Dennis D. Ferebee, of Camden, was a Whig lawyer, and after the 
war a Democrat. He was a member of the House of Commons from 
1846 to 1850, and from 1856 to 1862. He was also a member of tlie 
convention of 1865. 

668 JSFoKTH Carolina Histoeical CoMMissioisr. 

As this appointment will be conferred on a Yankee, 
if a suitable citizen of tbe State be not recommended and 
as Mr. Stubbs, joiir member of Congress is at a point 
where I cannot communicate with him for want of mail 
facilities, I trouble you for a suggestion. ISTone of our 
citizens who remained at home during the war and who 
have the proper regard for the sanctity of an oath (ex- 
cepting the Quakers whose religion forbids them to take 
any part in war) can take the teste oath. I am persuaded 
3''ou might get the consent of some competent Quaker to 
accept who would not[ ?] make a good officer without being 
odious to yr people. If you prefer to have nothing to do 
in the matter let me hear at once. I deem it expedient to 
recommend some ISTorth Carolinian. 

South Mills. 

To James P. Foster. 

Ealeigh, Juhj 5 1866. 
Regarding Federal Mv coursc ill relation to all appointments by the U. S. 

appointments. '^ -'--'- *- _ 

govt, ill this State is to recommend no one, except with the 
approval of the people amongst whom his duties are to be 
performed. The merchants of Wilmington unmistakably 
desire the appointment of Savage. I can recommend no 
other. As between you and Fuller, with the light now be- 
fore me, I prefer you. As to recommending you for As- 
sessor for the 1st District, I cannot do it until the wishes 
of the people of the district shall have been ascertained. 
If you can get the recommendation of the member elected 
to represent that district in Congress I will be glad to en- 
dorse it — or to recommend yr appointment. In making 
these recommendations I must have regard to the wishes 
of the people among whom the officer is to act. 

HuDSOlN^, i^. Y. 


To Lewis Hemes. 

Raleigh, July 5th 1866. 

I could not discreetly demand pledges of Directors as to 
their choice of Prest. I appointed Roberts at your sug- 
gestion. I hope you will induce him to vote for Turner. 
I think Means, Gilmer, Moore and Berry are certain for 
Turner. I dont' know how Boyden, Roberts and Strange 
will vote, but I think all of them will go for Turner who, 
I believe to be a fitter man than his competitor. 


To J. M. Coffin. 

Raleigh^ July 5 1866. 

In engineering to give a good director to your road Railroad directors. 
and at the same time avoiding political quicksands we 
have appointed as State Directors, Ro. Strange, Wilming- 
ton, Berry and Jo. Turner, Orange — Moore, Alamance, — 
Gilmer, Guilford, B. B. Roberts, Davidson, Boyden — 
Rowan, and Means — Cabarrus — and yourself State proxy 
— two democrats — the rest old Whigs — All Johnson men. 
It leaves no appointee of Ilolden except Boyden, whom H. 
appointed from policy and not because he was a follower 
of Holdenism. You will see that Wake <fe Johnston got 
no director. This wall be imputed to the fact that these 
were Ilolden Counties. It did not happen from this cause. 
I wish to make amends to Wake by appointing Rufus 
Tucker of this City on your Com. of Tinance. He is 
eminently competant — was an old director turned out by 
Ilolden. He will be satisfied if put on this Committee. 
Be sure to manage this. 


670 JSToRTH Gaeolina Historical Commission. 

From J osiali Turner, Jr. 

HiLLSBOEo July 5th 1866. 

I wrote veil a hurried letter yesterday as the mail 
closed. I trouble yon with this for fear you did not re- 
ceived yesterday's letter. 

Onr jail is insecure — in fact no jail at all. It contains 
two great scamps who have stolen horses, entered honses. 
etc. They were arrested last week. 

' My letter yesterday contained the names of the ma- 
jority of the Magistrates who ask for the special term — 
now ashing that you do not grant it because the trial will 
be moved to another county. The prisoners have entered 
houses in every part of this country and I would not 
think of trying here. Every ]\Iagistrate that I saw who 
had petitioned for the court joined in asking that the 
court &e not ordered. 

They did not know when they petitioned for the court 
that I would move the trial. 

Please inform me or the Clerk of the Court whether you 
determine for or against the Special Term that we may 
have the prisoners sent to a securer jail. 

Here they are guarded which will add much to the 

To Colonel James Wren. 

Ealeigii, July 6/66. 

Asking reason for After a loiig life of intimate political and personal re- 
change of attitude. . tit i i • i -r 

lations with you, cordial, as i believe on both sides, i am 
pained to believe that by some means, to me unaccount- 
able, I have forfeited your confidence. — What have I done 
to produce this change. I hear you participated in the 
meeting a few days ago at Long's Mills, which nominated 
Holden for Govr. I was not surprised at the course of 
Dr. Sellars. He published over his name in the Stand- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 671 

ard last Fall a wilful life to defeat my election. I never 
look for kindness or justice from one who has done me 
wilful injury. That an old friend of your stable views 
in political matters should prefer one over me who has 
done more than anybody in this State to inculcate seces- 
sion and sectionalism, greatly sui'prised me. I think you 
must be laboring under some strange mistaken in reference 
to me. Is it asking too much of you, as an old friend, 
to explain what it is that I have done which has changed 
your views in relation to me ? 
Troy's Store. 

To B. S. Hedncl: 

KAEEmn JuJij 6fh 1866. 

Hon. J. Turner, as he is both unpareloned and un-recog- 
nized as a member of Congress, eleclines to recommenel any 
one as a Cadet to West Point. He says there is no one 
more worthy than Perrin Busbee. Can the thing be man- 
aged without the aid of Mr. Turner's signature ? How 
much mischief will Holden elo me and the State in Wash- 
ington ? He seems to be still in the confidence of the 
President, and of Mr. Seward, as I hear. 

Washington, D. C. 

'To General T. C. Bohinson. 

Rai.eic+h, July 6th 1866. 

Your communication in relation to the alleged murder 
of Henry Calicotte, Corporal in 28th Michigan Infantry, 
by one Xathan AV. Roberts, inquiring "whether any in- 
dictment had been found against the murderer or any 
steps taken by the civil authorities to bring him to justice" 
has been received. 

Having no information personal or official in relation 

672 NoETH Cakolhsta Historical Commission. 

to the subject of your inquiry, I have taken the steps 
deemed necessary to get at the facts in relation to the 
subject and will answer as soon as I shall have received 
a report. 

To W. T. Faircloth.^ 

Raleigh July 6th 18dij. 

I herewith inclose to you a copy of a communication 
reed yesterday from Genl. Robinson, military Comman- 
dant of the State. 

Please enable me to answer the inquiry. The object is 
obvious. If no action has been taken by our authorities 
please explain why such action was not taken. Was an 
inquest held ? If so what was the report of the jury ? 


To Hugh McCulloch. 

Raleigh, Juhj 7th 1866. 

I addressed a letter on the 16th ult. to the Asst. Sec. 
Hon. W. S. Chandler, in response to one from him in 
regard to Capt. Charles Emery, in which I stated that 
upon inquiry of Hon. IST. Boyden, I was satisfied that 
Capt. E. was a very intelligent gentleman of most excel- 
lent character. 

Capt. Emery tells me that this letter was not received, 
or had not been received when he left Washington. I 

^ W. T. Faircloth, of Wayne, had been a lawyer before the war. 
When the war began he volunteered and rose to the rank of captain. 
He was a member of the convention of 1865, and of the legislature 
of 1865. He was until 1868 Solicitor of the Third Judicial District. In 
1875 he was elected to the constitutional convention, and after that 
adjourned, Governor Brogden appointed him a Justice of the Supreme 


therefore take the occasion to repeat what I then wrote. 
and to state further that I believe Capt. Emery is well 
qualified for any position in the gift of the government in 
this State. 

Washi^gtoa";, D. C. 

From. B. S. Hedrich. 

AA^ASHi^-GTO^^ D. G. Jidij 8, 1866. 

I have just received yours of the 6th inst. 

At present there are three vacancies for X. C. at West Regarding vacan 

J- eies at West Pomi 

Point. These I think will be filled on or before August 
20, next. ]Srext year there will be four more vacancies. 
Those there now charged to X. C. are all non residents. 
They will graduate next year. 

The Districts that are vacant now are the 1st, 2nd and 
6th. But as none are filled by Xorth Carolinians I see 
little reason why one district rather than another should 
have the vacancies, so it is all made right in the end. 
What I would recommend is that you select the three 
young men that you prefer to fill the vacancies. Write a 
letter to the President (a simple formal letter) recom- 
mending the three preferred. As Mr. Turner will not 
nominate, perhaps Col. Walkup Avill recommend Mr. Bus- 
bee. I do not know that it is absolutely necessary to have 
the endorsement of the M. G. but from what Col. Cooper 
said I believe it will be best. Mr. Busbee had better try 
to get in noiv. The system is to be changed next year and 
each M. C. will then nominate five, and a selection of one 
will be made by the War Dept. This year the competitive 
system will not be applied. 

If Walkup recommend Mr. Busbee it will be better 
than Mr. Turner's recommendation, for Walkup repre- 
sents the 6th Dist. to which one of the vacancies is marked. 

Vol. 2—2 

674 North Carolina Historical Commissiojst. 

Have joii recommended any one for the 2iid Dist ? Dr. 

Arendell's son, Willie L. has made application and some 

» of his friends have written me on the subject of urging 

his appointment. I have however done nothing, as I wish 

in this matter to act in perfect concert with you. 

If the members of Congress elect decline to nominate, 
on the grounds named by Mr. Turner, then state the fact 
in the letter to the President that you consulted them. 
But be sure to send on as soon as convenient a letter nam- 
ing three young men for the three vacancies now existing. 
Of course young Bagiey and Busbee will be two of them, 
and let the other be the one you prefer, who if he reside** 
in the 2nd Dist that will be in his favor. But in this gen- 
eral letter of recommendation it would be best to say noth- 
ing about Districts. For no matter what Districts get 
places now, the others will make it up next summer. 

From B. S. Hedricl'. 

Washixgton, D. C. Jidy 8, 1866. 
Influence of I received vesterday yours of July -ith and but for want 

Holden. _ " . . 

of time would write a special reply. I do not take so dark 
a view of matters as you do, but can freely admit that 
there is good ground to fear all that you apprehend. So 
little has been done to enlighten public opinion in N. C. 
on the leading questions of the day, and the power which 
Holden and the Charlatan class of ISTorthern men that look 
to him as a convenient tool has done the State infinite 
damage. But I still believe that there is enough good 
sense in the State to govern it, and to retrieve the past. 
I believe now that IST. C. notwithstanding all Holden's 
Jeremiads is better off and presents a more hopeful state 
of things than any other Southern State. 

In regard to Holden's position here, I cannot speak 


positively, but I do not believe it amounts to anything. 
The only time that Holden was really dangerous was last 
Dec. when he was moving Heaven and Earth to have the 
election set aside and himself retained as Governor. Hav- 
ing faijed in that, he lost his best chance. The President 
I jndge rather pities him. Having taken him up, the 
President does not care to openly repudiate him, and I 
think lhe sending of Holden's nomination to the Senate 
was really a shrewd move of the President. But if the 
Senate confirm him, they must stop all talk about appoint- 
ing red handed traitors, for of all the President's former 
appointments Holden is the biggest rebel. If Holden is 
rejected, the mischievious faction of officeseekers, of which 
he is the head, will meet with a deserved rebuke. So 
taken at any way I think good and not evil will result. The 
nominaiion I think was procured through the influence of 
Powell with Seward. Seward has always stood up for 
If olden. 

Holden is still here I believe. Vance left yesterday for 
home. If I have a little time to spare during the week 
I will see some of the members of Congress and find out 
what Holden has been doing. But my opinion is that he 
spends more time among sensation newspaper reporters, 
getting up dispatches to pass as public opinion, than he 
does in consulting with leading men of any party. 

How does Lewis Hanes get on with his paper ? I sel- 
dom see Hane's paper and only occasionally I get the 
Standard. Hanes is just the man to handle articles like 
Holden's leader of July 3rd, when he urges Pansom ;o 
run for Gov. It is too long before election to commence 
the canvas in earnest, but now is the time to watch the 
movements of the enemy. 

Strong efforts will be made to detach Guilford Co. from 
your support on account of the appointment of J. A. 
Gilmer, Jr., and Jas. T. Morehead, Jr. There are some 
of the union men in that county and Randolph, that have 
been exceedingly impracticable. But I think the t^'ouble 


]^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

has been more the want of a good newspaper. Hanes 
conld edit a paper that would command the respect of the 
public of those counties. 

Regarding his 
campaign for 

To Tyre Yorh. 

Kaleigh July 9th 1866. 

Yours of the 16th ult. is reed. I am gratified to learn 
from it that jou think a majority of the people of AVilkes 
will go for my re-election as Govr. this Fall. I attribute 
my slender vote last Fall to the fact that in the short time 
after the announcement of my name, the great body of 
your people had not time to be correctly informed as to 
the political record of myself and my competitor — and to 
the delusion that his election was essential to retaining the 
favor of the Prest, and restoration to the Union. These 
delusions have passed away. I have always stood on the 
Union, Henry Clay platform to which Wilkes has adhered. 
For long years my competitor labored to foster Sectional- 
ism and Secession. Upon every principle of consistency I 
ought to have received the support of Wilkes, and am 
gratified, that upon better information I am likely to re- 
ceive it at the coming election. 

To show your i^eople how I stood at the beginning of 
our troubles I send you a copy of a circular I addressed 
to my constitutents in January 1861, before any public 
man in the State took the ground. 

Trap Hill. 

In regard to 

To Andrew Johnson. 

Raleigh July 10 1866. 
Being intensely anxious for the success of your policy 
because I believe it identical with the well being of the 
nation, I venture some suggestions to you at the risk of 


being deemed obtrusive, in relation to the pardons of 
three distinguished individuals of this State. I know 
joii liave a much wider field of observation than I have, 
but your conclusions on this wide field must be made u^) 
from your knowledge of facts. I fear in the multitude of 
your cares some inconsistencies, as they appear to the people 
of ITorth Carolina, in the exercise of the pardoning power, 
may have escaped your attention. Four members of the 
Confederate Congress, known here as original Seces- 
sionists, to-wit, Venable, Arrington, Bridgers and Lander 
have been very properly pardoned. I entertain no doubt 
as to their purpose to obey the laws and Constitution of 
the United States and that a Union, worth preserving, re- 
quires that such men be treated Muth the gracious niag- 
nanamity you have exhibited towards them: but while 
these are pardoned, I am ignorant of any principle of 
equity or policy which warrants the withholding of a par- 
don from Graham, Dortch and Jo. Turner. The discrim- 
ination attracts universal attention in this State. Your 
friends believe they are withheld from legitimate policy 
until a more propitious season. I think the propitious 
season has arrived. You must be aware that Gov. Gra- 
ham is by far the most popular man in this State, both 
on account of the purity of his personal character, his 
talents and the confidence of our people in his patriotism. 
He opposed disunion and secession till war had actually 
commenced. Turner carried his opposition still further. 
As a Senator he voted against the ordinance of Secession 
in May 1861, — and at the same Session Dortch was 
elected a Senator in the Confederate Congress, the Union 
members voting for him as less obnoxious than the other 
candidates from among whom the selection had to be 
made. It is well known that Graham and Turner, as 
members of the Confederate Congress desired and be- 
lieved Mr. Stephens and his associates invested with power 
to treat at Fortress Monroe for peace on the basis of re- 
stored Union. Those facts being notorious in this State. 


ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

the opinion is universal and strong, that these gentlemen 
ought to be pardoned, excepting a very inconsiderable 
number of personal enemies. Nothing would so warm up 
the people of this State to be represented in the approach- 
ing national Convention at Philadelphia as the pardon of 
these gentlemen. If pardoned, every body would look to 
Gov. Graham as our chief representative in that Con- 
vention. If still unpardoned it may be held a matter of 
doubtful expediency to send him. Every body in this 
State (excepting" a handful of Radicals) supports your 
policy. If you would pardon these three men it would 
give fervor to this support. 

I make this communication to you without consultation 
or conference \vith any person, and without the knowledge 
of any body. It springs entirely from my desire to sup- 
port the best interests of my country. 

The courtesy which the Sec. of State has exhibited to- 
wards me in a personal interview last summer, and in our 
official correspondence, warranted me, as I conceived, in 
presenting to him these views in a letter a few days ago. 
which I authorised him to use as he might deem proper. 
He informs me he has laid that letter before you. I deem 
it my duty to reiterate and impress the views therein 

Asking for cause 
of failure to be 

From- R. L. Patterson^ 

Patterson K C. July 10th 1866. 
I desire respectfully to enquire what I have done, or 
what I have failed to do, to cause my late ostracism as 
Director of the Western :^T. C. R Road? If political 
friendship has anything to do with your appointments, 
who has exhibited more of it than I have done ? I was 
the only Holden director so far as I know, that voted for 

' Rufus L. Patterson bad been a member of the conventions of 
1S61 and 1865. 


YOU. I was among the first of the members of the Con- 
vention last fall, to declare in your favor. I came home 
loaded with your documents and expended from my pri- 
vate purse a sufficient sum to give them general distri- 
bution — and I may add, that I did something to arouse 
the luke-warmness of some of the very men who have been 
appointed over my head. It has been a pleasure to give 
my support, humble tho' it be, to your administration. If 
personal friendship has anything to do with the appoint- 
ments, I can offer a claim of many years of the kindest 
relations existing between you, Gov. Morehead, my late 
father-in-law Mr. Fries, my Father, and I hope you will 
allow me to add, myself. I am sure your son David will 
say that I was his friend. 

But supposing, what ought to be the case, that neither 
political or personal friendship has anything to do with 
your appointments, but that cajDacity and interest in the 
success of the Road, are the only requisites, I thinl- my 
ostracism need not have taken place on tliis account. It 
is true I do not own much stock in the road, it was built 
to its present terminal before I removed to this section 
of the State — but I am largely interested in the successful 
running of the Road, It is the life-hloocl of my business — • 
it is an absolute necessity to my remaining in this coun- 
try, and this I certainly prefer to do. As an evidence of 
this, I may mention that I & the Co. I represent, will 
probably pay (I may almost say certainly) more freight 
to that Rail Road than six of your newly appointed Di- 
rectors all put together. If I have brains enough to under- 
stand anything, it is, that as the West. iSJ". C. R. R. flour- 
ishes I may expect to flourish — and that its interests are 
my interests. If I have sufficient capacity might I not 
be entrusted with those interests ? 

As to my capacity it is not for me to speak. I have en- 
joyed the confidence of such men as Gov. Morehead, W. 
F. Fries, Mr. Jesse H. Lindsey, Gov. Vance and others — 

680 ISToRTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

and I succeeded in business which is considered a test of 
merit. I have labored for twelve years to make myself 
a business man, and if my record for energy, promptness 
and unselfish love of duty, does not equal that of any man 
you have appointed then I have labored in vain and must 
commence my work over again. 

I write these things respectfully! I should not wrrite 
them at all, if the whole of Gov. Holden's appointees had 
passed out together — but for your board you have selected 
one of the old Board — known to have talked and voted 
against you — who has little or no interest in the R. Road 
either as a stockholder or business man, and whose coun- 
try people are not dependent upon this Road, and there- 
fore bring it but little patronage. That he should have 
been re-appointed and I left out, is the reason of this let- 
ter. The other Directors can console themselves with the 
reflection that the Juggernaut of politics crushed out their 
■official life, and that Cowles has only been more lucky than 
they — while I, kiio^vn throughout this section as a Worth 
man of the warmest sect, have only to reflect, and to feel 
that others may also reflect, that something worse than 
political opposition has cut off my head. 

It w^ould be useless for me to say that I do not feel this 
slight. I cannot help regarding it as a pointed indication 
that I am "not wanted" — and it may not be improper to 
mention that my Father enters fully into my feelings upon 
this matter. Hoping that no other gentleman may have 
reason to complain as I have done, I am, 

To L. S. Gash. 

Raleigh July 10th 1866. 
Answer to recom- The coiistaut pressure of urgent official duties has pre- 

mendation for n c ^ ■ i i i (> 

pardon. veiitcd me irom replying to several letters reed irom you. 

I have recently attended to the matters to which you called 


my atteution. I liave the highest jDersonal regard for yoii 
and would have answered if it had been possible for me 
to do so without neglecting other more urgent duties. 

You recommended me to pardon a rioter, (name not 
remembered) convicted before Judge Merrimon. Your let- 
ter was endorsed by Mr. Jones. Under the rules which 
I had laid doAm for my government in the course of the 
pardoning power, as to the propriety of which I entertain 
no doubt, I could not comply with your request. I hold 
that the executive ought never to pardon till the judge or 
the jury are heard from. The law has imposed on them 
a duty which they perform under oath. I think it would 
be a perversion of the pardoning power to act on an ex 
parte representation of facts, no odds how trust-worthy, 
till the judge or the jury, who have heard the evidence on 
both sides, have at least been heard from. — I am officially 
bound to presume that they have performed their duty. I 
could not, therefore, have 2:)ardoned the criminal, upon the 
representations made to me, no odds who had been the 
judge. In this case Merrimon is the judge. I have long 
known him well — And have not less confidence in his pru- 
dence and judgment and impartiality than in his legal at- 
tainments. I could not believe he would have ordered an 
imprisonment of the deft, for six months upon the facts 
as set forth in the petition before me. I refused to grant 
the pardon until Judge Merrimon could be heard from. 
Mr. Jones applied to him. The facts, as stated by him. 
constitute one of the most outrageous riots I have ever 
heard of in Xorth Carolina, in which the convict was a 
leader, if not the leader. It would have been a license 
for outrage to have punished him with less severity than 
the judge did. I pity his wife and children but it would 
be, in my opinion, false compassion which would let off 
with nominal punishment so great an outrage on the laws 
of the land. I am persuaded you did not know the facts — 
or that your compassion for the innocent wife and chil- 
dren got the better of your judgment. 

682 XoRTH Caeolixa Histoeical CoMMISSIOJ^r. 

I will in no instance grant a pardon until the judge or 
the jury can be heard from and I feel confident your good 
judgment will approve this rule. 

Henderson viLLE. 

To Dr. M. F. ArendelV 

EaleiCxH Juhj nth 1866. 

I herewith inclose to jou a copy of a letter I this day 
addressed to the President of the United States. 

I hear you have lately indulged in very open and bitter 
denunciations of my action as to Directors on your Koad." 
I hope when you get cool you will perceive that they w^ere 
unwarr-iinted. I am clear that under all the circumstances 
I did light. 


To B. S. Hedrich. 

Raleigh Jidij 11, 1866. 

Your inquiry as to how our friend Hanes gets on with 
his news-paper — I learn that it is barely on a living 
basis — there being almost no money in the region of its 
circulation. I read it — and according to my views, it emi- 
nently deserves patronage. There is remarkable concord- 
ance of judgment between its editor and myself.- — • 

I inclose recommendation of three young men for West 
Point, as suggested by you. If the recommendations be 
not in due form, please advise me what is the needed cor- 

Regarding cam- J think there will be no opposition to me. Hoi den and 

paign for re-elee- ^ ^ 


1 Michael F. Art^ndell, of Carteret, was a physician. He was a 
Whig in poHtics and had been State Senator from 1850 to 1854, and 
from 1860 to 1862. 

'^ The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. 


his followers — and a few weak men who think in the dis- 
pensation of my trifling patronage that I have discrimi- 
nated against old democrats and in favor of old Whigs, 
are growling and would like to get out opposition, but the 
growlers belong to incongruous elements and cannot co- 
operate. The great body of the people including its chief 
representative men of all shades of all party, are decidedly 
for me. Ransom I am reliably informed, declines — Set- 
tle or Dockery is the demand of the divided ITolden fac- 
tion. Most of the men who gave dignity to Holden's fac- 
tion last fall Avill not now adhere to it. Dick, Pool, Thomp- 
son, Warren, Donnell, Boyden, etc. oppose the running a 
candidate against me. I have not heard of the falling off 
of a single adherent who supported me last Fall. Full 
one third of the members of the Convention who called 
out Holden last Fall are now^ decidedly for me. — I have 
not heard of the slightest dissatisfaction in Guilford, ex- 
cept the statement in your letter, the appointment of Gil- 
mer and Morehead were distasteful to my friends there. 
Randolph is now almost unanimous for me. 
AVashixgtox^ D. C. 

To Fred. Garner. 

Rat.eigh, July nth 1S66. 

I have sold your eight coupons as instructed, for the 
best price I could obtain — to-wit $132. — currency. 

I will pay your sight draft for this sum or send it to 
you when a safe chance offers. I do not know when such 
chance will present itself. Perhaps yr Sheriff wall ad- 
vance the money to you — or brothr. Milton for jr sight 
draft on me. 

Yr old bond will bring about 53 to 55 cts on the dollar. 
I can't take the responsibility of advising you whether to 
sell or not. I can't see deep into the cloudy future. 


684 iSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Colonel J. M. Perry. 

Ealeigh^ July 11th 1866. 

I hear it represented that there is much discontent in 
vonr place as to my appointments for the management of 
the A. & jS'. C. R. R. If my action has been obnoxious to 
any criticism which to fair men, seems jnst, I would like 
to know wherein. I had to pass my ship between Scylla 
and Caribdis. I endeavored to navigate prudently. I 
hear some of my friends in Morehead City complain — Of 
what do they complain ? 


To A. E. Eliodes. 

Raleigh, /w?^ 11 1866. 

I am sure you will have appreciated my difficulties in 
appointing Directors for the A. &. JST. C. R. R. — With 
the lights before me I exercised powers as judiciously as 
I could, looking primarily to the interests of the State. 

I hear that some of my friends in Morehead City coiu- 
plain of my action. If this be so, will you oblige me by 
informing me wherein my friends think I erred ? 

Morehead City. 

To Hugh McCuUoch. 

Raleigh^ July 11 1866. 
In a late letter from your dept. I was invited to rec- 
ommend a. suitable person as assessor in the 2nd District 
of this State in place of Mr. Piggott. I took measures 
to get the information — and herewith inclose the rec- 
ommendation of Ethelbert Hubbs by Hon. C. Clark, mem- 
ber elect to Congress, which I endorse. 

On the 29th ult. I received another letter from your 


dept. which leaves nie in doubt whether you want a rec- 
ommendation, in place of Piggott, for the 2nd District. 
Wasiiijtgtox, D. C. 

To Lewis Haiies. 

Raleigh,, July 13/66. 
T am much pressed with business and [have] time only 
to say that I refuse any alliances with any person — I must 
be understood as being hands oif as to Lt. Govr. In strict 
confidence I regard Wright's name as much less exception- 
able than any other named — and the two most exception- 
able ones Ferebee and Dick. 


To James A. Egerstone. 

Raleigh July 13 1866. 
Yours of the 29th ult. was not answered immediately conflict between 

•^ Bureau and civil 

because I hoped to have got the question of jurisdiction com-ts. 
as between the Freedm'^n's Bureau and the judiciary tri- 
bunals of the State distinctly defined ere this. I have been 
disappointed, but am still using every effort I can judi- 
ciously make to have this matter intelligibly settled. As 
soon as the corresjDondence now in progTess on the subject, 
shall have reached any result, this result will be made 
known to the people of the State by proclamation or other- 

While negotiating to settle the general principle I have 
not deemed it expedient to call attention to special cases. 


.686 ]N^OKTH Caeoli]S"a Historical Commission. 

From J. C. Bain. 

Troy's Store, A^. C. July U 1866. 
Yours of the 4th inst is to hand informing me of my 
pardon, etc., of which I am proud. 
Politics in Ran- You wished to have the particulars of the meetina; held 

at Liberty which I suppose came before you by an extract 
from a letter dated Long's Mills of June 2Sth. Xow for 
the truth of the meeting at Liberty which nominated Hol- 
den for governor. There was a meeting attempted or tried 
to be had at Liberty gotten up or tried to be gotten up by 
the Sellers and Wrenns, etc. to nominate a candidate for 
Senator to represent Randolph and Alamance the meeting 
was to be held at Liberty on 23rd of June, well the day 
rolled round and after I got m}^ dinner I walked up and 
I found about 5 or 6 men in number I staid at Liberty 
until nearly night and I do believe 12 persons was all that 
was there and not more than half that no at any one time 
there was no meeting organized of any kind whatever. 
There was not more than 3 or four men that was Worth 
men for the reason they paid no attention to the meeting 
Washington Browne knew nothing of the meeting until 
night when he came in from his field of work. You can 
now judge what kind of meeting has been held, it is all 
a right down Lie all done for an effect. There cant be re- 
spectable men enough got together to even make a shadow 
of a meeting to nominate an opposition to you. I say 
Randolph will not give Holclen, Dick, or any other Hol- 
denite a very liberal surport. if there is any form of my 
pardon in your office please forward to me and oblige, etc. 


From B. 8. Hedriclx. 
WasiiixctTOx, D. 0. Juhj Ih. J 806. 

Yours enclosing the recommendation of Bagley, Aren- 
dell and Busbee for West Point has been received, and 
handed to the President's private secretary. I think the 
matter is now in the right shajDe. If anv appointments 
are made I think they will be the ones. I will try and see 
the President personally abont it before long. If t-here 
is any chance of Congress adjourning soon, I think the 
President will ^yait until after the adjournment. 

The big batch of pardons have now all been signed by 
the Sec. of State, and a few have the seals affixed. But it 
will be perhaps a week before they are sent to you. I 
should think there were about four hundred in all. 

Holden I understand has left. I judge that he has uoiden's plans, 
given up all hopes of a confirmation by the Senate. He 
will exert himself to get up a candidate for Gov. As mat- 
ters now- stand I think the best way is to let Holden have 
his way for he always has a JcnacJc of hanging himself if 
you only give him rope enough. I think he regards Settle 
as his strong card now. But there is no telling what 
scheme he will finally settle down upon, and therefore it 
will be valueless to plan at all with the view of counter- 
acting what he might do. So far everything is progressing 

Mr. It. AV. King has been confirmed as Collector of Cus- 
toms for Xewbern. 

From ir. H. Barjley to B. L. Fatterson. 

Raleigh July 16th 1866. 
Your letter to Governor Worth, of the 10th inst., has in answer to com- 


been received, and I write to inform you that he is at pres- 
ent absent from the City, to account for the delay which 

688 jSTokth Carolina Historical Commission. 

will necessarily occur, on this account, in your receiving 
an answer. 

It is with pain that I read your letter, on account of the 
great personal regard in which I hold you, and the rela- 
tions which I sustain to Governor Worth. I was not well 
informed as to the peculiar circumstances which sur- 
rounded the appointment of the Directory on the W. IST. 
C. R. Road. But of this fact I am well informed, and 
that is there is not in the State of ^orth Carolina a man 
or a friend for whom Governor Worth entertains a higher 
respect, a deeper regard or more friendly feeling than for 
yourself. In this I refer to men of your own age. And 
were I to be asked what two men in the State, and these 
more properly his contemporaries, were most esteemed by 
Gov. W., I should, without hsitation, say Wm. A. Graham 
and Samuel F. Patterson. I Ji-iww there is an entire ab- 
sence, on his part, of the disregard for you which your 
letter seems to attribute to him. I know further that this 
matter of the Railroad has given him more embarrassment 
and trouble than any other matter which has come to his 
attention since he assumed the duties of his office. He can, 
I feel confident, and ivill, explain this matter to your satis- 
faction ; and, until you hear from him, as your friend, I 
ask you not to do him the injustice of believing that he has 
less regard for you than he always has had. 


To Thomas Webh. 

Raleigh July 21 1866. 
The Literary Board has occasion to send one of its mem- 
bers to Tarboro ; to-wit H. W. Husted, to look after busi- 
ness of importance connected with our duties. We have 
not a dollar in the Treasury of the board. If in conform- 
ity with usage, please send me a free ticket for the Major. 

[P. S.] The other members of the board are I^ereus 

Coreespo:n'dexce of Joxatha^^ Worth. 689 

Mondciihall and Stephen D. Pool. I do not know whether 
it is nsual to grant complimentary or free tickets to these 
officers of the State or not. — Since writing the above I find 
it will be necessary that a member of the board visit Lake 
Ellis in the Sonth West corner of Craven Comity. 
CoiiPA^'v's Shops. 

To B. L. Abeniethy. 

Ealeigh July 21 1866. 
I complv with vonr reqnest of the 13th inst to aive von Defining Ms posi- 

J- '' ' -"^ .-I- tlQQ QQ public 

a frank explanation of my views on two qnestions yon pro- questions. 

First — Yon ask me what I think of Western X. C. run- 
ning Cenl Vance for Lt. Gov. ? 

Before I declared myself a candidate for re-election I 
was approached by the friends of divers gentlemen — all 
my supporters, but of every shade of political sentiment. 
each desiring his name associated with mine. I deemed 
it my duty to decline making any alliance of the kind with 
any one. 

It is common, when candidates are brought forward by 
the action of a Convention, for such Conventions to make 
nominations to be run together. I deemed it proper, in 
compliance with what I believed to be the popular will 
of a great majority of the State, to declare myself a candi- 
date, v/ithout any nomination. My friends every where 
approved this course. If I were to have an understanding 
vn'th any gentleman to have his name run with mine, as 
Lt. Govr. such an agreement would have been very dis- 
tasteful to the numerous friends who would have been dis- 
appointed. It would be wrong and presumptions in me 
to make any arrangement as to Lt. Govr. — but I assure 
you if I deemed it proper to designate a man, none would 
be more acceptable to me than Genl. Vance. 
Vol. 2—3 

690 IToETH Caeolijn-a Histokical Commisst(.,y. 

As to your second question whether it is morally or 
politically right to repudiate all debts due up to the sur- 
render of Genl Lee I have no hesitation in saying it is 
neither morally or politically right, and no member of the 
Genl Assembly can give such vote without a direct viola- 
tion of his oath to support the Constitution of the U. S., 
which especially prohibits a State from passing any law 
impairing the obligation of a contract. 

Happy Home. 

From B. 8. Hedrick. 
Washia^gton, D. C. July 23, 1866. 
Concerning Yours iuclosing application of Judffe Caldwell and two 

pardons. o x i o 

others for pardon was received this morning. I went to 

the White House, but did not see either the President or 

his Secretary in charge of pardons. But left a note with 

the papers. I left a note and as tomorrow is Cabinet day 

I will go again day after tomorrow. 

The big list of about 400 old pardons will be ready to be 
forwarded to you in a few days. 

All well. Weather very hot and rainy. 

Col. Wheeler thinks the Agricultural College scrip will 
be ready soon, which will be good news to Gov. Swain. 
There has been some very strange delay about it. 

A memorial with about four hundred names has been 
sent me from citizens of Forsythe and Stokes Co. ad- 
dressed to "the President and Congress." The substance 
of it is that Union men are being persecuted in the Courts, 
for acts of lawlessness, whilst rebels giiilty of far more out- 
rageous acts, are not persecuted, and if charges are made 
against rebels for murders and other outrageous acts the 
complaints are dismissed, whilst Union men are always 
held to answer. I think Capt. Settle who is prosecuting 
attorney ought to see to it the Union men are not jDrose- 
cuted while rebels go free. If the administration knew 


of the matter it would probably make it the occasion of 
more vituperation of the whole State. I think that there 
must be some cause for the complaints from the Western 
Counties. I have written to Starbuck about it. If you 
see any one from Stokes or Forsythe I think it would be 
well to inquire into the matter. I will try and send you 
a copy of the memorial. 
All well hereabouts. 

■ To Hugh McCuUocli. 

Raleigh^ July 23 1866. 

Owing to imperfect mail facilities I could not until to- 
day get the necessary information to enable me to comply 
with your request, asking me to recommend a suitable man 
for assessor of Internal Revenue in the first collection Dis- 
trict of this State. I emphatically recommend Joseph E. 
Parker, of Belvidere, Perquimans County, ISTorth Caro- 
lina, as a man every way suitable, and acceptable to the 
District. He is a Quaker and can conscientiously take the 
teste oath. He has been consulted and will accept, if the 
appointment be tendered to him. 

Washixgtox D. C. 

To J. E. Lee. 

Raleigh July 2Jf/66. 
1 procured the passage of a resolution at the last session 
of the Genl Assembly requiring the Treasurer to issue to 
Mrs. Kendall a bond, in lieu of the one she had surren- 
dered. It provides for the issue of a bond to her, bearing- 
interest from the date when the old bond fell due, with 
coupons for interest, etc. On application to the Treasurer 
for the new bond, he informs me he has no printed blank 
suited to this case — and that the printing of a single blank 

692 l^OETH Caeolina Historical Commisscon, 

would be very expensive: and that lie will therefore pre- 
pare for her a manuscript bond conformable to the resolu- 
tion. — which I shall probably get it in a few days, and 
will forward as you request. 

If Mrs. Kendall wishes to return the bond, this manu- 
script bond will be as good as any — if she wish to sell it. 
I fear it will be hard to find a buyer in the ]^. Y. market. 
In this latter case I know no remedy only to get the Genl 
Assembly to authorise an exchange of this bond for one 
of the [iUegihle'] issued for over-due coupons. 

Thomasville, N. C 

To J. W. Alspaugh. 

Raleigh^ July 2Ji. 1866. 

An extraordinary press of important executive duties 
has prevented an earlier reply to yours of the 15th inst. 

It was referred to a committee of the Genl Assembly to 
define what State debts were to be repudiated as being con- 
tracted directly or indirectly in aid of the rebellion. Mr, 
Bynum, Chm. of the Committee, held that salaries to civil 
officers were not comprehended in the repudiation ordi- 
nance. After much discussion the Genl A. refused to con- 
cur in this report. The Treas. therefore does not feel au- 
thorised to pay any claims which arose during the continu- 
ance of the Con. Govt. 

I thank you for the cordial support which your Journal 
accords to my administration and hope my course may 
merit a continuance of your confidence. 



Eaeeigh^ July 25 IS 66. 
Mrs. Jos. S. Jones ) 

" Col. Heck ) 

'' A. S. Jones ) 

" M. A. T. Carroll ) 
Miss Maria Sommerville ) 
" Ella Brownlow ) 

" MoUie Alston ) 

I have reed your polite note of the :20th inst. inviting 
me to be present at the Warren W. Snl. Springs on the 
Sth Ang. on the occasion of erecting a monument in mem- 
ory of the late Miss Lee, daughter of Genl. Robt. E. Lee. 
I thank you for this opportunity you offer me, of which 
I propose to avail myself, of exhibiting my respect for the 
great and good father and amiable daughter. 
I have the honor to be your 


To B. S. Hedricl: 

Raleigh, July 25 1866. 

Yours of the 20th inst. is reed. 

I hope the President will refer the petitons from For- 
sythe and Stokes to me as he has done like petitions here- 
tofore. The manner in which I discharged the duty here- 
tofore, was so impartial and showed the utter groundless- 
ness of the complaints, as induced Mr. Seward to compli- 
ment me. If they be referred to me I will investigate the 
facts so thoroughly as to present the truth, whatever it 
may be. 

I am satisfied there is a concerted plan on foot, by im- pians of the oppo- 
putmg partiality to our Courts of justice, to have martial 
law restored, if it be not already in force. We have a new 
military commandant, Genl. Jno. C. Robinson. He pro- 
fesses to believe that a Union man cannot have justice iu 
our Courts. To prove this he has had two oflicers Col. 

694 N^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Carr and Capt. Wolcott, traveling in several of the West- 
ern Counties and taking ex parte statements and affidavits 
to prove all sorts of iniquities against our Courts — a thing 
easily done in this way. ISTumerous petitions as he says, 
are sent to him asking for military protection. He has 
' sent me copies of s®me of them. They show on their face, 

to an impartial mind, that they are got up for effect. He 
gave me no notice of this plan of ex parte investigation. 
The combination is extensive. Master spirits for mischief 
are at the bottom of it and our poor old State is likely to 
suffer from the dirty birds willing to foul their own nests 
to reek vengeance on others. I have no reason to dread 
fair investigation. I fear this will not be accorded. Genl. 
Robinson claims for "our common superior" the right to 
depose the civil authorities of the State and there are 
many indications that an attempt is being made to lay a 
foundation for the exertion of such a power. Genl. Grant's 
military order Ko. 44 July 1, is based on the assumption 
that the States involved in the rebellion are still under 
martial law. I see much trouble ahead and feel sure our 
judiciary, as virtuous, impartial and learned as any in the 
United States is to be the object of attack through the 
agency of insidious one-sided inquisition. Holden's object 
is to take vengeance on the State. 

I hope you will send me a copy of the memorial. 

Washington^ D. C. 

From A . E. Rliodes. 

MoREiiEAD City July 26tli 1866. 
Concerning Yours of the 11th iiist was duly reed, and I avail my- 

appointment of i ^ f ^ ■ r.i- t ^ ■ ^ i"^ 

Directors sell 01 this my first leisure to reply, a duty which under 

the circumstances is to me exceedingly unpleasant. 

And first, let me say that the implicit confidence which 
I have ever reposed in you, and my high regard for you as 
a man of unblemished honor and immaculate integrity are 

Corkespojstdence of Jonathan AVokth. 695 

still undiminished ; and that mv grateful recollections of 
jour former kindness are still fresh and green. 

You say that "with the lights before you you exercise 
powers as judiciously as present discomforture, and of 
your own new-horn unpopularity f' an error which if not 
satisfactorily explained or remedied will, in this section 
if you have opposition transmute your hopes now flicker- 
ing to blooming despair. 

Even now, there is no longer any line of steamers from 
this point to N. Fork. The bridge at Newbern — which 
as I learn from the former Superintendent of Bridges, 
etc... coidd have been repaired by sections, so as not to stop 
the trains at all, lias been condemned as unsafe and we 
think it ivill remain unsafe — in the opinion of the present 
management — until all the present crop of cotton and naval 
stores shall have been shipped. We know that the ad- 
vantages to be derived from this Harbor constitute the 
chief arguments in favor of building this Road, and we 
had a right to suppose that the State would take some in- 
terest in developing her own resources ; which has not been 
manifested in discriminating against a good harbor in 
favor of the port at ISTewbern — in whose deepest waters a 
tall man might wade with dry hands. 

You say, furthermore, that "some of your friends at 
M. C. complain of your action and you wish to know 
wherein we think you erred." I can truly say not some 
but all complain. There is indeed ''a loud lament' along 
the sweeping sea," and the error is — I speak of Carteret — 
that you rejected whom you did reject and appointed those 
whom joii did appoint. But the rejection of Thomas and 
Arendell would have mattered little had you also rejected 
Ramsey who was — beyond all question — a more odious 
IToldenite than either of the others, and superlatively un- 
acceptable to the citizens of Morehead. 

Had you displaced them all and appointed such men as 
B. Arendell, John Perry, S. D. Pool — who had fought and 
suft'ered for their homes and their country — you would 

696 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

have given satisfaction. Again: The appointment of 
Murdoch, of Salisbury, for Carteret — leaves lis to infer 
that, in your estimation, there was but one man in the 
whole county worthy of being elected to so high a position. 
The result of your action is that Morehead has not a single 
em]:)loyee on the Road. There were three — the conductor, 
superintendent of bridges and repairs — and agt. — all 
Worth men and men of influence. 

T. Arendell — conductor — is an ex-confederate soldier — 
and is now without any prospect of employment ; Mur- 
doch — superintendent of bridges received a better position 
on the W. &. W. R. E. immediately after he w^as displaced ; 
but worst of all Ramsey, by strategetic log-rolling man- 
aged to displace G. W. Dill whose superior for the position 
he held could hardly be found in the State. I also learn 
that he spent about $500. to secure your election last fall 
and that Duncan — his successor — was TTolden's first ap- 
pointment as Mayor of Beaufort and that he was an in- 
tensely w^arm supporter of Holdeii. I sincerely believe 
that Dill did more for the interest of the State than any 
three directors on the Road. If Ramsey and Murdoch 
, could be properly disposed of and Duncan restored to the 
bosom of his family the interest of the State would be pro- 
moted and we should feel better satisfied: provided the 
Bridge can be considered safe once more. 

For the present you have hilled Moi-ehead, ruined the 
Road, and lost the friendship — so far as I know — of every 
man who has any interest at this place. 

I write these things with all deference for your feelings 
and with exceeding sorrow, hoping that something may 
yet be done for the interests of the State which will restore 
you to the good graces of the City of the Sea — I wish you 
sincerely well. 


To Z. B. Tance. 

Raleigh July 26 1866. 

A- _ 

North Carolina. 

Hoklen, Tod C^akhvell and others of like malignant feel- conditions in 

ing towards Xortk Carolina, are endeavoring to restore 
the State to military rnle. The scheme is to make the im- 
pression that Union men (so called) cannot have jnstice 
in onr Conrts. The present miltary commandant of the 
State cordially co-operate with them, as I fear does Genl 
Grant — -witness his military order dated Jnly 1. Agents 
appointed by Genl Robinson have been sent to the AYestern 
part of the State to take Gx-parte testimony to show that 
Union men cannot have jnstice in onr Conrts. I am snp- 
plied with a copy of their report. I intend to try to send 
a co[)y of this report and of my correspondence with Genl 
Robinson to Jndge Mitchell to be transmitted by him to 
Jndges Ramsey, Shipp and Merrimon. It is volnminons 
and I have not snfficient clerical force to furnish a sepa- 
rate copy to each. Western X. C. is the region from which 
they expect to draw the proofs necessary to prove that 
martial law ought to be restored. I am not armed with 
power to send out agents to counteract these machinations. 
Genl Robinson sends out reports from his instructors in 
Wilkes and elsewhere of disloyal transactions in Surry. 
Allegheny, etc. These charges are vague — hence not easy 
to answer, but siDCciiic enough to accomplish the aim of 
signers. I think we are in great peril. Robinson claims 
for the military the power to judge w^hether the civil au- 
thorities of the State, judges included, do their duty, and 
in case they deem them derelict, to suspend them. I sent 
a copy of his letter asserting this proposition to the Presi- 
dent ten days ago. He does not answer. 

I send you this hasty sketch to keep you somewhat 
posted. I have not time to make it as full as I could wish. 
I think I shall go to Washington to satisfy myself whether 
the Prest. is still under the guidance of Plolden as to mat- 
ters in JSTorth Carolina. — I fear he is. — I refer you to 

698 jSToeth Carolhsta Historical Commission. 

Col. Mitchell for further infoniiation on the main sub- 
ject of this letter. 

[P. S.] This is a hasty ante-breakfast sketch written 
at home, currente calamo. 

From "ir. II. Bag'cy to }YiIUarii H. Bryan. 

Ealeigh, July 26th IS 66. 

Your letter, of the 21st inst., to the Governor, enclosing 
certain resolves of citizens of your town, looking to the 
protection of the lives and property of themselves and their 
families, and asking him ''to legalize their proceedings," 
has been received. 

The Governor instructs me to reply that he knows of 
no power vested in him by which he can comply with the 
wish expressed. If, however, there be any public law, or 
any private law passed for the benefit of your County or 
t6^\m, by the provisions of which he can do so, if you will 
inform him, he will give you all tlip nid so authorized. 


To E. M. Pearson^ 

Rai.eigh, July 21 1866. 

I lately appointed Judge Fowle to hold a Court of Oyer 
and Terminer in • Alamance County under the Act of 
1862-62, Chap. 35. He produces the certificate of the 
Clerk that he has held the Court and asks me to issue my 
warrant on the Treasurer. I cannot satisfy myself as to 
the amount he is entitled to receive or the law authorising 
me to issue such warrant. I will be greatly obliged to you 
for your advise and opinion in relation to this matter. 

' Richmond M. Pearson had been a member of the Legislature 
from 1829 to 1833. In 1836 he was elected to the Superior Court 
bench, in 1848 to the Supreme Court and became Chief Justice in 
1858. He was re-elected upon re-organization in 1865, and again in 


Much pains is being taken by Genl. Robinson to prove 
by an ex parte investigation that Union men cannot have 
justice in our Courts. I send to-day copies of much of 
this evidence and of my correspondence with the Genl to 
Judge Mitchell v^ith the request, when he shall have read 
the papers, that he send them to Judges Shipp and Merri- 
mon in the hope they may be able to furnish me some facts 
or suggestions or counter affidavits to counter-act the mis- 
chief likely to result. I send to these judges because the 
imputations are located in their Circuits. 

The Genl claims the right for the military authorities 
to suspend the civil officers of the State from the exercise 
of their functions. 

Richmond Hilt,. 

From Miles Lamb. 
i^. C. Randolph County much respected governer through 
necesity I seat my self this morning to rite yo a few lines 
too let yo now the fix i am now in it has bin my trade too 
still brandy when ever thire was fruit too still ever scence 
1842 being that I lived on a poor plantation stilling was 
my plan too make my spending money had ,it not bin for 
that Chance I could not have pad my tax all tha time but 
by that Chance I have all ways pad my tax till this time 
& bynot kowing this Dollar & a half tax was lade on 
brandy in 1865 I fixed up as coinmon too still before i 
found it out then I had too lose my fruit or go on & popel 
thought that law so uiireasabel that it would be repeald & 
promist me that if I would go on that if the tax was too 
pay tha would pay there part of it 6: that tha was lik my 
self tha had to spend what tha got for some thing too eat 
& could not keep tha money too pay tax with & money 
has becom so hard too git that a common man can not git 
it I tride for two weaks too borrow money & found it, was 
invane now vo know that if I take Judoment aganst these 

700 JSToETH Cakolijs^a Historical Commission. 

men that i have stilled for tha will stay it & some of it 
will stay six months & and that yo know will keep me be- 
hind time nearley all that i still was for other peopel tha 
are good for the money bn the thing is to git it in time I 
intend too pay tha last dollar if i can have time too sell 
my property it wont pay one tinth of tha money too sell 
for reddy money thir is only now & then a man that has 
got any money too by with & jnst what he is amind to 
give it has too go for & tha thonghts of being broke up 
hurts my feelings tha worst of any thing that i ever met 
with except sicknes or death tha hnndred & fifty acors of 
land that i bongiit i give it too my too snninlaws to live 
on and now it look very hard too tnrii them of with severrel 
littel Children with out pay for thir work & nothing to 
help them selves ^vith from the Promis tha tha President 
had all ways had mad Declaring that all loyel pepe & ther 
Property should be Pertected but it Don look so now see- 
ing tha younion men brok first now if thire is any petection 
too be had I would thank yo & tha President & tha go^me 
& all of tha Loyel Peopel too feel tha effect of it as for 
seesesion I have no more youse for them than a Christian 
has for Hell and Damnation I would like too hear from 
yo too now what yo thing will becom of tha popel in re- 
gard too this tax yo now our money is Destroid & we have 
no chance if the treasure money would go for half what i 
give for it i could pay all of but yo see it is Right me a 
few lines if you peas, so nomer only remaining your friend 

Jitlv 28 A D 1866. 

To A. E. Ell odes. 

Raleigh July 29/66. 
Railroad Direotors. I thauk vou for your cordial letter of the 26th inst. just 
received. I have heard there was some discontent in More- 
head. I had no idea it was so deep and universal as you 
represent, and I fail to perceive that, with the lights be- 
fore me, I was guilty of a reprehensible error, if I com- 


mitted an error at all. I am as anxious for the prosperity 
of Morehead City as any citiztn of X. C. and the generous 
support of its inhabitants last Fall endears them to me. 
The complaint, as I understand, consists in the appoint- 
ment of Ramsey and Murdock and the omission to appoint 
Dr. Arendell and Mr. Thomas. Let me review the views 
which controlled my action. The friends of Mr. Thomas 
represented that he was managing the Road much better 
than Mr. Whitford had managed it. The friends of Mr. 
AVhitford made the exact opposite representation. The 
friends of the former insisted that the old directory man- 
aged the road to build up Xewbern and damage Morehead 
City — The friends of Whitford made the exact opposite 
representation. I heard the representations of each side 
with patience and candor. Xo such proofs were furnished 
me as enabled me to know which was right. I am armed 
with no powers of investigation by which I could ascertain 
what was the truth. What seemed to me to be the very best 
evidence of the rival competitors was the resolution of the 
Stockholders at the time of the election of Mr. Thomas, 
as President, unanimously, (Mr. Thomas being present), 
applauding Mr. Whitford for his skill and fidelity in the 
management of the road. This I regarded as incontro- 
vertible proof of his merits and I deemed his displacement 
entirely attributable to the political or personal hostility of 
Mr. Holden. This seemed to warrant my nomination of 
Mr. Whitford as a Director, but on reflection I concluded 
the individual stockholders ought to understand better than 
I could the merits of the two competitors, and I therefore 
resolved to nominate neither of them, and leave it to the 
stockholders to elect one or both or neither of them. Mr. 
Whitford had much more just ground to complain of this 
than Mr. Thomas. I hear it is alleged that I knew this 
would result in the election of Whitford and the rejection 
of Thomas. This allegation is untrue. Wholly irrespec- 
tive of the fact that Whitford had sui^ported me and that 
Thomas had not, my friends in Morehead or else where 

702 ^sToiiTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

cannot justly complain that I left each of the competitors 
to their chances of election by the stockholders. As to the 
appointment of Ramsey, he had long been a director, and 
was an original subscriber for stock. I had not heard that 
his appointment would be unacceptable to a single citizen 
of Carteret, so far as I can remember. Many pressed his 
appointment on me, fearing I would proscribe him because 
he voted against me. If this a23pointment was unfortunate 
for Morehead my friends there have no cause to complain 
of me on account of it. I appointed Mr. Murdock because 
I regarded him as an eminently fit man, a large stock- 
holder — an owner of considerable real estate in or near 
your city, a brother of one of your best citizens, a par- 
ticular friend of Govr. Morehead, whose interests are 
identical with those of your city — Your citizens had not 
suggested a name to me — and I expected the appointment 
would be eminently acceptable to you. Dr. Arendell had 
little stock. I did not think that he expected me to ap- 
point him. iSlot a citizen of Morehead, to the best of my 
recollection, had asked me to appoint him. I did not 
think he held, in the legitimate spirit of the charter, the 
stock required to make him eligible. If it be alleged, as it 
has been, that one of other appointments — that of my 
friend C. C. Clark, was illegal because he was not the owner 
of 5 shares of stock, I reply that my information is that he 
did own the required amount of stock — and believing him 
to be a high-minded and honorable gentleman I believed 
he would not countenance any unfair proceeding to favor 
his town and prejudice yours. You mention no complaint 
as to my other appointments. 

I have this consolation that I discharged my duty con- 
scientiously and to the best of my judgment — 'No mortal 
could have done it satisfactorily. — N^othing pains me more 
than the removal of my friend Dill. I am greatly sur- 
prised at it. I thought he was a universal favorite with 
every body interested in the road, and particularly so with 
Mr. Whitford. 


If I have the honor to be re-elected Govr., I shall ask 
the Genl. Assemblv to confer on the Board of Internal 
Improvement powers of investigation in relation to onr 
public works whereby that board can act with better lights. 

As to the bridge, Mr. Whitford informs me it is so in- 
secure that he deems it criminal to hazard the lives of pas- 
sengers in the cars on it ; and that he had two hundred 
hands preparing timber to repair it. I^ow if his facts be 
true, I perceive no just ground of complaint. 

You speak of "discriminating against a good harbor in 
favor of the port of Kewbern, in whose deepest waters a 
tall man might wade with dry hands." I will not sup- 
pose that you mean that I would favor or countenance any 
such discrimination. If it shall be made to appear to me 
that any director favors such discrimination, he will never 
be re-appointed by me. There should be no discrimination 
in the management of the road to favor or to prejudice 
either port. Each should have a fair and equal chance to 
l^rofit by the advantage of nature and the enterprise of her 

I am astonished and grieved at the removal of T. Aren- . 
dell and Murdock, if they are such men as I believe them 
to be. I will make inquiry about it. — Is it just to infer 
from my appointment of Murdock that I considered Car- 
teret as having no other citizen, save Ramsey, fit to be a 
director ? jSTothing was further from my thoughts. From 
the information before me I suppose he would be as ac- 
ceptable to you as any body I could appoint. 

I have taken much pains to explain. In the innumer- 
able difficulties I have had to encounter I have heard of no 
important complaint, save what comes from Govr. Holden 
and my late friends in Carteret. I had no right to ex- 
pect to be able to give such general satisfaction. I hope 
my friends in Morehead will look over the whole field of 
my duties and have some charity for what they deem a 
great error to their prejudice. 

704 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

There are 24 political news-papers in the State. Of 
these 15 have declared in favor of mj re-election — 2 
against it — and seven as yet have taken no position. Five 
of the seven will probably sustain ine, and two — the Xew- 
bern Times and Ilendersonville Pioneer will probably 
take ground against me. 


To D. F. Caldwell. 

Raleigh July 29/66. 
I learn with real pain and concern from our friend 
Genl Gilmer that I have done or omitted to do some thing 
from which you infer that I feel some coldness towards 
you. I know not of what apparent inattention or impro- 
priety I may have been guilty wdiich has given you this 
Assurance of impression. I know no man towards whom I have felt 


at all times more unalloyed kindness than towards your- 
self. I always have had and still have the very highest 
respect for the honesty and independence you have always 
exhibited both in personal and political life — And if you 
have construed any act or w^ord of mine at variance with 
these declarations, it has been a misconstruction. 

You may not have received answers to some of the in- 
teresting letters for which I feel obliged to you — simply 
because, with only one clerk, it is literally impossible for 
me to do justice to my correspondents. 

An effort is being made by divers petitioners sent to the 
President — by ex-parte evidence taken by agents sent out 
for the purpose by the present military commandant of the 
State, — by a portion of the press and in divers other ways 
which gives it the appearance of pre-concert, to make the 
impression that Union men cannot have justice in our 
Courts — and hence that martial law must be continued — 
that we are so disloyal that we ought not to be reed into 
the Union, etc. I am doing all I can to counter-act it. I 
would ask the General to let me send an agent with his 


to insure fairness in these investigations if I had power 
to appoint and pay such agents. 

To Colonel Junes YVren. 

Raleigh Juhj 29/66. 

Yours of the 26th inst. is just received in which vou 
quote me as saying you particij^ated in a meeting at Long's 
Mill to nominate Mr. Holden as Govr. and add ''that is 
not true." I have no copy of my letter to you. If I as- 
serted as you quote me (not that I was informed or had 
heard) but as of my knowledge that you participated in 
the meeting, it w^as a strange slip of the pen. In the form 
in w^hich you quote me, if I am truly quoted, your answer 
is, perhaps, sufficiently courteous. 

In rejDly to my friendly inquiry what I have done to 
forfeit your confidence you frankly say ''I have always 
been a Whig or Union man and you are the great leader of 
the Secession or Rebel party. I think that explains the 
whole matter." In reply I adopt your terms — "that is 
not true." 

I had expected a more courteous answer from an old Review of his 

. attitude towards 

friend. If you had asserted that you Relieved I was the secession. 
leader of the Secession or Rebel party, and assigned a rea- 
son for that belief, your answer would have been respect- 
ful and becoming James Wren as I once knew him. 

You cannot be ignorant that I have always opposed Se- 
cession publicly and privately — You cannot be ignorant 
that my late competitor did more prior to 1861, than any 
other man in this State, to inculcate Secession and abuse 
the Whig party. — You know or ought to know that every 
Secessionist in the State who voted for me in the late elec- 
tion for Govr. voted for me not as a Secessionist, but as 
an unwavering consistent Union man in preference to a 
renegade from their party. You know or ought to know 
Vol. 2—4 

706 ISToRTii Carolina Historical Commission. 

that most of the old consistent Whig Counties gave me a 

The horrid war being now over in which so many cruel 
wrongs have been inflicted, it becomes all good men to try 
to forgive their enemies — allay animosities and to restore 
brotherly love between man and man and section and sec- 
tion — instead of indulging hatred and malevolence. All 
who cultivate these feelings will live happier and be better 
prepared to die. 

To J. J. Jachson. 

Raleigh July 30/66. 
roncerning- I have accepted invitation to be at Springfield next Sat- 

financial matters. ^ i o 

urday and will give them a short offhand speech. Have 
no time to prepare a regular one. 

My idea is — and it is very decided — that U. S. cur- 
rency will fitfully depreciate indefinitely and hence I 
think sales on credit, payable in U. S. currency, will in- 
variably result in prejudice to the seller. Sales on time 
should be for specie. Between the time of our sale of 
cotton to Mendenhall and the present, currency has depre- 
ciated some 20 per cent. It will not be strange if, by the 
clay of payment, it shall be depreciated 50 or 100 per 
cent. JSTothing can be more precarious than a note pay- 
able in the currency of the IT. S. 

If you contract to sell any more cotton, on credit, let 
the note be payable in specie, so far as I have any interest 
in it. 

I cannot sell gold for silver at a higher premium than 
5 per cent. — As I have the money on hand I desire to stop 
interest. I think I shall sell my gold and carry up my 
silver when I go to Springfield. My debts to Rush are 
nearly twice as much as I supposed. My specie debts will 
exhaust my specie. — Dr. Roberts is directed to send the 
goods at Roxana's to you with invoice. My loss will be 
verv severe. 

Coerespoxdejn^ce or Jonatha]nt" Woetit. 707 

Post Script 

There are many democratic secessionists who would vote 
for Genl. Cox as against me and Ilolden and his zealous 
followers will join in it. Cox is an original secessionist 
of democratic stripe and was a Brigadier in the late war : 
a man of slender capacity and no experience in civil mat- 
ters. If I have any opposition I think it will be Cox, 
backed by Holden. If the Holdenites prefer to bring out 
a man (uow^ exceedingly imjjrobable) Cox will not be 
run. If he run as the coalition candidate, the Progress 
and Standard and perhaps the Rutherford 8tar and Hen- 
derson Pioneer and Newborn Times — all radicals, ex- 
cept the Progress which is secession, will support him. It 
is possible the Charlotte papers and Wilmington Dispatch 
may sustain him, but all the honest Holdenites and the 
wiser and better secessionists will support me — 15 of the 
22 political papers in the State are out for me. Two, the 
Standard and Rutherford paper against me. The I^ew- 
bern Times, Wilmington Dispatch, Progress, and the two 
Charlotte papers are on the fence. 

I regard opposition by Cox as not at all formidable — 
I am not sure if he run alone that public good will grow 
out of it. 

From George Howard.^ 

Taeboeo, IsT. c. July 30 1866. 
You mistook my address and wrote to Wilson. After 
remaining there some time your letter was forwarded here. 
I have written Major Durham (ed. Carolinian) and sent 
your letter to him. He is your friend and will do you 
justice during the campaign. 

' George Howard, of Edgecombe, was a Superior Court Judge from 
1859 to the close of the war. He was also a member of the Conven- 
tions of 1861 and 1865. 

708 ]SroBTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

To P. H. Winston. 

Kaleigh, July 30/66. 

I reed on the 24th inst. a notification from the Asst. 
Sec. of the Treasury that upon the recommendation of 
Hon. Jno. Pool, Stark B. Smith had been confirmed as 
sui'vejor at Windsor before my recommendation of E. L. 
Simmons was received. 
Regarding election The Only name now agitated for Govr. against me is 
prospects. ^j^^^ ^^ Gcul. Cox, brought forward, but only contingently 

endorsed by the Progress. The Editors in effect say they 
prefer him to me and think in a single handed race, he 
would beat me — but that in event the Holdenites bring 
out opposition, he is opposed to a triangular contest and 
would support me. In other words he prefers a wool- 
eyed democratic secessionist to an old time Union Whig 
and much prefers me to a Holdenite. 

I think the Holden party will not bring out a man and 
the chief and many of his followers will encourage Cox 
to run and in the event of his consenting, will support 
him. I think I have nothing to fear from such opposi- 
tion. I understand Cox is vain and confident as to the 
result and shall not be surprised if he be my competitor. 


To Judge D. F. Caldwell. 

Raleigh Jidy 30/66. 
I have notice that your pardon is gTanted and that the 
warrant will be forwarded very soon. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 709 

To B. S. Hedvich. 

Kaleigh July 30th 1866. 
On the return of Gov. Swain from your city some 
months ago, he made to me a verbal report of the result 
of his mission which included sundry matters — among 
others the looking after our land scrip. He informed me 
he had employed John H. Wheeler to look after and re- 
ceive for the State, Gov. Vance's letter book and other doc- 
uments of the State carried off by the military — and that 
he had got you to look after the land scrip. This is what 
he tells me was his report to me, of the accuracy of which 
report I entertain no doubt — but when I acted on it a few 
days afterwards, my memory was that Mr. Wheeler had 
been engaged by him to attend to both these matters, and 
I think I so wrote to Mr. Wheeler. I regret the mistake — 
but feel sure you will not misconstrue me. As Mr. 
Wheeler has been giving attention to the land scrip under 
my letter, it seems expedient that the power of atto. to 
receive it issue to him. This power of atto. issues from 
the Treasr. Mr. Battle who fears you may feel hurt about 
the matter. I hope and expect you will excuse my error. 

Washington, D. C. 

From W. T. CaklweJl. 

Statesville X. G. July 31st 1866. 
I have been informed that certain persons have been en- conditions in 

'- western Nortl 

deavoring to prevail u]3on the military authorities at Ra- Carolina. 
leigh and Washington to believe that they are not safe 
under the present administration of Justice in our State. 

I cannot speak for other circuits of the State but I think 
I can give you an intelligent opinion about how just it has 
been administered in the 6th Judicial District. 

Judge Mitchell in his charges to the Grand Jury, 


North Carolina Historical Commission. 

drew to the attention of the public, the importance of sub- 
mitting cheerfully to the situation and to the laws of the 
State, and urged ujion the ^^eople mutual forebearance and 
forgiveness and his influence was so great on account of 
their high appreciation of his great personal worth — the 
asperities among the people towards each other seemed 
to be greatlv appeased, and the Grand juries acted with 
commendable liberality. This was more especially the 
case in the mountainous counties of the circuit, where a 
diversity of ijolitical feeling had existed. 

In the prosecution of our several duties the Judge and 
myself endeavored to impress upon all that we knew no 
man's present or former politics. And I have yet to hear 
of a single complaint against either of us, except in two 
instances, one from Yadkin — Jesse Dobbins and others — 
and one from Union — John Madlin and others. 

These parties were indicted during the war for homi- 
cides. They were charged with having killed Confederate 
or State troops, who were endeavoring to arrest and secure 
them as soldiers in the Southern army — believing them in 
both cases to be protected by Gen. Grant's Gen. Order JSTo. 
3, with the approbation of the Judge I caused them to be 
discharged and directed the Clerks not to issue or serve 
any process upon them in the cases — I yielded implicity 
to the order and they are secure. But from want of con- 
fidence in the civil officers, I suppose, they seemed to press 
their situation upon the attention of the military authori- 
ties, and in consequence I have received sundry special 
orders from Headquarters to desist from their prosecu- 
tion — the very thing I had already done without any 
special order. 

I can assure that no man has been allowed by Judge 
Mitchell or myself to be persecuted and no man has been 
prosecuted for opinion's sake. 

There were several men in the counties of Ashe, Wilkes, 
and Alexander who had served in the Union army and 
after their return laft year, some of them who probably 

Coekespondejmce of Jonathan Wokth. 711 

thought they had enemies to ^^unish committed depreda- 
tions of various kinds, and they have been indicted by the 
Grand Juries. But as far as I am able to learn these in- 
stances were rare and they closed pretty much with the 
full reorganization of the State Government. 

And I can assure you, that there was never a more quiet, 
civil, loyal — law-abiding people — citizens of any State, 
than have been the j^eopJe of this circuit during this present 
year. Of course many bad men are in all States and com- 
munities but we have had no political or other disturbances 
— and the people instead thereof have been and are now 
devoting themselves more assidiously than ever to their va- 
rious pursuits. 

This much I have written not only in justice to Judge 
ilitchell and myself but of the people of our circuit. 

From D. F. Caldwell. 

X. B. I have not time to read over and I may have 
made many mistakes as I have had to write in great haste 

Geeensboeo, :NT. C. July 31, 1866. 
Your kind letter of the 29 instant has iust been re- Review'of iiis 

position and dis- 

ceived, and I make haste to reply. And vou must pardon cussjon of public 

-*- '^ " ^ sentiment. 

me for speaking plainly and wishing what I say to be con- 
sidered in strict confidence hetween us. If my course 
from my infancy has not been such as to convince you 
that I was not only your friend, but that of all your family 
I do not know how I could by acts satisfy you of that 
fact. I labored, that's the word, for you against Dockery 
and during the last war defended you when I heard you 

slandered and denounced as a d Xantucket Quaker 

Tory and Traitor, etc., when such defence endangered my 
personal welfare and happiness, if not my life. I have 

712 [N'oETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

within the last 15 years recommended you through the 
papers and elsewhere for more than one position. I did my 
best to keep the conservative party united by trying to have 
a conv. made on my ovim hook — While your particular and 
bosom friends ignored me altogether — still I worked on 
for you. I stood by you in the Fisher controversy to the 
last and if needed I would have done service. At the 
last session of the Convention I did all I could to keep 
opposition do^vn. And at your own request I went to 
Randolph and made two speeches for you that done me no 
good in a professional line, as I have reason to know. 
And yet I did all cheerfully. And why, because I hon- 
estly believed that you were an honest patriotic union-lov- 
ing and unselfish patriot, wdio would rather be right and 
do right than to be president of the United States. I 
never dreamed that when you were approached and most 
respectfully asked to consider the propriety of acting, or 
recommending action on certain suggestions relative to 'the 
swamp land and other matters of vital state interest that 
you w^ould turn on your feet with the remark "That these 
measures, as all the suggestions I had made you thought 
had some merit in them but that you could not now in 
the midst of the impending campaign — but after the elec- 
tion was over — you would be glad to have any news, etc. 
You then turned to your table and from that hour to the 
hour of my departure for home, though often in your 
room never spoke to or noticed me again, that I now re- 
member. This I thought decidedly cool, especially when 
I witnessed the great familiarity that existed between 
yourself and many others. Many of whom I have heard 
speak of Jonathan Worth long before and under difi^erent 
circumstances. Then again the appointments that you 
have ignored all the doctrines and principles you have 
heretofore advanced and advocated. You came down upon 
Fisher and others for appointing new Directors on the IST. 
C. and other Rail Roads, who had done nothing for them 


and hac. no stock. You also had much to say against Mr. 
lloore the doer of odd jobs about the shop and brothers. 
And jou appointed the Dr. a Director. Besides I knoVv 
of no man that you have aiDpoiuted Whig or Locofoco that 
was not opposed to the course you approved during the 
war except Kerr and Mendenhalh Talk of friends and 
friendship in this connexion is to outrage all the better 
feelings of the heart and insult the spirit of our honor 
and manhood. There is not one of your appointees, ex- 
cepting the two I have named, that would have thought 
you worthy to fill any post of honor in State, jSTation in or 
out of the State. I^Tor would they have then voted for 
you. I have always tried to act consistently and live so 
that the most malignant of my enemies could not find any- 
thing to say against me. Yet I have suffered the gravest 
indignities from the hands of some of your appointees, for 
the part I took for peace and regulation, etc. They even 
lilate at me in the streets as if I were a sheep. They are all 
my deadly political opponents and labor to drag me down 
at all times. Such men as myself who voted for you 
and cannot approve of the course of Holden and the ultra 
men in Congress — even persecuted hated and pursued in 
every way and whenever an opportunity is afforded Dr. 
Mendenhall, my brother and myself have been blessed by 
some of them in no uncommon way, especially the two 
former. Or great falsehoods have come to my ears. In 
sh-ort, the honest, consistent union men, as well as those 
\\d;o did not go with us, for your Excellency against, 
have been singled out and are today hated and denounced 
in the most bitter and malignant manner. And the de- 
cree has gone forth from the lips of your great leaders, 
that all Avho thought and acted with you, as union luen 
during the war shall be branded as Cain and sink, to rise 
no more as politicians. They are all traitors Tories, 
lied strings, so called Union men, or poor white trash. 
And these are the men that your Excellency delighted to 
know and hath honored above all others. These things 

714 ]SroK,TH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

with the treatment yon gave me led me to remark more 
than once in the presence of onr friend Genl. Gilmer that 
yon had disappointed me in the course yon had parsned. 
That I hoped when yon were elected that yon wonld de- 
vote yourself to bettering the condition of IST. C. rather 
than acting the part of a partizan politician. And I was 
honestly of that opinion — hence the alacrit}' with which I 
have always up to the present hours given yon my support. 
And it pains me to know that you have so exerted your- 
self and distributed your favors, as to j^rostrate many, 
very many, true union men in the State. Or perhaps it 
would be more accurate to say, aided others by giving 
them position and influence, to prostrate many of your 
old friends for the present. But as regards myself though 
my name may be cast out as well and though I may have 
suffered much in person and reputation and may still 
have to suffer much reproach and shame for the course I 
have pursued I am not ashamed of it or any of those who 
stood by and with me nor shall I desert or denounce them. 
JSTever, no never, nor will I for any consideration reward 
these enemies and bitter rivals with all the honors. I 
have to confess that I prefer like Moses to sufl^er the re- 
proach of the righteous forever than triumph for a 
campaign or two with those enemies. I have spoken 
plainly but not half as pointedly as I might and I hope 
you will not for so doing. The times demand it. jSTor 
do I wish you to suppose that for noticing and deeply 
regreting yonr many inconsistencies and bringing some of 
them to your notice, that I am not your friend for such 
is not the fact. But I would have you believe that I am 
no Toady or hanger on power. ISTor do I think it wise or 
prudent to aid a miserable old sullen aristocratic clique 
to continue their sway in IST. C. forever. The convention 
that was called to restore the State to the Union, the con- 
vention that refused to endorse Holden and that brought 
you out and elected you did not nor do even now think so 
to mv certain knowledge. And I do know that when Gov, 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth, 7J[5 

Graham, Judge Manly, Ruffiii and hosts of snch men let 
no man of infliience or fit occasion pass to denonnce and 
belittle that patriotic body of men and all they have done 
it will not be quietly submitted to. I have thus far exerted 
all the influence I possess to keep down opposition to your 
Excellency and allay party excitement and sectional 
biliousness. And so I shall continue to do. But if the 
secessionalists and your political friends continue to de- 
nounce the members of this Convention and constiturioix 
as they have and are, in and out of the papers I feel con- 
fident that you may look out for opposition. This I re- 
peat I shall regret. But you will have none to blame but 
yourself. You have been so exceedingly anxious to keep 
the secessionalists from bringing out opposition to you 
that you are likely to force your old union friends to 
unite on some one who will not contribute so much to aid 
these enemies 'Ho hury them so deep that they shall never 
see a jjolitical resurrection." I can never go with the 
ultras in Congress nor shall I ever contribute to raising 
a clamour against the conservative men of this State. It 
is true many of them are honest and poor and uninflu- 
ential as I am and weigh but little in the political scales 
when compared with the great and influential characters 
who are so blessed with talent that they are fit, and only 
they, to rule, both in State and field in the Union or in the 
Confederacy. And that they are consistent and honest and 
worthy to be trusted at all times in all places, I do not 

think so — Some of these men I know are corrupt and • 

but I will say no more. jSTow you have my honest 

sentiment and true feelings and from one who has always 
proven himself to be your friend, under adversity and per- 

716 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To J. J. Jackson. 

Kaleigh^ Aug. 1/66. 

appofntment^f ^^'® have iuiposed on the board of Internal Improvement 

Directors. ^]^p ^|^^^y ^f appointing four directors for the C. F. & D. 

R Nav. Co. 

Whether such directors can do anything in the way of 
saving fragments and jDreserving a part of the works I am 
ignorant. From what I have heard, the works above Buck- 
hom are in good order, and if so, I should think this part 
of the River a good feeder to the coal-fields road and to 
the Chatham road which I suppose will be finished at 
no very distant day. It has occurred to me that those 
two corporations ought to feel a deep interest in preserv- 
ing these works and hence I am thinking of making Genl 
Cox. and H. L. Myrover, the presidents of these roads 
two of the directors of the C. F. & D. R. JS^av. Co. I had 
also been thinking of making you and such other person 
as you may suggest, the other two. It would be attended 
with some trouble for you for which you would find no 
other compensation than the consciousness of contributing 
something in keeping alive an enterprise in which you 
have always felt a deep interest and the free travel on all 
the roads which I believe is always accorded to directors 
in all the public works. 

Let me hear from you at large on this subject at an 
early day. 

P. S. I am in deep water, trying to counteract a con- 
certed scheme to prejudice the State and fix the military 
on us, by proving by ex-parte statements and petitions 
that the loyal men (so-called) cannot have justice in our 
Courts. Our present military Commandant, Gen. Robin- 
son, has had out and probably has out now, military sub- 
ordinates, taking and reporting to him affidavits and statet 
ments to establish this fact. Gen. Grant's order of July 
1/66 enjoining on all officers in the States lately in re- 


bellion, to arrest all persons guilty of offenses of ^^llich 
our Courts have taken no cognizance and hold them In 
custody until a proper judicial tribune shall be ready and 
willing to try them, which seems to contemplate no war- 
rant or preliminary trial and to allow no bail, treats these 
states are still on martial law. Gen. Robinson claims in 
official letters to me that the military has the right to de- 
cide whether our judges fail to discharge their duty and 
to depose any of the civil authorities of the State. I have 
addressed a strong remonstrance to the President. I am 
not over confident that he will disapprove these assump- 
tions of military domination over us. My time and 
capacity to manage the difficulties surrounding me are 
heavily taxed. I think I am maintaining the dignity of 
my position with due regard to prudence. 

[P. S.] All prospect of opposition to me is narrowed 
down to Gen. Cox, in the contingency that the Holdenites 
bring forward no candidate. He is confident of beating 
me single-handed, because he was a soldier and secession- 
ist. I know no man of standing who encourages him and 
no journal (save Progress and Standard) which would 
support him. 


To J. A. Butne 

Raleigh .4^/^ 1 1S66. 

I herewith return to you as requested your interesting 
letter on the subject of grape culture and wine-making 
in ^orth Carolina, and feel complimented by your design 
to address your communication on the subject, to me. 

Your design is a truly praiseworthy one and you have 

718 JSToETH Carolijsta Historical CoMMissioisr. 

my heartiest good wishes for a successful issue in your 
eiforts to help our poor old State. I authorise you to use 
my name as you propose. — 


Fro7n B. S. Hedridc. 

Washington?, D. C. A.iig. 1, 1866. 
Yours of the 30th is received. Col. Wheeler and my- 
self '^harmonize'' and although I did not, until your ex- 
planation, understand the matter fully, still I was very 
willing that the Col. take charge of the Land Scrip matter. 
For the trouble was I think with the Commissioner of the 
Land Office, who was not pushing the matter as he should, 
and with him I believe Col. Wheeler would be able to 
exert more influence than I could. I do not believe the 
Sec. of the Interior was in fault at all. In fact I know 
he was not. But the Com. of the Land Office, when I 
saw him, had by far too much to say about the "State 
Agent", and seemed rather cross. The present acting 
Commissioner is an old friend of Col. Wheeler, and the 
matter is as safe in his hands as it could be in any ones. 

P. S. I have a letter from Starbuck, who says that so 
far as Forsythe is concerned, the Courts in no way favor 
"Secesh" against the Union men. A few rowdy rehs at- 
tempted to prevent the celebration of the 4th of July, by 
the LTnion men in Salem. But in the end the Union men 
came otf the victors, and the rebs, had to knock under. If 
there is any grounds for complaint, I judge it is more 
likely to be in Stokes than any of the counties this (East) 
side of the mountains. When I was in Davidson last 
winter there were some complaints that the Union men 
were more hardly dealt by than the rebels for offenses com- 
mitted before the end of the war. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 719 

To ^Yimam A. Alien. 

Raleigh .4 «(/. 1 1866. 
Yours of the ISth June v,'as reed some time aa'o. I was Difficulties of his 

^ _ position. 

unprepared, "witliout a good deal of investigation and 
{word iUegihIe] then to answer the legal question you pro- 
pounded. I deferred answering hoping I should soon find 
leisure to prepare an answer which could be of any ser- 
vice to you. As often happens in cases of such [postpone- 
ment] I find my answer has been too long delayed. Since 
the coining here of the new military commandant I have 
been beset by embarrassing difficulties of the worst char- 
acter, requiring the exercise of all my faculties, mental and 
physical. I i^egret I have not time to give you particulars. 
The tendency of his measures has been to impeach the im- 
partiality of our Courts and juries and hence to prove 
the necessity of a continuance of the military and of 
martial law. One of the agencies employed by him is 
the sending out of military subordinates to take ex parte 
statements from malcontents, which they reduce to writing 
and report to their superior. Other movements of like 
character warrant the suspicion that a concerted effort is 
being made to make the impression that men loyal to the 
U. S. government, cannot have justice in our Courts. The 
delicate and important correspondence, which this state of 
things has imposed, and which is at present inexpedient 
to publish, together with the innumerable duties growing 
out of our anomalous condition, superadded to the ordi- 
nary duties of the Executive, all which I have been per- 
forming with no increase of clerical aid beyond what 
has been employed for forty years j)ast, requires the con- 
stant exercise of all my faculties. I say this much as an 
apology for my apparent neglect. 

I doubt whether the land tax imposed on us during 
the war can be legally exacted — but this is a legal ques- 
tion requiring legal learning and research. As to the 

720 ]^oRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

former, I make not much pretension ; and the routine of 
official duty leaves me no time for the latter. 

To D. F. Caldwell. 

Kaleigh Aug. 2 1866. 
Personal relations Your of the 31, distiugiushed for the frankness which 
always characterises you, astonishes me beyond any thing 
I can remember in my past life. Oppressed as I am with 
many matters of grave import which I deem it inexpedient 
to give to the press and which I would gladly explain to 
you in a personal interview, I cannot methodically review 
your letter. 

You recount your steady adherence to me through an 
humble career of almost universal evil report: — I have 
rarely had the fortune to be in good report. Your recital 
is true. ISTone of it has escaped my memory. I acknowl- 
edge fully the claims you have on my gratitude. What 
you think of yr suggesting some scheme for the revisal of 
the same scheme that I established with personal dis- 
courtesy to you is an unbecoming solicitude to secure my 
re-election. I have a very indistinct recollection of the 
circumstances. I had regarded you as I do one of my own 
household. I had felt so entirely incapable of treating 
you improperly that I never thought of taking pains to 
avoid acts capable of misconstruction. I expected, if you 
thought I did wrong you would have pointed out my 
error to me, before jon complained to others. You say in 
effect that I have exhibited kindness and consideration 
for my late political opponents and have given you and 
my old friends the cold shoulder: — that I have exhibited 
anxiety to prevent a contest with a secessionist opponent. 
• — that my appointments excepting Mendenhall and Kerr, 
have ignored our old political friends and exhibited an 
undue leaning to those w^ho formerly traduced and abused 


me: that inv action in relation to the pnbiic works of the 
State, are not in accordance with mv previous profession. 
^STotwithstanding all these evidences of want of principle 
and unworthy subserviency, you assure me you are still 
my friend. My dear Sir, if I am guilty of all these things 
I deserve to have no friends, any where on this green earth, 
If I have acted, as you sujDpose, as to aid the secessionists 
to override and trample upon Union men I do not de- 
serve to be treated with consideration by any man. 

These errors that you impute to me are so numerous 
and stated in such generalities that it would take a reply 
of inordinate length to answer all of them and it would 
take a wide review to meet the intimation that in the ex- 
ercise of my patronage I have aided a "miserable old sul- 
len aristocratic clique to continue their sway in x^. C. 
forever" — I cannot conjecture to what action of mine 
you refer. 

You certainly do not refer to my Board of Internal 
Improvement — ^Winston and Ramsey, according to my in- 
formation, are and have been as consistent AVhigs and 
Union men as my friend D. F. Caldwell of Guilford — 
Mendenhall you admit as one of the only two exceptions 
where I do not deserve censure. Major Husted was an 
old Whig — never a Secessionist — So also Stephen D. Pool. 
The latter entered the army — but always and now con- 
demns secession. Surely you do not belong to that pro- 
scription class who would exclude from confidence all who 
aided the -South after rebellion commenced. If so, the 
teste oath is right, and the latest constitutional amend- 
ment and the radical Congress are right — all which I be- 
lieve you condemn as I do. This disposes of the most im- 
portant of my appointments. — ■ 

You cite the appointment of Kerr as the other excep- 
tion to the general rule of my conduct. 

As to the appointment of Directors on the R. Rs. — I ^irectors^^ °^ 
appointed two democrats on the IST. C. R. R. — One on the 

Vol. 2—5 

722 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

A & Is". C. E. R. — not one on the E. & G. Eoad — and, I 
think, only one on the W. K. C. E. E. — I am not certain 
as to the last — I confided much in Simonton and Eamsey 
as to this road, and^ have no personal acquaintance with 
some of the appointees IS^ow if I violated in these nomi- 
nations any principles I have ever professed, either in 
a political or a business point of view, I have not perceived 
it. — I have always maintained that the appointment of 
Directors should not be a political one — that fitness for 
the discharge of the duties should be primary — if all my 
appointments had been of my own political stripe I would 
have been justly suspected of abandonment of principle. 
The democrats on the IST. C. E. E. are Berry, an old origi- 
nal stockholder and early director — and decided anti-seces- 
sionist — and Strange, a secessionist of mild stripe. I 
deemed the Wilmingion stockholders, who had contributed 
so largely to the original stock, as having strong claims to 
a Director. I requested Mr. Wright, D. G. Parsley and 
Mr. Cowan to ascertain who would be acceptable to the 
Wilmington stockholders. I preferred he would be a dem- 
ocrat, as little objectionable as possible — They fixed on 
Strange. — 
Various railroad You allude to the docr of odd jobs at the shops. I in- 
fer that Dr. Moore is some way connected with the Moore 
to whom I referred in my E. E. Eeport of 1859. If so 
I am not informed of it. He was strongly recommended 
to me by men whom you respect as well as I. He owned 
stock, not acquired to qualify him — lived at the point 
where a director ought to live, etc. He was anti-seces- 
sion, my friend, etc. If I could have made a less excep- 
tional appointment in Alamance, I know not who is the 
man. I appointed my old friend Cofiin proxy for the 
State. He is and has been all the time, as I believe, as 
much opposed to secession and disunion as you or I. — 
You do not even include Lassiter and Bond with Menden- 
hall and Kerr. — But for your merciless denunciations of 
all my appointments (save Kerr and Mendenhall) I 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 723 

should have counted confidentially in your approval of the 
nominations of Means, Roberts, Gilmer and Turner. I 
know not your objections to them and I cannot defend my 
action. You speak of my having "ignored my old and tried 
friends. I cannot conceive how I am justly obnoxious to 
this charge. The appointment of Adgt. Genl falls within 
your broad terms of censure. I am greatly surprised at 
it. I thought the nomination was universally acceptable. 
I presume you do not refer to a matter of so little im- 
l^ortance as aids — nor can I believe that you refer to my 
nomination of men, to manage without pay, our misman- 
aged Lunatic Asylum. I do not believe a fitter board 
can be constituted for the purpose. I never knew a time 
when I would have made such appointments with any 
reference to the ■political stripe of the appointees. 

T know you candidly believe what you have written. 
I hope on a review of the whole circumstances you will 
conclude you have misconceived or misconstrued my ac- 

If my views as to public men and public measures have 
undergone any change, I am unconscious of it, or if any of 
my acts warrant or even give color for commentary, I do 
not perceive it. If I can be made to suspect that lust of 
otfice, has made me subservient and cringing — and dis- 
courteous to an old friend and as regardless of my politi- 
cal views as you suppose, I will at once withdraw my 
name as a Candidate foT Govr. or any pretension to public 
honor or even personal consideration. 

I assure you that I am distressed that I should have 
done any thing capable of the construction that I feel less 
cordial towards you than I ever did. I would not be more 
surprised if my brothers were to charge me with coldness 
and ingratitude. — 

A concerted effort is being made by military officers in 
this State, by traveling about and taking ex-parte state- 
ments, to prove that our laws are not impartially adminis- 
tered. We have men among us, aiding in this scheme. 

724 jSTokth Carolina Historical Commissio.n. 

and getting petitions addressed to the Military Com- 
mandant of the State and the Prest. of the U. S., charging 
that Union men are oppressed in the adminstration of our 
laws. The object is to show the necessity of keeping in 
the State force enough to protect Union men. I enter- 
tain no doubt that these imputations are unfounded, and 
am doing my best to counteract the attack upon the ad- 
ministration of Justice. 

I have no idea on what you rest your assertion as to 
my extreme anxiety to avoid a contest with a Secession 
Competitor. I am not aware of nesting or exhibiting such 
anxiety. I had the vanity to hope I was administering the 
government of the State as satisfactorily to our people 
as could be expected, — and have thought it the wish of 
the people that I should serve another term — and that 
many evils would grow out of a contest — and hence I 
hoped there would be no opposition : but if you have taken 
a fair view of my administration, I do not deserve a con- 
tinuance of popular favor, or of personal respect among 
good men.- — But I deny emphatically that I have been 
anxious or that I have done — or abstained from doing any 
' thing to avoid a Secessionist being run against me. There 
were many good men of the same political faith as myself, 
who voted against me in the last election. I have taken 
some pains to satisfy them, by fair and legitimate means. 

[P. S.] Your request that your letter be regarded as 
confidential shall be strictly observed. 


To James M. McGowan. 

Ealeigh, Aug. 2 1866. 
Yours of the 13th inst. was duly received. An extra- 
ordinary press of official dutes has prevented an earlier 


You state a case of extreme hardship but your trouble 
grows out of your omission to plead and exhibit your 
license at the trial. 

I have no authority to offer the money refunded to you, 
— nor has any other officer of the State the right to do so. 
You have my sympathy but I have not the power to give 
you the relief you ask. 


From WilUam P. Bynum.^ 

LiNCOLXTON, Aug. 3, 1866. 
Your correspondence wdth General Kobinson, including conditions in 

Western Nortli 

the report of Major ±rank W aicott, one of the military Carolina, 
commissoners sent to investigate alleged persecutions of 
Union men w^as handed me by Judge Shipp for my con- 

Maj. Walcott's investigations were confined to the 
Counties of Watauga, Caldwell and Burke. These three 
counties constitute a part of the circuit of which I am 
prosecuting officer, and the reflections cast upon the ad- 
ministration of Justice in those counties call for some 
notice by the officer chosen by the State to enforce the ad- 
ministration of the criminal law\ 

The official report of the military commissioner makes 
a general charge that in these counties Union men are 
pursued wuth "malicious persecutions", while they have 
little hope of justice, and the courts of law are so closed 
against them that they make no effort to obtain redress. 

I believe that Maj. Walcott is greatly in error both as 
to his facts and his conclusions. 

' William P. Bynum had been a Whig lawyer of Kutherford until 
1861 when he entered the Confederate army, rising to the rank of 
Colonel. He resigned in 1863 to become Solicitor of the mountain 
district. In 1865 he was elected to the convention and later to the 
State Senate. He became a staunch Republican, and in 1873 suc- 
ceeded Nathaniel Boyden upon the Supreme Court bench, where he 
remained until 1878. 

726 ]SroKTH Carolina Histobical Commission. 

1. His facts as to Watauga County. 

He charges that a barbarous murder was committed 
upon Austin Coffee by the "Home Guards" which passed 
unnoticed — "no steps were taken to prosecute them." 

Answer. A homicide is believed to have been committed 
on Coffee, but it is untrue that "no steps were taken to 
prosecute them". The grand jury made a presentment 
for murder against all the parties implicated, and it being 
impossible to procure the witnesses to the same term of 
the Court, they are summoned to the Fall Term in the 
regular course of the Court and the parties will be pros- 
ecuted as all other cases of the kind. I should violate all 
judicial propriety in prejudging the case by declaring be- 
fore trial, that it was a "murder under circumstances of 
the most revolting barbarity". 

Caldwell County. 

1. It is charges by the report of Maj. Walcott that Wil- 
liam Blalock is indicted for the murder of John Boyd, 
done since the v/ar. The report declares that Blalock had 
been in the U. S. service, that he carefully examined the 
case and "a clearer case of justifiable homicide could not 
be made out", yet "it is believed that an unprejudiced 
trial could not be had, etc". 

The report admits that the homicide was since the war. 
does not allege that it grew out of the discharge of any 
military duty or order on the part of Blalock. So it is 
simply an indictment against a citizen for killing another 
citizen of the State in time of peace. Whether it is a case 
of "clear justifiable homicide" is for the Courts to de- 
termine upon sworn testimony and the laws of the land. 

2. David Moore. Indicted for stealing bacon. The 
"report" charges that he was a Union man and was with 
U. S. soldiers when the bacon was taken and that it was 
probably his own which had been taken a short time be- 
fore by "rebels." 

Answer. If the bacon was taken by TJ. S. soldiers un- 
der orders and Moore merely present, it is clearly not lar- 
ceny or any offence at all, and if any such evidence is pro- 


duced on trail, the case will certainly not be further pros- 
ecuted. But the evidence submitted to me was quite the 
contrary and made out a case of larcency or forcible tres- 

David Moore never complained to me or the grand jury, 
as I am advised, of any criminal wrong; if he had, the 
grievance would have been examined in due course of 

3. A man named Benson and two others are indicted in 
Watauga for highway robbery from the person of Mrs. 
Jonathan Horton, a most res23ectable lady. Col. Carr of 
the ^'Commission"', reports that he was of the Union army ' 

and ordered to impress horses, and thereunder too Mrs. - 

Answer. The evidence before me was, that if he ever 
belonged to the army he had deserted, and the robbery was 
under no authority but for his own private gain and done 
under circumstances of wanton outrage and cruelty. If 
on trial his claim of authority, etc., should prove true, he 
will be acquitted. 

Burke County. Maj. AValcott reports that many com- 
plaints were made to me as Solicitor, by Union people, of 
wrongs and outrages, but that no steps were taken to re- 
dress them. 

Answer. The statement is not true, as far as I am con- 
cerned. In every instance where complaint was made to 
me of a violation of the criminal law, I sent a bill to the 
grand jury, if witnesses were at hand, and if not at hand, 
I had them summoned to the succeeding Court. Whether 
complainants had been I'nion people or not, I never in 
a single instance, enquired. The only enquiry with me 
was, had the parties violated the law. I am not apprised 
that the grand jury acted differently, tho' upon that, I 
have no knowledge. 

Maj. AValcott and Col. Carr reported that in the Su- 
perior Court of Caldwell, there were 180 true hills and 
105 were asainst Union men! ■ Surelv these gentlemen 

728 JNoKTH Cakolina Histoeical Commissiois'. 

are mistaken. / hnow they are! The records of the Court 
will show that I sent less than 40 bills and some o£ these 
were ignored. Whether thej were against Union or dis- 
union men, I am not informed; all I know is that they 
were sent against alleged violators of the laws. 

In some counties, Burke for instance, bills were ignored 
by the grand jury, which the evidence before me, I 
thought, required the jury to find "true bills", but the 
jury were the judges of the credibilty of the testimony 
and I presume they were governed by that. I do not 
think any bill was ignored where the credibility of the 
witness was beyond question. AVhether the ignored bills 
were against Union citizens or not, I am not informed. 

It may be proper to state that an ordinance of our 
Convention saves from criminal prosecution all citizens 
who were in the Civil or Military service of the State or 
Confederate States for any act done in the proper dis- 
charge of the duties imposed on them by any authority 
purporting to be a law of the State or Confederate Gov- 
ernment, but not from indictment on account of any im- 
proper or illegal execution of the law imposing such du- 
ties. See Ord. ratified 18 Oct. 1865. 

I have strictly obeyed this law and have indicted no 
one who has acted properly in discharge of duties thus 
imposed. At the same time and in justice to the other 
side I have not knowingly indicted any one who acted in 
the proper discharge of any civil or military authority 
conferred upon him by the laws of the U. S. If any of 
the latter class stand indicted (I think there are none) it 
is by mistake and it thus appearing on trial, they will be 
promptly acquitted. 

So soon after the termination of the war, it is natural 
that there should be some bitterness of feeling and under 
such influences, that there should be occasional acts of 
wrong and injustice in making indictments and present- 
ments. But when such cases come before the Judges and 
Juries of the Country, I am convinced that not a solitary 

Correspondence or Jonathan Worth. 729 

instance has occurred where parties have been convicted, 
even from the "standpoint" of the "Military Commis- 
sion". I speak from my own district. The further 
charge that Union men cannot obtain justice I know to 
be untrue. I have brot. suit in many instances in Mc- 
Dowell and Watauga, for Union men, for ^^'tongs suffered 
by them as much, and in every instance have obtained 
complete redress, where cases have been acted upon. I 
am convinced that such wull continue to be the case. So 
it has been in all indictments tried for criminal offences 
against them. If they sufFer wrong (which I cannot say 
they do) it is confined to these preliminary steps, or ac- 
cusations before grand juries. Such cases are never suc- 
cessfully prosecuted before the Judges and learned officers 
of the law. 

I do not believe that there is much bitterness of feel- 
ing among the people, except in a few localities in Wa- 
tauga, Caldwell, Burke and Polk, and if the laws of the 
State are left to the impartial administration of its oivn 
officers, I believe that discontent will soon subside in those 
localities. But if the people are taught to believe that 
they cannot obtain justice in their own courts and by 
their own laws, and that they can obtain their rights and 
their claims only before strange arbitrary tribunals un- 
known to our laws the danger and mischief that wdll re- 
sult, can hardly be over estimated. 

In regard to the number of bill of indictments in Cald- 
well County, I have said that I sent less than 40. It is 
probable that the error of the Military Commissioners in 
part, were from confounding the number of bills, with the 
number of men in the bills. A greater number of persons 
than 40 are probably indicted, as many are for riots, forci- 
ble trespass, etc., and the same individuals are often in 
several bills. It is probable that many are against Union 
men, some may be malicious, some false. These things 
occur in all periods of our legal history, and this, -if true, 
is not an isolated or exceptional case. But these accusa- 

730 !N'oRTH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

tions by ex parte complaint, are not to be confused with 
trial and conviction before the appointed tribunals, when 
the accused and accuser are confronted by their witnesses 
and counsel. That any wrongful convictions have been 
made, is, I believe, not alleged. 

From B. S. Heclric'k. 

\_Fraginent of letter.'] 

Aug 3d 1866. 

Character of the the wilful and sworn fidelity intending to violate their oath 

opposition. '- " 

by cherishing the rebellion. 

It has been the desire of President Johnson to secure 
union and harmony between the people in each State and 
between those of all the States, by as far as possible bury- 
ing the j)ast. With this design he has been liberal in 
granting pardons to those who acknowledged their faults 
and swore fidelity to the Govt. But the way matters are 
going in the South, all the peaceful efforts of the President 
are being brought to naught. The very men who have so 
solemnly sworn allegiance are ever seeking opportunity to 
insult the Union men, and falsify their own oaths by rebel 
demonstrations. If only the men who do these things were 
involved, I would not complain. P>ut the result will be 
to keep the South in a perpetual state of War against the 
Govt. The demonstration at Warren Springs is a rebel 
celebration designed to honor rebels because they w^ere 
rebels to honor Lee for acts which he himself has acknowl- 
edged with an oath were wrong, and for which he has 
sought pardon. If he had done no wrong he would have 
had nothing to ask pardon for. 

It seems to me that the editorial management of the 
Sentinel must be a perfect babel. It is a perfect mixture 
of rebel, incendiary, Union, loyal, and every other sort of 
sentiment known among men. But for the Sentinel, the 
knaves and charlatans of the Standard and kindred sheets 
would die out for lack of food. 


From L. L. Clements and J. Peace. 

Hamilton, Martin Co., X. C. August Gtli 1866. 
Being frequently asked the question if negroes were al- 
lowed to cany firearms (« very common practice in this 
community) and not knowing of any Law to tlie contrary 
I have thought I would refer to you for information. 
Knowing if I reed, my instructions from Head Quarters 
I sliould be right, in our little county I should not be at 
all surprised if there were 200 negroes with arms which 
the Eree E^egroes before the war would not have been al- 
lowed to carry. Your early answer to this obliges my 
neighbors and your obedient servant, 

To B. S. Hedricl'. 

Ealeigh Aug 6 1866. 
The fact vou state that the jSTorth will regard as evi- Desire to avoid 

anytliing tending 

dence of rebellious feeling here, the proposed demonstra- to alienate the 

~ ' ■'■-'- sections. 

tion in Warren on the occasion of erecting a monument 
over the grave of Genl. [Lee's] daughter, is decisive of 
my action. I desire to avoid participation in any proceed- 
ing of mere feeling, which is likely to receive, with or 
without, reason, a construction tending to keep up aliena- 
tion betAveen the sections. I had not supposed that demon- 
strations of respect for Genl Lee, furnished any evidence 
of disloyalty to the U. S. That nearly all the people of 
the South respect Genl Lee for his personal virtues and 
admire him as a great military man, it would be hypocrisy 
to deny: — and they do not regard the cherishing of these 
feelings as incompatible with their oath of allegiance to 
the U. S. — I go not into the discussion of this question 
whether it is reasonable to expect that the South is bound 
to regard its military leaders in the great rebellion as fel- 
ons and treat them accordingly : — Certainly many good 

732 jS^oeth Caeolhsta Historical Commission. 

men, as ardently desirous as you or I to restore the Union 
on the basis of mutual respect and cordiality, do not re- 
gard Genl Lee as a traitor in the odious sense of this 
term — They think they may cherish respect — even affec- 
tion for him — with entire compatibility with the most 
steadfast adhesion to the Union. 

I deem it my duty, however, in a matter of this sort, to 
respect ISTorthern sentiment, whether sentiment be reason- 
able or unreasonable, and upon your representation I deem 
it improper for me to participate in the proposed celebra- 
tion which, independent of this, I could not attend, on ac- 
count of the pressure of my official duties. — 

I sent to Thos. J. Wilson, of Forsythe the copy of the 
petition you sent me. I inclose a copy of his answer. The 
petition has not been referred to me by the President. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To D. F. Caldwell 

Kaleigh Aug. 6 1866. 
Reasons for You are mistaken in some of vour facts. Lassiter was 

appointment of _ " 

Directors. appointed by me — Mordecai was not. — Dick was not over- 

looked on account his having voted for Holden. I have 
the kindest regard for him. His name did not appear on 
the books as owning any stock — J. A. Gihner had labored 
more than any body else to start the road. I never heard 
that he felt, much less exhibited hostility to you. He is 
the op230site of a vindictive man. You mention my omis- 
sion to re-appoint King. In public speeches last Fall he 
denounced me as a Secessionist. My friends would de- 
nounce me if I had appointed a man who thus slandered 
me. I recommended him as Collector of the port of ISTew- 
bern and my recommendation was effective. You say I 
have made "a clean sweep of all these men in office." I 
am persuaded you did not remember that I re-appointed 
Lassiter, Ramsey and Boyden, the only appointees of Mr. 


Holden who held stock aud were otherwise fit men. — I 
have not time to tell you why Thomas was unfit. I am 
sure I can satisfy you he was unfit — If I know myself, 
you are mistaken as to entertaining unkind feelings to just 
men who preferred Holden to Vance or to me. I think 
my actions do not warrant the conclusion — and I know 
nothing to be more unwarranted than the idea that I ever 
felt a moment's alienation towards you. 

From Council Wooteti^ 

ISTewberx, August Gth 1866. 
I have learned since mv arrival at this place that there Appointment of 

"_ _ Collector at New 

appears to be unfair dealing in regard to the office of col- ^ern. 
lector of customs at this Port. I see it stated in the papers 
that R. W. King Esqr of Lenoir County had been ap- 
pointed to that office and to my surprise I have learned 
since my arrival that a petition is being circulated to have 
a Mr. McleRoy the present Deputy Collector appointed to 
that office. I am still more surprised since Mr. King has 
showm me a telegram from Washington City stating that 
Mr. Fuller the present Collector is to be retained. That 
some unfair means is being used against Mr. King to pre- 
vent his receiving the appointment I have advised Mr. 
King to apply to you to use your influence with the Presi- 
dent that he may have justice done him in procuring the 
appointment. I take great pleasure in writing to you and 
to urge upon you to use all your influence to procure the 
appointment for Mr. King, as I have known him from a 
child up and I know him to be well qualified to fill the 
office as he is honest and industrious and his integrity can- 
not be doubted by those that is acquainted with him. And 

^ Council Wooten, of Lenoir county, was a great friend of Jonathan 
Worth. He had frequently been a member of the Legislature before 

734 I^OETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

as to his Loyalty I know that tie was always opj)osed to 
the war and was a strong Union man thronghont the whole 
war as him and myself have had several bitter contest 
during the war he opposing the war myself advocating of 
it and the right of secession. 

I have merely written yon this letter as an act of Jus- 
tice to Mr. King and I hope that you will see that Justice 
may be done him. 

To Thomas C. Fuller. 

Raleigh Aug. 7th 1866. 

Genl. Robinson verbally assures me, that he will express 
his disapproval and restore the mare to the possession of 
the law, if the accounts are not varied by a report from 
Capt. Hodge. He deems it proper to give Capt. Hodge an 
oiDportunity to be heard before he issues his orders. 

He avers that his officers had taken jurisdiction of this 
case before the issuing of his order recognizing the juris- 
diction of our Courts and' upon the proof made, approves 
Capt. Hodge's decision. 

He says he is at much loss as I am as to the bill of costs 
and will require an explanation. 

I have brought the subject before him in official form 
and in due season will have an official answer — ^but deemed 
it best to have a personal conference. In this way col- 
lisions can sometimes be avoided, without compromising 
my personal or official dignity. 

To B. Piermont. 

Raleigh Aug. 7 1866 

by letter from the Assi 
Sec. of the Treasury to nominate a suitable person as 

Federal appoint- Yours of the 3rd iust. is received. 


I was requested in June last, by letter from the Assist 

CoERESPo^^DE:srcE OF Jonathan Worth. 735 

"assessor of the 1st Dist. of ^'o. Car. in place of R. Pier- 
mont." The letter is before me. I had not heard nor have 
I jet heard anv thing to your prejudice either as an offi- 
cer or individual — and did not know whether you had re- 
signed and did not know and had not heard how the va- 
cancy had occurred or was expected to occur. I proceeded 
to make the inquiries necessary to enable me to comply 
with the request, and as the result of such inquiry rec- 
ommended Jas. R. Parker, of Perquimmons, whose ap- 
pointment, I think, has been confirmed by the Senate. 

The first letter reed by me from the Assistant Sec. of 
the Treasury requested me to nominate an Assessor for 
the 2nd District. I will inclose copy of the letter on 
which I acted. 

You will perceive that you have no cause to com])lain 
of me. I have done nothing in the slightest degree to 
cause your removal and have no information in relation 
to the subject not herein set forth. 

Elizabeth City. 

To P. C. Holmes. 

Raleigh, slug. 8 1S66. 
lours of the 23rd inst. was reed in due season. It Regarding- the 

return of horses. 

would have been more promptly answered but for the ex- 
treme pressure of still graver duties. 

I interposed last spring and got from Genl. Ruger a ■ ' 

modification of the order from Washington in relation to ■ . • 

the horse question. ! 

First. He ordered that no citizen should be employed in 
collecting horses. This saved our people from the prying 
search of mean neighbors. 

Second. He ordered that no more horses branded C. S. 
should be taken after a date, now long past, without special 
orders from head quarters here. This saved to our people 
a vast number of horses and mules. 

736 ]^oRTH Cakolijsta Historical Commission. 

Third. He ordered that no unbranded horses should 
thereafter be seized. This put a stop to the whole busi- 
ness. The unbranded horses the captors could sell and 
pocket the proceeds. J^o body would buy the unbranded. 
As soon as the chance to steal passed away, they did not 
care to be troubled and generally quit taking any. 

As I understand your letter they are only collecting in 
yr County the horses and mules branded U. S. If so, 
I can give no relief, if the persons are acting by authority. 
The orders by Genl Ruger, I caused to be published. They 
are still in force. If they are being disregarded let me 
know by whom they are disregarded and I will appeal to 
the military commandant to stop it. 

I am gratified to learn from your letter that my efforts 
to serve the State meet the approval of the people of Samp- 
son. My late competitor is much less potent for mischief 
than he was a year ago. He is still doing us vast mischief 
abroad, and some at home by representing our distressed 
people as still rebellious — and our Courts as refusing jus- 
tice to Union men: — Genl Grant's order of July 1 — and 
many of the acts of Genl Sickles and Genl Eobinson till 
me with apprehension. 


From D. F. Caldwell. 

Geeensboeo^ N". C. August 9 1866. 

Outlining his Oil my retui'ii from Randolph Court I found your let- 

reasons for dissatis- . i • i 

faction. tcr of the 6 mst., which requires a few words of rejAj on 

my part. You constantly affirm that it was not your pur- 
pose to treat me with indifference or disrespect and so I 
must conceed notwithstanding all aj^pearence and taunts 
of my political enemies. You also avow that you have ever 
treated with due regard and respect, such persons, as were 
known and hated by the Secessionists for their desire to 
do something, if possible to terminate the law war, in the 


way of Negotiations. "Well I will not call in question yonr 
word But this I will sav. If there be one of your old po- 
litical friends, who has taken any part in politics, has re- 
ceived any countenance or respect in this county, or any 
other that I know of, except Coffin I have not been able 
to call him to mind — I mean your friends during the 
war — You have lavished your favors upon Vance men and 
anti-Worth men — during the war Boyden, Ramsey and 
I believe Coffin and Kerr were all Vance to the last. In 
making these remarks I do not wish to be understood as 
advocating the claims of Holden men per see. I am not — 
for there were many that supported him as a necessity that 
were true and honest men and either gave you a direct or 
insidental suport and deserved better treatment than they 
have received. I do not alude to offices or salaries, etc. I 
mean respectful consideration and some little courtesy and 
kindness from you and your appointees. You seem to 
think that Dr. Ramsey, oST. Boyden ^Mr. Coffin were the 
only men in Rowan that are embraced in the true con- 
servative rank. In this you are mistaken. By the by the 
County of Rowan, as well as that of Orange, seems to be 
peculiarly fortunate in securing appointments from all 
quarters. Ramsey, Boyden 1). A. Davis, Coffin. Murdoch 
Finley and I know not how many more. While Orange 
has Berry (A stockholder and original friend of the work 
kc. And my friend Turner (an original friend and 
stockholder). Webb — an original friend and stockholder 
and P. B. Ruffin another original friend and stockholder 
and I know not how many more of the same sort. I do 
not care to examine the list in Guilford. I will remark 
only that unless Mr. Gilmer has recently purchased stock — 
he holds but little if any if you had examined the books — 
do Strange, Turner, Moore, Berry — not more at any rate 
than Dick — I am aware that you appointed Mr. Lassiter 
But such were the nature of the other appointments as 
to oust him and Thomas and all others who had been 

Vol. 2—6 

738 jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission. 

appointed not because they had been Holden men, but be- 
cause they were known as union men. That is the point 
I make. I soliemnly believe as I know it to be the case 
that there has been and is a conspiracy on the j)art of the 
secessionists and the ultra old line War Whigs to brand and 
stagmatize in every way possible, all such men as sympa- 
thized and acted with you during the war and if possible 
degrade them for the part they took in endeavoring to 
bring the late unfortunate war to an amicable close. And 
here is my -complaint and I assert that it is well founded. 
You have given them no aid, countenance, encouragement 
or suport in any way whatever in this county at least. On 
the other hand every thing has been done and is doing that 
could or can be done to disgrace us in the estimation of 
our constituents. And candor compells me to say I have 
heard similar complaints from others. As for myself per- 
mit me this one time to speak freely — I never asked any 
one for an appointment — nor do I ever expect to — nor did 
or do I deserve any But when I call to my mind whose 
sons it was that insulted and assaulted me — and how I 
have been denounced by certain men. And how they and 
I have differed as to your personal character, etc., I can 
but feel contempt for some of these and great surprise at 
the course of others. Every effort has been made to hold 
me and others out as radicals and to induce the world to 
believe that certain persons in this and other latitudes are 
the most conservative in the State. Whereas it is well 
known that there are not any more ultra haters in the 
State. But my dear Sir I hope to be able to survive all 
the efforts of my personal and political enemies to consign 
me and my personal and political friends to Oblivion. I 
have said what I have simply in reply to your letters. I 
assure you that I have no malice — though I have, as I 
consider been most shamefully treated by some "But let 
the hungry gray hounds snarl and snap" for their dirty 
grub, so their teeth touch not". One other matter You 
say that if you have acted as I have charged you do not 


deserve any suport — Well that may be so provided the 
times had not become so wonderfnlly out of joint. I freely 
admit that ingratitude is a great sin — but it has been so 
fashionable of late for politicians to do most anything that 
may be expediant that I shall not hold you to a strict ac- 
count, however justly this might be done Perhaps the only 
reason that I have for complaint is this that I expected 
Jonathan Worth to act the man and patriot a little more 
than the former, mousing trucklers who had filled the Ex- 
ecutive chair of this State had done — and he has not come 
up to the mark exactly. I am free to admit that you have 
done about as well as your predecessors in making your ap- 
pointments except in one respect. I will go further and 
say probably you have done as well as any one yet here- 
after, hence I declared my purpose unless some cause for 
change is given, to suport you at the next election but 
surely if you and your particular friends do not deserve it 
I will in self respect refrain from bestowing it upon you. 
This was my purpose before you wrote to me informing 
me of Genl. Gilmer's statement of coolness to you, etc. 
Your relations are all well in Ashboro and the Messrs. 
Jackson and Robins all kept busy. I left Genl. Leach 
Iving dano-erouslv ill. He had a very severe congestive 
chill on Monday night and Dr. Worth said if he had an- 
other such he would die, but he succeeded in keeping it off 
and 'tis now hoped he will survive. 

From J. J. Jaclcson-. 

As HE BOKO August 9 th IS 66. 
I write you a line to give vou some account of things Reorganization of 

-. ^ » 1 -T-, " ^ tlie Red Strings. 

nere. 1. 1 saw Andrew Burns on Monday morning. You 
are well acquainted with his character. He seemed to be 
very willing to talk. Said the ''Eed String" association 
was undoubtedly reorganized^that a short time since he 

740 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

had a short talk with some man formerly a justice of the 
peace — that this man stated to him that Holden had been 
over to Washington City and returned and had sent them 
up certain resolutions, etc., etc., that no person could ex- 
pose them — new signs, etc., etc. — further that Lindsay 
Cox had told him a short time before the election that he, 
Cox, was going to a large meeting of the order to be held 
that morning at New Salem, etc., etc. It is a significant 
fact that New Salem went for the Constitution by a vote 
of 140 or 150 to 1. 

James Page says they are undoubtedly reorganized and 
organizing in his section and that he hears the objects of 
the order are to elect LTnion men to oifice and for mutual 
protection. If any of their number are indicted they will 
try and get on the jury, being sworn to acquit — or they 
will be witnesses for him and in case of necessity will se- 
cure a Dft of their order by force. He says that they are 
very strong in Montgomery and that it is a significant fact 
that the jail of that county has secretly been twice broken. 
He said moreover that it was understood that Capt. Wil- 
liam Presly against whom I think certain indicts are 
pending in Montgomery County for stealing cotton, was 
anxious to be admitted into the order, as a means of pro- 
tection — that he accordingly applied for admission — that 
the Lodge admitted him and passed a resolution notifying 
him on that he should be notified to appear at a certain 
time and place — that in the mean time Presly found out 
that if he joined them, he would have to swear not to 
prosecute certain members who had heretofore robbed him 
and that he accordingly declined joining them, etc. etc. 
Noah Smathernian says there is no doubt of there being 
such an organization in this section. 

Knowing that Lewis Parks was a leaky vessel I asked 
him into my room and had a conversation with. him. 
Page had told me that he was a member of the order. 
You know the character of Lewis, etc. He was quite 


couiiuunicative. I am satisfied that there is a great deal 
of truth ill his statement. 

He states that there were such organizatious — that he 
was an officer in one of their htdges — that there were a 
number in his section — that they already numbered 200 
men — that there was a regular organization — however 
distinct Lodges — then a County lodge, having the control 
of all the lodges in the County, then a general State Lodge 
having the control of all the lodges in the counties. He 
said they had their regular officers — each lodge a Presi- 
dent, Treasurer, Secretary, and that they had regular com- 
munications with all the other lodges, etc., in the county, 
or rather orders would come do^^ui from the County 
Lodges to the various District Lodges. He said that the 
Lodges even had their La\^^'ers picked out. He said Sel- 
lon was a member — that Sheriff Rush was a member, and 
I grieve to say it, he mentioned Did- as being a member. 
I asked him what was the object of the Society. He said 
that the great object was to secure the election of Union. 
Men to Office. They consider all as war men who sus- 
tained Vance for Governor. He states moreover that the 
members could not prosecute each other — but were bound 
to do all they could for mutual protection, and that if 
any of them were in difficulties or their families in dis- 
tress they were bound to aid them or see them out. I told 
him I had heard it said, that they were bound to swear 
for eacli other, and try and get on the juries of the county 
so as to secure each other from punishment, and to secure 
a member from custody, if need, by force. This he de- 
nied — Said there was nothing of it, etc. 

I afterwards mentioned to Did' that I heard a certain 
man who said he was a ip.omber of this order, say that he 
Dick, was also a member — that I mentioned it in justice 
— he lauglied and said "yon mean your question to be in 
the nature of a 'Bill of Discovery'," "ah", said he, "you 
will hear it thunder next fall", "you secessionists and lat- 
ter day war men". Scott told me he had heard Dick say 

742 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

when asked who would be your opponent "Well we are 
waiting, etc., we will have out a man, etc. He says it 
will be Cox or Logan. By the by, Frank Caldwell is here 
this week and complains very grievously of your Railroad 
appointments. He said he was not against you, etc., but 
he thought you were completely igTioring all the Union 
men — that you ought not to consider it a crime for a man 
to have been an officer under Holden for that you were 
one, etc. and young Gilmer told me he had secret appren- 
hensions that he was going over to the Radicals, etc., etc. 

Th©^constitution has been ratified in this county by over 
100 majority as I hear — and I think if the vote was taken 
today the majority would be large. # 

Jesse Walker, Dot Jordan, Joel Ashworth and Blair 
and George Kinly are candidates for the legislature and 
Wren is spoken of. 'No doubt there will be others. 

I had a conversation with Sheriff Rush. I told him I 
was going to write to you. He said I might say to you 
that you would carry the county by a large majority 
against any body but Settle or Dick — that you would 
carry the county by a considerable majority against any 
body, etc., Said Joel Ashworth was for you and Blair 
would go for you against anybody but Settle or Dick. 
Fennel Arnold told me to say to you, he was for you and 
all his people and all in that section were for you but these 
Robbers. Said that George Kinly whose Post Office was 
Hoover Hill, was the great man among them, very suscept- 
able of flattery, etc., that it would be a good plan for you 
to adress him a letter in general terms (If you write don't 
sav anything that could be perverted.) He, Arnold, said 
if you could make a speech some time during the fall at 
Rush's hill, IsTinevah Rush, I think he said, it would do 
a great deal of good. 

I omitted to say to you that Parks said every body in 
his section were for you for Gov. and Sam for the Legis- 
lature. This is nothing, however, Because, if the District 
Lodges are controlled by the higher lodges, they would 


have no choice. I 'am still iinwUUng to believe that Dick 
is a member though he did not deny it. 

Gen. Leach is here — very sick — his recovery at this 
time, Thursday morning, is regarded as doubtful. 

From B. S. Hedricl\ 
Washi^^gtoa^ D. C. August 9, 1866. 
Yours inclosing copv of ktter of Thomas J. Wilson continued ni-feei- 

11 • 1^ mi' f -vr TT^-1 ing in the state. 

has been received, ihe statement oi Mr. , Wilson agrees 
with that I have had from other sources, and he has evi- 
dently endeavored to make a fair statement. There must 
continue to be irritation and ill feeling, in many neighbor- 
hoods growing out of the past strife. But if those who 
control public sentiment will only labor to allay irritation, 
instead of inflaming it, there will be peace by and bye. 
I hope by another year the old questions of secession and 
anti-secession will give way to new issues. But just now 
the main thing is secure domestic quiet, and give the 
people a chance to labor and build up their fortunes a lit- 
tle. Holden's course in fomenting dissentions at home, 
is bad enough. But his continued effort to misrepresent 
the State abroad is worse, for there are but too many to 
believe him. I presume it will be known in a few days 
whether there is to be a Lieut. Gov. so that by Sej^t. 1, 
the opposition elements will try to bring forth a candidate. 
Holdens' plan when he was here was to bring out several 
candidates — One or two "War men", and a ''so-called 
L^nion" man or Holdenite. For the last few weeks I am 
unable to see what he is driving at. But he must soon 
show his hand and then it will be time to undermine his 

The pardons of Judge Caldwell, William Boddie, 

744 j^oRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

rroneberger and McXeely were signed yesterday, and I 
hope will leave here by to-morrow's mail. I saw the Pres- 
ident to-day, bnt was not able to have much conversation 
with hiiii. I endeavored to have him take up the matter 
01 ihe West Point appointment, bnt he said he could not 
attend to it now and was afraid he would not have time 
before the 20th. I will try and see some of the officers 
of the War Dejit. and find out what will be done in regard 
to all the Southern appointments for West Point. 

There seems to be a snarl in regard to the revenue of- 
ficers for the 1st Dist. Piermont is here to oppose the 
appointment of Mr. Parker, on the ground that Parker's 
endorsers are all rebels. Piermont is particular in speci- 
fying all the "disloyal''' acts as he alleges of Col. Ferre- 
bee, and represents Ferrebee as the person who wants 
Parker appointed. Piermont is about as inefficient an 
officer as can be found any wliere^ and in the long run the 
people will suffer by his inefficif ncy. 

' ,. To L. L. Clements, Escj. 

Raleigh, Aug. 11th 1866. 

Law as to the pos- Yours of the 6th inst. is received. I find that Sec. 66 
negroes. Chap. 107 Pev. Codc, is in force under ours laws, except 

that the words "persons of color" are substituted for the 
words "free negroes". 

According to the laws of this State, therefore, it is a 
misdemeanor for any free negro or person of color to 
wear or carry about his person or keep in his house any 
shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie 
knife, without a license as provided in this section. 

If this provisions of the 66 Sec. have been repealed by 
any law of this State, I am not apprised of the act repeal- 
ing it. Whether any of the acts of Congress, (assuming 
them to be constitutional) operate as a repeal of this sec- 


tion, I cannot say. My executive duties require such con- 
stant application that I have not time to give a critical 
examination to all the acts, State and National, which 
have sprung from our new Constitution. It would have 
heen hetter if you had consulted the Atto. Genl. I will 
send this letter to him and ask his opinion on the ques- 
tion submitted. . 

From Sion- 11. Rogers. 

Raleigh, August IJfth 1S66. 

Your remarks and letter to me of 11th inst were re- 
ceived by me this morning, also a copy of the letter of 
L. L. Clements of date August 6th 1S66. In answer I 
beg leave to say to you that you will find by reference to 
the ordinances of the late Convention, that Sec. (36, Chap. 
107 of Rev. Code is repealed. 

In reference to the subject matter contained in the com- 
munication of L. L. Clements Esq., I respectfully refer 
you to the ease of the State vs Huntly 3rd Iredell's law 

To J. JI. Whitehurst. ■ . 

Raeeigh, Aug. 17 1866. 

Yours of the 16Th ult. has just reached me. 

You fail to state the name of the neffro who insulted Action of Bureau 

^ officials. 

you — also the place where you were tried and the name 
of the officer who fined you $50. You say you were ar- 
rested on the llth and tried on the 16th July. 

On the 13th July, upon my application Genl Robinson, 
the Chief of the Freedman's Bureau in this State, issued 
his orders turning over to the civil Courts of the State, 
all matters civil and criminal, relating to freedmen, ex- 
cepting contracts for wages witnessed or approved by of- 

746 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

iicers of the Bureau. The officer therefore tried you 
contrary to orders. If they will grant a transfer to our 
Courts or an appeal to a higher branch of the Bureau, I 
presume you will be relieved. If they decline to grant 
you an appeal or transfer let me know when and where 
the trial took j)lace and who rendered the judgment, and 
I will try another mode for your relief. I do not gather 
from your letter what was the offence with which you were 

To D. G. Worth. 

EaleiCtH Aug. 17/66. 

Itoxana's negroes and others are about to steal her out 
of every thing. Young Sam was convicted and whipped 
for stealing one of her beef cattle. Bills were found 
against Primus and Joshua, his accomplices. They were 
not captured. She has had another beef stolen — and many 
hogs — besides many thefts of kss consequence. The ten- 
ents mi the Swamp place, I learn, have made a fine crop. 
At heme and at the Bird place, which was rented to Chas. 
& Harper, not more than half a crop will be made owing 
to bad culture. I am distressed to devise the plans best 
for the management of her affairs. 

We have heard nothing from Mary since I last wrote 

I have had the residue of goods sent up to Sam Jackson 
to be sold for me. Corrinna came up with me. Dr. Rob- 
erts will come in a few days — I want to get him settled 
somewhere as apothecary with as little delay as possible. — 

All well — I see no probability of opposition to my re- 


W. H. Bagley to IT'. IT'. HoJden. 

Raleigh, X. C. Aug. 18th 1866. 

Gov. W. W. Holdeu, 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Dear Sir 
Your resignation as a Justice of the Peace of Wake 
County directed to Governor Worth, is herewith returned, 
the statute (Section 36, Chap. (V2, Rev. Code) requiring 
such resignations to he filed with the County Court Clerk. 
Very respectfully, 

Wm. H. P>acjley 
Private Secretary. 

Raeeigii, Aug. 17th 1866. 
His Excellency Gov. Worth 

I respectfully ask leave through you to resign my com- 
mission as a Justice of the Peace for the County of Wake. 
Very respectfully, 


To Alien Jordan. 

Raleigh, Aug. 20th 1866. 

Yours of the Sth inst. — post-marked the l(3tli, is just 
received. It is almost certain that the new Constitution 
is rejected. The election for Govr. and memhers of As- 
sembly is to be held on the third Thursday of October, 
altogether irrespective of the result as to the ratification 
or rejection of the amendments to the constitution. 



jSToeth CAEOLiisrA Historical Commission. 

To Colonel A. J. Dargan. 

Ealeigh, Aug. 21 1866. 

Relating; to State 
and National 

The Pliila. Convention, I trust, is dispelling the clouds 
of Radicalism. Uncertainty still hangs over the ques- 
tion whether the amended constitution is ratified or re- 

I would write you more at large but am so oppressed 
with duties that I cannot at present. 

There seems to be no settled plan of opposition to my 
re-election. The last on it from Radical Head Quarters 
here is to bring out Logan on the mingled progranie of 
White Basis and Radicalism pure. 


Requesting a par- 
don for O. W. 

Fro7]i E. E. Bridgers.^ 

Tarboro ^. C. August 21st 1866. 

Permit me to ask your kind offices in procuring a par- 
don for Co] Owen R. Kenan of Duplin. 

Col Kenan never held an office until he was elected a 
member of the Confederate Congress — he declined a re- 
election. He never was in the habit of taking a part in 
Politics. He was a strong administration man during 
the first Congress and was a very strong and open Anti- 
Holden man — and was recommended for suspension. He 
is as true to countrv as anv man in it. 

' liobert K. Bridgers, of Tarboro, was a lawyer of large practice 
before the war. He was a member of the Legislature in 1844, and 
from 1856 to 1861. In 1861 he was elected to the Confederate Con- 
gress. After the war he became President of the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad. 


To Sioii IT. Bogers. 

Raleigh, August 21st 1S66. 

Two embarrassing questions of the gravest character hi^erpretation^of 
present themselves to ns, nnder the Ordinance of the Con- t^^e election laws, 
vention of the 25th Jnne last, as to counting the votes for 
the ratification and rejection of the proposed amendments 
to the Constitution. 

First — Are we required to open and count the votes 
on the 29th xVugust (being 20 days after the second Thurs- 
day of August) whether all the returns shall have been 
received or not — or may we lawfully postpone the count- 
ing to such later period as we may deem reasonable, and 
receive and count returns which may come to hand after 
the 29th August and if you hold that we may receive and 
count returns made after the 29th Augt. how long may we 
lawfully postpone such counting'^ 

Second — Should it turn out (as we have good reason 
to believe it will) that some of those returns are made 
without the Sheriif's having qualified to the same before 
the Clerk of the County Court as required by the ordin- 
ance, should we count or reject such returns ? ^ 

The result of the election for or against ratification will 
probably turn upon the decision of these questions, and 
we therefore solicit your well considered opinion on them. 

We have the honor to be 

Yours very respectfully, 


R. W. Best, Sec. of State 
Kemp P. Battle, Pub. Treas. 

To Nereus MendeidialJ. 

Raleigit, Aug 2J+th 1866. 

I regret that I could not have had a personal conver- pomfc'^affosWon. 
sation with you. The imputations made against me by 
Holden and his followers that I am "]3laying into the 

750 ISToETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

hands of the Secessionists" — "hy giving all the offices to 
them" is nntrue — and has not, as I think, any color of 
truth. Those who make the charges regard all men as 
secessionists, who cannot take the Congressional test oath. 
If this were the true definition I should be guilty. I do 
not rank as secessionists those who have combatted the 
doctrine at all times and resisted by all means in their 
power the inception of the war, but whose sympathies were 
with their own section after the war was begun. If the 
government is to be administered excluding from office 
all who sympathized with the South after the war begun, 
it would not be a Republican Government. I allow there 
is such thing as repentence in politics as well as in reli- 
gion. Those who are notv loyal to the government ought 
to be eligible to office, and the electors ought to be the 
judges who are so repentant. As a general rule the pro- 
fessions of a new convert are to be received with some 
distrust, until actions shall sustain professions. I al- 
ways abhorred with equal abhon'ence the Disunionists of 
the J^orth and the South. It was the co-operation of those 
JSTorthern and Sou,thern factionists, with different objects, 
which involved the nation in war — filled the country with 
blood and mourning and entailed on us a national debt 
which must oppress us for generations. That ISrorthern 
set of Disunionists, as I think, ruled the last Congress, 
and continued the severance of the Union, after the war 
had crushed the Southern Disunionists. I have no sym- 
pathy with the leaders in the last Congress any more than 
I had with the Secessionists of S. C. I never knew an 
hour when I did not believe that the Union ought to be 
preserved. I believe there never was a man more devoted 
to the Union than Andrew Johnson, and as between a 
vindictive Congress, and the policy of the President, my 
sympathies are heartily with the latter. 

My patronage has not been used for the benefit of Se- 
cessionists. The most important office within my gift 
was that of State Geologist. I e-ave it to a man, whom I 


believed to be well qualified — who like myself was an en- 
terprising Union Whig and who voted for Holden on the 
notion of expediency at the time. Your Board consists 
of three men — all equally opposed to Secession but one, 
Pool — when war came, entered the Southern army and 
fought to the end. He is now as he always has been, op- 
posed to Secession. 

Ramsey and AVinston, my Internal Improvement board, 
were always and now are as much opposed to Disunion as 
you are. 

Of the numerous Directors on the Public Works, I ap- 
pointed one Secessionist out of eight on the A. & JST. C. 
P. P. He was a large original subscriber for the stock. 
On the ]Sr. C. P. P. I appointed one out of eight — at the 
request of the Wilmington stockholders — who had sub- 
scribed 1-10 of the stock — On the P. & G. P. P. every 
one of my appointees were old Union Whigs. — On the 
W. X. C. P. P., one out of the 8 directors appointed by 
me was a Secessionist. The proscriptive spirit which 
would exclude these men from all these in the manage- 
ment of their investment in the public works, would be un- 
christian and impolitic. 

In creating a board to manage a public charity, (the 
Lunatic Asylum) I looked for men of intelligence; leisure 
- — residents here — and distinguished for their personal 
virtues and benevolence. One of them Govr. Bragg, was 
a Secessionist and Mr. Mordecai was a strong war man. 
though a AVhig. — They get no pay. The Standard made 
these appointments the subject of bitter invective. When 
I become so strong a partisan as to exclude such men 
from such a board I shall feel bound to exclude them 
from social intercourse with me. 

If the meeting at Deep Piver was for the purpose of 
nominating delegates to the Sept. Phila. Convention, I 
regret that you participated in it. A kind feeling per- 
vades the State towards the Quakers. I think at least 
nine-tenths of the people and nearly all the intelligence 

752 JSToRTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

of the State are strongly against the Convention and I 
do not perceive sufficient reason for yonr arraying the bad 
feeling of the State against you. I hope such may not 
have been the object of the meeting or that your action in 
it may not have been such as to produce prejudice against 
your Society. 

The genuine feelings of nw heart are expressed in the 
inclosed circular. 

ISTew Garden. 

To B. 8. Heclrich. 

Rat.eigh Aiifjud 25, 1866. 
In regard to 1 am Urgently pressed to ask the President to gTant 

pardons. "" 

pardons to Owen H. Kenan, A. T. Davidson and B. S. 
Graither, members of the Confederate Congress. I can 
offer no reasons in favor of these pardons not equally ap- 
plicable to Graham, Turner and Dortch. The members 
of the Con. Congress and most of those most j)rominent 
in this State for the disruption of the Union, have been 
pardoned: for instance, Wm. Johnson, W. JST. Edwards, 
Geo. Davis, Bridgers, Venable, Arrington, and Lander 
and Craige was recommended for pardon and I suppose 
pardoned. I am not informed as to the granting of the 
latter pardon. I am far from complaining of these par- 
dons. I have no doubt of the loyalty of these men now, 
but a Union worth preserving caunnot be brought about 
by continued severity to prostrate men, but I imagine no 
mode of policy or justice which warrants the discrimina- 
tion which is made. I lately made an urgent appeal by 
direct letter to the President for the pardon of Graham 
Dortch and Turner. I have received no response of any 
sort. This appeal was made some four weeks ago. 
Whether it is regarded as an officious obstrusion on my 
part, or was disregarded from this cause I am ignorant. 
The fact that my appeal was not regarded or unanswered^ 


admonishes me to offer no I'lirtbci" interference in cases 
where Gov. Holden had recommended suspension or re- 
jection. Can you not get at the President's views. Many 
of our people whose pardons are withheld, often men in 
obscure positions and as loyal as any body, but hated by 
Holden on personal or political account, distress me by 
their importunity. If the President still regards Holden 
as friendly to his administration it is because he does not 
read his paper. His drift is manifest. He recommends 
the adoption of the Howard amendment, throws cold wa- 
ter on the Phila. Convention — encourages the appoint- 
ment of delegates to the contemplated counter conven- 
tion. He hopes again to get into power by the success of 
the Radicals and the overthrow of civil govt, of this 
State. I think the President, as an act of justice and 
of policy, ought to pardon all or very nearly all the pe- 
titioners from this State. 
AYashingtox, D. C. 

To C. B. Benson. 

PtALEiGH Aug. 25 1866. 

Your polite invitation to attend the commencement ex- 
ercises of your Academy has been reed. 

I deem in my duty to do every thing I can personally 
and officially to advance the spirit of education in this 
State, and will endeavor to be with you on Thursday 
night, if possible. — I shall be delayed here all of Wednes- 
day (and possibly Thursday) on indispensable official 
business (counting and reporting the votes on Ratifica- 
tion or rejection of the proposed new Constitution). 


Vol. 2—7 

7.54 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

From Sion H. Rogers. 

Kaleigh August 25th 1866. 
The communication of jST. jST. Adams Clerk of North- 
hampton County Court referred to me by you has been 
received and upon examination I consider that Thomas 
G. Tucker is still a Justice of the Peace and entitled to 
discharge all the functions of that office. 

From Colonel William G. Moore. 

Executive Mansion, 
Washington D. C. August 26 1866 
I am reminded, by an inquiry of the President, that 
I failed to comply with his directions to notify you of his 
order of the 19th inst, for the release of Tolar, Powers 
and Watkins. I regret that in my desire to see that there 
was no delay attending the transmission of the order to 
the AVar Department, I omitted to give you prompt no- 
tice of the President's action. It is true that the news- 
papers, on the succeeding day, proclaimed the release of 
the prisoners : but the great interest you had taken in 
their case made it but just and proper that you should 
have been formally notified of the success of your efforts 
in their behalf. 

From. B. 8. Hedrich. 

Washington, D. C. Aug. 27, 66. 

Pardon matters. I cauiiot find any papers on file for the pardon of R. 

K. Jones of Wake. If Holden ever had the papers he 
probably suppressed them. It would therefore be bet- 
ter for Mr. Jones to prepare a new petition, have you 
approve it and send it on. 


Inclosed is a pencil list of names of persons whose pe- 
titions I found in the Attorney General's office sometime 
ago, which Holden had recommended to be suspended. In 
all such cases it is generally better to file a new petition, 
rather than go to the trouble of revising the old one. 

[P. S.] Was the pardon of ISTathan iSTewby among the 
big lot sent in ]\Iay lost ? I wrote Mr. Bagiey about it a 
few days ago. Mr. ^ewby is of Perquimans Go. 

To General R. E. Colston. 

Ealeigh, Aug. 28 1866. 
Mr Guthrie has applied to the officers of the Capitol concerning use of 

IT • 1 /^ TT n Commons Hall for 

lor leave to you to deliver a lecture m the Commons Hall a lectm-e. 
on the life of Gen. Thos. J. Jackson, for an admission 
fee for yourself. We are severally admirers of the sub- 
ject of your proposed lecture — but have in no instance 
granted the use of the Hall for the delivery of a lecture 
where a portion of the proceeds was not granted to some 
charitable purpose. If we depart from this rule you will 
readily appreciate the difficulties in which we shall be 

We think you will realise more from your proposed 
lecture and disembarrass us, if you propose to give half 
the proceeds to the Young Men's Christian Association 
of this City, who will use it for the relief of the indigent 
of the City. In this case the Association will be active 
in selling your tickets and we ^ull with pleasure grant the 
use of the Hall to you. 


756 XoRTH Cakolusta Historical Commissiojst. 

To Nereus Mendenliall. 

Raleigh Aug. SO/66. 

Political matters. I See tliis niorniiig in the Standard the action of the 
meeting at Deep River Meeting honse. 

The resolutions are cautiously drawn but the action 
of the meeting in sending delegates to the Phila. Sept. 
Convention repudiates the action of the late Phila Con- 
vention — and is in antagonism with the President. It 
in effect endorses the constitutional amendment which 
denies to the people of this State the right to elect as a 
Constable Frank Caldwell, W. A. Graham, Lewis Hor- 
ner, the writer hereof and thousands of others of like 

I do not doubt the good intentions of the actors in the 
meeting, but I deplore the fact that any prominent 
Quakers deemed it their duty to participate in a political 
.meeting, having for its main object the exclusion from 
official position, as unworthy to be trusted, such stead- 
fast friends of theirs as Gilmer, Graham, myself and 
others while it makes eligible to office the most ultra Seces- 
sionists who entered the Southern army or Congress and 
did every thing he could to break up the Union, provided 
he had held no office before the war. I do not think any 
object of public duty made it expedient or wise, that 
prominent Quakers, like yourself and Jonathan Harris, 
should have participated in such a meeting. I am a de- 
voted friend of Quakerism and hope your action may not 
prove prejudicial to your Society. 

The resolution calling for protection to Union men in 
this State is a covert imputation upon the judicial and 
other authorities of this State, wholly unwarranted by 
their action. 

[P. S.] As to the fairness with which I have acted in 
the case of petitions referred to me, I defy the attacks 
(if made openly) of malevolence itself. 


The 400 petition has not been referred to me. It was 
sent to Hedrick who sent me a copy of it. I sent a copy 
to Mr. ^Yilson. I will direct a copy of his answer sent to 

Xew G-^rden. 

W. H. Bagley to J. P. Foster. 

Kaleigh, Se-pt. 1st 1866. 

Yonr letter to the Governor of the 30th nit. has been Regarding a Fed- 
eral appomtmeut. 

received. The Governor is now absent, bnt will return in 
a day or so, when he will answer you. You are mistaken 
when you suppose Gov. W. has any prejudices against 
you, either personal or political. In his recommendations 
for Federal offices in this State, he has always acted upon 
requests from the head of the Department in which the ap- 
poihment was to be made, and, always, endeavors to carry 
out the wishes of those among whom the duties of the office 
are to be exercised. He has been, in your case, urged to 
recommend Mr. Savage, a native of Wilmington, and he 
understood him to be the choice of the Wilmington mer- 
chants, and as such requested his appointment. I am 
sure, the Govenior has had no feeline: in the whole matter. 

To Joseph R. Jones. 

Rai.eigh, September Jfth 1866. 
Yours postmarked Sep. 4th is just reed. 
Whoever professes that I have appropriated public Defending iiimseif 

j^ -, 1 , ^ . , against slander. 

money to my personal use and rests such pretext upon a 
mass of reports is both a knave and a fool. I defy the 
most malevolent of uiy enemies to the most scrutinising in- 
vcstigation of all accounts and reports. I believe the 
charge to be equally false as to Gov. Yance. There is 
no colorable ground for the imputation against either 
of us. 

jSToeth Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

I have heard that a member from your County offered 
in the Convention or in the Genl Assembly a resolution 
and that a com. of inquiry was appointed and that it 
rested its resolution upon one of my reports in which in 
summing up the State's indebtedness I included $4,500,- 
000. of State bonds "delivered to the Govr. to be sent to 
Europe to be used if necessary, as collateral security for 
the payment of our cotton bonds, which were sent to 
England but not used, as I learn from the Govr, the cot- 
ton bonds having been readily sold without this security". 

These bonds were delivered to the Govr. by an act 
of Assembly. When they went from the Treasury they 
were charged up as a usual State debt : but as I was in- 
formed by the Govr. that they had not been used, but 
were in England to be brought back when the war ended 
and restored to the Treasury it was proper that my re- 
port should show that upon this state of facts, the State 
indebtedness was less by $4,500,000. than it purported to 
be. Stupidity could only base a charge of fraud against 
me on this transaction. ISTor would any honest man con- 
sider it as raising a suspicion of fraud against the Govr. 
These bonds having been repudiated by ordinance of the 
Convention, the Genl Assembly did not deem it expedient 
to incur the expense of having them brought back. If the 
vigilant member suspected that the Governor had sold 
them: (if he had any sense, he could not suspect me) his 
course should have been to pass a resolution to have the 
Treasurer cause them to be brought back. This would 
have resulted in showing whether there was any founda- 
tion for his suspicion. I have not, and never had any 
suspicion that Gov Vance was capable of the baseness 
which this suspicion implies. His poverty ought to ex- 
culpate him, even with his bitterest enemies. 

Hearing that a resolution had been offered and referred, 
which they never intended as an imputation upon my in- 
tegrity, I sought for the Chairman, who had voted for 


Holden and not for me, and desired to have notice when 
the committee should act. I never heard any thing fur- 
ther from it ; and the imputation was so ridicuously ab- 
surd that it had passed from my recollection till I got 
your letter. I do not remember the name of the mover 
of this resolution. I suppose he was a malevolent radical 
who thought he had laid some sort of foundation for the 
indulgence of an unworthy attack on me. — or was such 
a fool that he could not understand my report. 

As to my past and present views in relation to Na- 
tional affairs, I supposed they were well known. — I never 
believed in the doctrine of secession and strenuously op- 
posed every thing tending to bring on the rebellion, until 
war was fully inaugurated. Even then I refused to be 
a member of the Convention of 1861 — but when it was 
narrowed down to take sides for or against my native 
State, I took sides with the South and acted with good 
faith with the South to the end of the conflict — but I be- 
lieved that we were too weak to maintain the contest, and 
while we had a formidable army in the field, I was for 
making peace on the basis of re-union — I did not favor 
the silly cry of peace and Independence. 

When the war was ended I was for mutual forgiveness 
at home and abroad and mollifying the passions,- — restor- 
ing the Union and going to work to rebuild our shattered 

I abhor the Disunionists of the jSTorth Avho tax us but 
refuse to receive our members into Congress. 

I fervently sustain the policy of the Prest. and the 
late Phila. Convention and have no sympathy with any 
Southern man, (if there be any) in the Fred. Douglass 
Convention supposed to be now sitting. 

This is a hasty sketch of my position. It is not in- 
tended as confidential but I would not be willing to be 
annoyed, in the midst of official duties, as heavy as I 
can bear, with a news-paper controversy. You may us? 
it in any way you please, except through the Press. It is 

iVoRTH Caeoli:n'a Historical Commission. 

written curreiite calamo without the care required in a 
paper intended for publication. 

I have no copies of my reports — Shall be pleased to 
answer any future letter you may address to me. 


To John A . Cribncr. 

Raleigh 8ep. Jf., 1866. 

"What is the matter with Xereus Mendenhall ? That 
he should participate in a meeting opposing the benefi- 
cent policy of the Prest and the Phila. Convention and 
favoring the vindicative and Disunion schemes of the 
ultra Radicals annoys me — and the fact that he is one of 
my appointees to office, occasions unpleasant commentary. 

I fancy that he has become such a recluse that he is 
ignorant of passing events. Can't you see him and post 
him ? Is it possible that he and Jonathan Harris are fair 
exponents of the present sentiments of the Quakers ? 


To James P. Foster. 

Raleigh Sejo. Jf/66. 
Regarding a Fed- My action ill relation to the recommendation for a Col- 

eral appointment. 

lector for the Port of Wilniingi:on has not been influenced 
by any prejudice against you personally. I emphatically 
recommended Mr. Savage and opposed the oppointment 
of any other because my information led me to believe 
that the shippers of Wilmington were about unanimous 
in favor of Mr. Savage. I have been governed exclusively 
by a desire to act in conformity with the wishes of those 
whose interest were involved and whose preferences, I 
thought, ought to control the nomination. I have no un- 


friendly feeling to vou, nor lias any body songht to preju- 
dice yon in my estimation. I have looked solely to the 
wishes of the shippers. 

To Mar shall Parhs. 

Raleigh Sep. Mh 1866. 
Owino- to temporary absence from the citv yours of the A'i^.fP'^"^ ^^ 

~ 1 t' <-■ ■/ invitation. 

30th Aug. has not been sooner acknowledged. 

Dr. Ramsey, of Rowan, and P. H. Winston of Bertie, 
the members of my Board of Internal Improvement, 
whom I would especially wish to have with me on the 
trip you so politely invite us to take on your Canal, live 
off any line of R. R. and the proposed time for the ex- 
cursion is too near at hand to enable me to communicate 
with them — Besides ]\Ir. AYinston, I suppose, will be in 
attendance on Wilmington Court at the time suggested. 

It would give me great personal pleasure to make the 
trip while I should be acquiring information useful to me 
in the discharge of my executive duties. 

If convenient to you I would like to make the excur- 
sion say any day you may designate in the week commen- 
cing the IStli of Oct.- — giving me timely notice so I can 
summon Dr. R. and Mr. W. to accompany. 

Thanking you fo]- your polite invitation — I am — -very 
respectfully — 


To J. J. Crawford. 

Raleigh Sept. 5 1866. 
Yours of the 23rd ult. reached me yesterday. 
I have examined the acts passed at the session of 1866, Declining to give 

0Grt3.iD instruC" 

amending former le2:islation in relation to the Macon tions to state 

^ agent. 

762 JSToETH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

County Turnpike Company and the Tuckaseege and 
Keowee Turnpike Company, to whicli yon call my atten- 
tion. You ask me to instruct the agent of the State for 
the collection of the Cherokee bonds to withhold anj'- fur- 
ther subscription to either road until after the meeting of 
the next Legislature. This is requested on account of 
some misunderstanding as to the construction of these 
acts. You do not indicate what is the difficulty as to 
the construction. I do not find in either act any authority 
conferred on me to control the agent nor do I know of any 
other law authorising me to exercise such power. This re- 
sponsibility must rest wath the agent. As you do not 
present the point of difficulty, I can only suggest, in gen- 
eral terms, that if the agent is in doubt as to his duty, 
he had probably better do nothing until the Genl Assembly 
shall more clearly define its will. I think I have no 
right to interfere, — and consequently that my instructions 
would give no protection to the agent. 

I inclose to you as requested a copy of my dispatch 
to the President and his answer in relation to the proviso 
of the 9th Sec. of the act in relation to free negroes. 

You will have learned before this reaches you that 
measures are on foot by the small band of Radicals in 
this State to bring out opposition to me. The movers 
favor the plans of the Radical Congress and oppose the 
views of the President. I suppose they calculate that 
the Radicals will prevail and desire to put themselves in 
condition to claim the benefit of the dispensation reserved 
to two-thirds of Congress, if the Howard amendment pre- 
vails. I think they have no idea of electing their man, 
should they find any one willing to accept their nomina- 
tion. It is commonly reported that they will nominate 
Genl Logan, of Rutherford and to mix up some white 
basis issue. I thought the basis agreed on by the late 
Convention a fair compromise and voted for the ratifica- 
tion of the proposed amendments; 


Yoli saj" my prospects in Macon are all my friends 
could desire. They seem to be equally so throughout the 
State. I have no reason to fear the opposition of the 
Radicals but regret the ill blood which may spring from 
such an opposition. It is amazing to me that men pro- 
fessing to be Union men, should favor a Congress which 
has thus opposed re-union — who claim and exercise the 
power to tax us, without allowing us representation. 


To D. G. ]yortli. 

iAALEiGir^ Sep. 5/66. 

Has the matter as to Collector of your port been finally 
settled ? I am ready to do any thing I can to carry out 
the wishes of your shippers. I am in receipt of a letter 
from Foster, asking to remove prejudice which he sup- 
poses Fuller has produced in my mind against him. I 
have assured [him] that the wishes of the shippers have 
shaped and will shape my conduct in this matter. I have 
no personal feeling about it. 

We are in continual lest this hot weather and the pres- 
sure of your business may prostrate you again. 


From- P. H. Winston. 

WixDsoE, 5 Sep. 1866. 

I reed, a week or two ago a letter from you and would Politics. 
have replied at once but for sickness. 

I see that the turn now is to raise the cry of the white 
basis and run Logan or Henry against you. Should this 
be in reality attempted you must devote some time to the 
West. Your vote for the new Constitution should be 
made known every where up there. I do not apprehend 

764 North Carolijnta Historical Commission. 

anything serious to grow out of this matter. Those who 
side with Congress on the Howard amendment will be 
so thoroughly the father of it that it must end in lament- 
able failure. 

The days roll around. The election approaches. ' Your 
prominent friends should now preoccupy the whole 
ground. Gov. Graham, Phillips and Turner, Charley 
Clark, W. A. Wright, and all such men all over the State 
should be quietly but firmly planting your name in the 
minds of the people. 

I have not the slightest fear of the result. Pool and 
Thompson still stick to their promise to vote for you. 
I have not a word from any one down this way wanting 

Our friend Doct Hogg was a little chafed at not being 
made a director. My voice will be for transferring 
Strange to the Wilmington Road and j)^^tting Hogg in 
his place. 

Doct. Joyner of Halifax tried very hard to get Matt 
Ransom to run against you, so Ransom told me. 

I shall see a great many people down here from now on 
until the election and will of course have them up and get 
them to turn out. 

I wish that Gihner or ^STat Boyden were looked to as 
Senator in Pool's place. Either one of them can beat 
Pool two to one, I understand that Pool is denouncing 
the Phila. convention as an assemblage of secessionists. I 
think I will write to Gilmer, 

I had some idea of writing to Genl, Dockery calling on 
him to support you, I am however a little afraid of him. 

I hope that you will now continually bring to bear 
your influence with all your friends. Judge Merrimon 
whom I met last week at Martin County thinks you will 
get a good vote in the West, The great thing is if we 
get pushed to have a thorough full and united effort 
simultaneously made all over the State, If another Con- 

Coerespojs-destce of Jonatha]^^ AA^orth. 765 

veution is wanted h\ the West do not get in the way. 
Keep uncommitted generally. As for Logan or Henry 
you can beat either out of sight unless you make some 
bluuder, which T am sure you will not do. 

I have not deemed it prudent in Bertie to make too 
much noise. Holden got 377 Worth 77 here. 'Next time 
I think you will beat any man to come against you 100 to 
200 votes. Indeed I hope to get you nearly all the votes 
in the County. In jSTorihampton you will get nearly all. 
In Martin ditto, AVashington ditto. Indeed in all the 
Country you will run Avell. 

I shall be elad to hear from vou. / ' 

To James S. Pledge. 

Kaleigh, Sept. 5th 1866. 

Yours of the 1 inst. asking me that I "had instructed Financial matters, 
the legislature at the coming session respecting the 
financial condition of the country". 

You say many people in your section are in favor of 
general repudiation of all debts contracted previous to 
May 1865, both public and private", and that many of 
you would like to know my views on the subject. 

I am persuaded, on reflection, you will perceive the 
first question is one which is very broad in its character, 
and I suppose the latter portion of j^our letter in rela- 
tion to repudiation is the subject as to which you desire ' 
to have my views. 

The Constitution of the United States, which every 
public officer takes an oath to support, forbids a State to 
pass any law impairing the obligation of a contract. If 
the Genl Assembly were to pass a law releasing all per- 
sons from the performance of contracts made prior to 
May 1865, the Judiciary would pronounce such law un- 
constitutional and void. I admit the extreme hardship 

766 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

arising from the repudiating of the debts contracted by 
the h)tate during the war, resulting in the failure of the 
Banks, and loss to the honest citizens who held the orders 
of the Banks, the loss of the Common School Eund, etc. — 
Many who were no way responsible for the war, were thus 
made bankrupt — and the failure of one often resulted in 
the failure of many others. — I feel most profoundly for 
those, who without any fault of their own, have lost the 
means of fulfilling their contracts,- — and am desirous of 
doing all I can for their relief, consistent with my oath 
of office and the rules of justice and honesty — but sup- 
posing this insuperable Constitutional difficulty were not 
in the way, could any honest man who had bought land 
or a horse or any other property of his neighbor, hold the 
property and not pay the debt ? 

The debt this State owes was contracted mainly in 
building her rail roads. A considerable part of it is due 
to Orphans, whose funds were invested in State bonds by 
a law passed before the war authorising guardians and 
other trustees to invest in these bonds and pledging the 
honor of the State for their payment. Can the State with 
honor turn off these orphans penniless ? Can she hold the 
roads and refuse to pay the debt contracted to build them ? 
It is contended by many that as the TsTorthern people, who 
hold most of these bonds, by forcing us to free our negroes, 
burning our property, etc., have impoverished us, and 
that we are therefore justified in refusing to pay them. 
Even if this logic were just, that one wrong justifies an- 
other, I do not perceive the policy of knocking at the 
JSTational door and asking to be admitted as members of 
the family, but at the same time telling them we don't in- 
tend to pay them what we owe them. 

Other pressing duties deny me the opportunity of go- 
ing further into this subject at this time. I do not re- 
gard Kepudiation as a good remedy for our calamities. I 
am opposed to it in every form. 

CoERESPorcDEXCE OF Jonatha:n" Woeth. 767 

Peoj^le should not rely too much on Legislation to relieve 
them. Most of creditors ought to and will indulge a 
debtor honestly struggling to pay. — Where the debts are 
too large for the debtor to hope to pay or the creditor 
rigorous he can generally ag'ree on a compound with the 
creditors and where a creditor is a Shylock, the debtor 
can cause him to come to terms by making a deed in trust, 
excluding him, if he will make no reasonable arrangement. 
The arrangement must depend on each particular case. 

I have no specific plan fully digested for supplying a 
currency but shall anxiously endeavor to do whatever 
may Constitutionally be done to aid our distressed debtors. 


To A. M. Tomlinson. 

Raleigh Sept. 6 1866. 
The relations between vou and me are such that I Regarding action 

•^ of Quakers in 

think I may address you confidentially without any ap- ^'°^*^^ caroima. 
prehension of misconstruction. 

The great question which now absorbs all others is how 
is real fraternal Union to be restored ? All profess to 
have this in view. Two jilans are presented — the one 
known as the President's j^lan and the other as the Congres- 
sional plan. — I adopt the former, because it looks to for- 
giveness and good will towards those who rebelled and to 
genuine reconciliation — the other looks to ]3unishing all 
who have fallen into this error. The latter plan must 
keep up animosity and hatred and is a Union looking, 
not to the affections of the people, but to the sword, to 
sustain it. Between these plans it had never occurred to 
me that any Quaker could hesitate, until I saw the names 
of my friends IsTereus Mendenhall and Jonathan Harris 
recorded in a meeting called to send delegates to Phila. 
to sustain the Congressional plan, — and Jonathan Har- 
ris selected as a delea^ate to said Convention. I know 

768 jSTorth Cakolixa Historical Commission. 

the unity which distinguishes the Quakers and fear tliese 
two friends reflect the will of their fellow members. My 
wdiole life exhibits my partiality for the Quakers — 
Through evil and good report I have always stood by 
them and have never, I believe, differed from them po- 
litically. If they are now in favor of a Congress, which, 
as I think, is as sectional and averse to genuine Union, 
as was any Southern Convention which broke up the 
Union or attempted to break it up — and which, as I 
think ; indulges and encourages sectional malevolence, then 
we cannot harmonise in this instance — But assuming that 
we disagree, it seems to me unfortunate that the Quakers 
should take active part in so exciting a political question 
— especially on the side which holds that Graham, Gil- 
mer, myself, and others who have always been their 
friends, are unworthy to be constables in JSTorth Carolina. 

I have no reason to fear that I shall be triumphantly 
re-elected — but it would be most painful to me and as I 
think, unfortunate for the Quakers if they should take 
sides against me. 

It may possibly be unpleasant to you to say anything 
in reply. I would by no means have you do any thing 
which might interfere with the quiet which you ought to 
enjoy — and your silence will not diminish the esteem in 
which you are held by 

Your friend 
Bush Hill. 

Political matters. 

-- To D. F. Caldwell 

Raleigh Sept. 6/66. 
Acce])t my sincere thanks for your letter of yesterday. 
I concur heartily in all the views you express and am 
much obliged to you for the facts, all of which are new 
to me. 

I have so continually occupied with business that I am 
not keeping posted as to the movements of those who are 


seeking to get out opposition to me. I have lately received 
letters from different quarters which have led me to be- 
lieve that the organization commonlj^ called red strings, 
is being revived, for the purpose I suppose, of sustaining 
the Radical Congress. 

The leaders of that Congress I regard as straight out 
Disunionists — indulging and encouraging sectional malev- 
olence. And hence I feel toward them abhorrence I al- 
wavs felt towards those, oSTorth & South, who sought to 
break up the Union. I endorse fully the first Phila. 
Convention and the president's plan of restoration. — I 
am for reconciliation at home and abroad and always op- 
posed to Sectionalism. I am amazed and mortified that 
Jonathan Harris and jSTereus Mendenhall should show 
sympathy for the Radicals : and fear, as you do, that they 
represent the feelings of the Quakers. I will write to 
some others of their leaders to find out. 

I wish you had given me the conversation to the soldiers 
to which you refer. I suppose it was not complimentary 
to me. I am not ultra enough to suit any interest, and 
not very odious to any of them. — I am not the first choice 
of any of the heated partizans of the State, but I have 
no doubt of my re-election by an overwhelming majority. 
I shall count on Dick's support over a Radical. Am I 
mistaken in this ? 

A2;ain thanking vou for vour letters and solicitina; fur- 
ther communications and advice from yon — I am 

Green SBOEo. 

To B. S. Hedricl: 

Raleigh. Se'pt. 6/66. 
The petition of B. L. Ijillings, Forsythe, forwarded with 
my recommendation on 5 Jan. last has been overlooked, 
I presume. If the pardon has been forwarded, it has 

Vol. 2—8 


been lost in transmitting to him. Please try to get it^ 
and much oblige. 


To Jesse Wheeler. 

Ealeigh Sept. 7th 1866. 
Political matters. J T;vish it were convenient for me to have a personal 
conference with yon. It is represented to me, not by 
memorial, but by friends of yours that your office is the 
head quarters of a party in Guilford seeking to bring 
about opposition to my re-election on the ground that my 
fidelity to the Union is suspected or that I have become 
affiliated with the Secessionists. It surpasses my com- 
prehension that you should come to any such conclusion. 
If there be any thing in my recent course at variance with 
the abhorrence which I have always felt and expressed for 
Disunionists, l^orth and South, I am ignorant of it. On 
the question of Union or Disunion I always have agreed 
and still agree with the President, save that he suffered 
expulsion from his State and I deemed it my duty to sub- 
mit and acquiese when almost the whole people of my 
State took sides against my views. 

I can conceive of no Union worth preserving, if kind- 
ness and conciliation and mutual forgiveness and oblivion 
of the past be not the basis. The adoption of the Con- 
stitutional amendment which you are represented as 
favoring which declares that Wm. A. Graham, Jno. A. 
Gilmer, Dick, D. P. Caldwell, Boyden and myself and 
others of like views are not worthy to be a constable in 
this State, while the bitterest Secessionists who held no 
office before the war, are deemed eligible to any position 
under the State or the U. S. govt, exhibits malevolence 
and not conciliation. I regard Stephens, Sumner and 
their followers as malevolent Disunionists, and the Presi- 
dent and his followers as maganamimous statesmen and 
genuine Union men. 


I appreciate and acknowledge jour personal worth and 
believe all your actions will be controlled by your con- 
victions of duty, but we are very far from concurring in 
judgment if you favor the plans of Stephens and Sumner 
in preference to those of the President. I hope your 
views have been misunderstood — and if so, that I may 
receive an answer to this letter which is written in the 
spirit of personal friendship which has always existed 
between us. 

[P. S.] I am officially furnished, from an authentic 
source, with a copy of the oath binding together a secret 
organization in this State, but my information is not yet 
fully satisfactory as to all the purposes they have in view. 
While the present judges are in power and I am Governor, 
Union men and all other men, white or black, have no 
need to resort to secret organizations under pretence that 
they cannot receive protection under the laws. I hear 
it was asserted in a public meeting in Guilford a few days 
ago that I would not give an impartial hearing to the 
comj)laints of Union men. The imputation is a lie and 
has not color of truth in it. 


From ^yiJUam T. Dortch.' 

GoLDSBOEO Sept. 8th ^66. 
I have the pleasure to inform you that I have received 
my pardon, and tender you my sincere thanks for the in- 
terest you have taken in my behalf. I suppose you are 
destined to have radical opposition. I hope the contest 

' "William T. Dortch, of Wayne, was one of the most prominent 
lawyers in the State. He was a Democrat and had been a member 
of the legislature from 1852 to 1856, and from 1858 to 1861; in the- 
latter term he was Speaker of the House. In 1861 he became a mem- 
ber of the Confederate Senate. 



may not be mixed up with State issues, so that your oppo- 
sition may share the strength of the radical party in IST. Ca. 


To John A.. Gilmer. 


Ealeigh, Sept. Sth 1866. 

D. F. Caldwell is as firmly opposed to the Radicals as 
you or I. Owing to his being for Holden in 186-i, he has 
become obnoxious to many who are acting with us. He 
is sore under the epithets they apply to him. He will be 
a most useful auxiliary to vou in Guilford in fiohtine' the 
Radicals. I suggest to you to have the boys treat him 
courteously. I regard him as an ardent, honest, eccentric 
man — and exerting much influence among those of radical 

I have not the slightest fear that the Radicals can show 
much head in the State, but let us use all legitimate means 
to defeat their elisgracing us. In Randolph and Guilford 
I think their members are not despicable. I think Cald- 
well can, and will do much to weaken them, if you and a 
few others will manage the matter as you can. He thinks 
he is abused and reviled by his old Whig friends. 

I fear Jesse Wheeler is using his influence in favor of 
the Radicals. I would hope not, if possible. If it be true, 
as I fear it is, that his office is the head quarters of these 
sneaks, would it not be well to find some anti-radical 
Quaker, (I think Sewell Farlow would do) and have him 
appointed in place of AVheeler ? 


To Nereus Mendenhall. 

Raleigh, Sept. 10th IS 66. 
Discussion of I gee in the Is'ew York Herald this morning a speech 

Tourgee's speech ° -■■ 

at Philadelphia, purporting to be made in the Southern Radical Conven- 


tioii bv one Capt. A. AV. Tourgee, who is stated to be a 
delegate from j^orth Carolina, who I hear held his com- 
mission from the meeting in which you participated. This 
speech / heJieve to be a tissue of lies from beginning to end 
and one of his statements I knoiu is a lie. He says "seven 
hundred loval men had j^etitioned Prest. Johnson for re- 
dress from the rebel depredations, and this petition was 
referred back to the disloyal Govr. of that State and came 
back to the authorities of their own town." This state- 
ment is a lie. He says in a further statement that he had 
recently been informed by a Quaker, that he, (the Quaker) 
had seen fifteen murdered negroes dragged out of one 
pond. He ought to be called upon to give the name of his 
informant, and the whereabouts of the pond. 

Only two petitions have been referred to me by the 
President. One was signed by some -10 petitioners from 
Camden County. They owned that they had served in the 
U. S. army and were persecuted by numerous indictments 
in Camden Court for acts done by them as soldiers and 
they asked for protection. I sent a copy of the petition 
to J). J). Ferebee delegate in the Convention from Camden, 
and to Geo. AV. Brooks, district judge of the IT. S. Court, 
both residing near the petitioners and requested them to 
inquire into the facts and report to me. They severally 
reported to me that there were but two indictments against 
any of the petitioners — the one for retailing liquor with- 
out a license — the other for fornication and adultery. — 

The other petition referred to me was one Ledford and 
others, charging that he had been imprisoned and fined 
$100. by Judge Merrimon : that he had been a U. S. sol- 
dier and that his conviction and punishment were the re- 
sult of j^rejudice against him on account of services as a 
soldier of the JJ. S. I secured the certificate of the judge 
and of the lawyer who defended the petitioner, (who was a 
Union lawyer) showing that his offence was shooting 
twice with a naval pistol at the head of an inoffensive and 
unoffending man, who had in no wise given occasion to 

774 ]^OETH Carolina Histoeical Commissiok. 

this attempt to kill him, save having been in company with 
a man who had quarreled with the petitioner. — ■ 

Such is the lying villian and purporting to represent 
2000 l^orth Carolinians in a pretended patriotic conven- 
tion. I grieve that he should have been appointed by a 
respectable set of men in Deep River Meeting House. 

[P. S.] — In the briefer detail of Tourgee's speech given 
in the Tribune he is represented as the advocate of negTO 
suffrage and boastfully claims to be the representative of 
2000 Union men in :NT. C. — 

jSTew, Garden. 

To the Editor of the Greenshovo Patriot. 

Raleigh^ Sept. 10/66. 
Discussion of ]\j[y attention is called to Tourgee's speech in the Phila. 

Tourgee s speecli -^ is i 

in Philadelphia. Radical Convention as reported in the Herald of the 8th 
advocating negro suffrage and boasting that he represents 
2000' Union men in J^. C. He says "seven hundred 
Union men had petitioned Prest. Johnson for redress 
from rebel dejDredations, and the petition was referred 
back to the disloyal Govr. of that State and came back to 
the authorities of their own to^vn." This is a lie so far 
as it is intended to apply to me. The only petitions re- 
ferred to me by the Prest. were one from Camden — the 
other from one Ledford and others in the Western judicial 
Circuit, Clay County — There were 46 names on the Cam- 
den petition, who set forth that they had been U. S. sol- 
diers that on their return home they were wickedly perse- 
cuted by the Courts, being indicted for every petty and 
trivial offence and act done as soldiers of the U. S., and I 
requested D. D. Perebee, of Camden, and Geo. W. Brooks, 
of Pasquotank, wdio is district judge of the United States, 
to investigate and report to me. They severally reported 
that only two of the petitioners were indicted for any 
offence — one for retailing without a license and the other 


for fornication and adultery. I will inclose you a copy 
of the petition as a specimen of pathetic eloquence in be- 
half of persecuted Union men. — 

Ledford's petition endorsed by many others, represented 
that he too had been a U. S. soldier, and that owing to 
the prejudice growing out of this fact, he had been in- 
dicted, convicted and cruelly punished by Judge Merri- 
mon, to-wit — fined $100. He avers that he was defended 
by a Union lawyer wdio told his client if he didn't charge 
$50. for his fee the judge said the fine would be $200. etc. 
I referred this petition to judge Merrimon, asking him to 
report the facts. His report stated that the offence of 
which Ledford was convicted was shooting a naval pistol 
twice at the head of an unoffending man, who saved his 
life only by dodging and who had offered no insult or 
offence to the defendant. I submitted Judge Merrimon's 
statements to Genl Henry, of Macon, whom I ascertained 
was the lawyer who defended Ledford, requesting a state- 
ment of the facts. — His certificate without sustaining di- 
rectly or denying the facts as stated by. judge Merrimon, 
declares that a fair scrutiny into the conduct of the judge, 
would, in his opinion, sustain him as an ''impartial ofiicer." 

These are the two petitions referred to me by the Prest. 

Tourgee's speech, as reported in the Tribune^ is sub- 
stantially the same. 

The drift and object is that a Union man is not safe 
under the present civil authorities of the State : that he 
had very recently been informed by a Quaker that 15 mur- 
dered negroes had been drawm out of a pond, or as re- 
ported in the Tribune, out of a River in S. C. : — that 1200 
U. S. soldiers who had settled in this State had been 
forced to sacrifice their property and leave the State be- 
cause neither their lives or their property was safe in this 
State. If any one Union soldier, w^ho has behaved him- 
self with civility, has been inhospitably treated and com- 
pelled to leave the State, it has not come to my knowledge. 
I think the sentence contains 1200 lies. — I think vou 

776 ^OETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

should demand of him the names of a few of the 1200 — 
and the name of the Quaker who informed him about the 
drowned negroes and the location of the Pond or River 
where they were drowned. — As Tourgee claims to be the 
rej}resentative of 2000 Union men in X. C and to be their 
mouth-piece and represents the civil authorities of the 
State as corrupt monsters countenancing the denial of jus- 
tice to Union men and as the representative of 2000 
Union men in this State, demands the right of suffrage 
to the negroes and if practicable the disfranchisement of 
nearly the whole of the white population, and as he hails 
from Guilford aud has spread this speech throughout the 
Xatioii to make the Xorth hate us, you ought to call a 
mass meeting of the County and invite him and his fol- 
lowers to be present to vindicate his facts. — This speech 
will do much to prejudice X. C. and the Prest., if not 
counter-acted by some efficient means. 

I throw out these hastily ^^a■itten suggestions for your 
consideration. — Xereus Mendenhall, Jonathan Harris and 
other Quakers ought to attend and disabuse themselves and 
the Quakers from endorsing his iniquitous lies. All other 
respectable men who participated in sending him to Pliila. 
as tber representative, ought to denounce him. 

While I would avoid no responsibility as to the facts and 
views herein stated I would deem it unbecoming the dig- 
nity of my station to be brought into personal controversy 
with this vile wretch Tourgee. In relation to the matter 
about petitions you may say you are authorised to say the 
facts are as herein stated. As to the petition referred to 
me by the Prest., malice itself cannot pretend that T have 
not acted fairly towards them and sought to extend them 
and all others, whatever their politics or color, the full 
protection of the laws — and if there be a single instance in 
the State where a judge or solicitor has not discharged his 
duty as became pu honest, impartial and capable officer, 
I have not heard of it. 


I'd John A. Gilmer. 

Ealeigh Sep. 11/66. 
After writing the above I conclude it is inexpedient to 
risk the possiljility of being drawn into a controversy with 
this contemptible Tonrgee — I am persuaded the facts fur- 
nish material for a suitable article for the Patriot. — I 
commit it to your discretion. I am concerned lest the 
Quakers^ have made this Toura:ee their leader. 

To Joseph D. Simmons. 

Ealeigh, Sep. 12 IS 66. 
Your letter of the lOtli inst. is received in which vou Relating to labor 


complain that certain negroes with whom you had entered 
into a contract last January for the cultivation of your 
farm have not fulfilled their pait of the ccntract. 

On the 13th July last Genl Eobinson issued an order 
whereby all matters of controversy between white men 
and Freedmen are turned over to the civil Courts, except- 
ing "'claims for wages, approved or issued by ofiicers of the 
Freedman's Bureau." 

Whether your contract with these negroes was witnessed 
or approved by an officer of said Bureau, does not appear, 
but even assuming that it was so witnessed or approved, it 
does not appear to have been a contract for wages, — and 
is consequently a contract falling within the jurisdiction 
of the civil Courts. 

If your contract was not witnessed or approved by an 
officer of the Freedman's Bureau, Col. Weigel had no 
jurisdiction over it, at the time he interposed, which inter- 
ference, as I understand your letter, was after the 23rd 
July. T'ou do not give the date of his interference. 

It follows that you stand where you would have stood 
in times before the war. It is a matter of controversy as 

778 ISToRTH Carolij^a Historical Commission. 

to a contract, and must be settled, as of old, by the Courts 
— if you cannot settle it by mutual arrangement or arbi- 

I believe Genl Robinson will carry out his order afore- 
said in good faith — and will not sustain his subordinates 
in any action at variance with it. Your question, there- 
fore, is a purely legal one. 

I deem it of public importance that our people and the 
civil authorities shall not only act justly to the negroes, 
which I do not doubt you have done, but that there shall 
be no colorable ground to impute a want of regard to the 
rights of the negro under his new relations to us: and I 
therefore highly apj)rove of your generous suggestion to- 
consent to an adjustment of this controversy by arbitration, 
if the negroes will assent to it. 

As to your apprehensions from the threats of one of 
these negroes, there is no legal remedy save by peace 

I do not refer this special case to Genl Eobinson, be- 
cause his general orders fully cover it, and he would 
probably deem the reference uncalled for. 

With this general explanation and the advice of a judi- 
cious lawyer, I hope you may be relieved from any further 
serious annoyance. 

Tare ORG. 

To B. 8. Hedrick. 

Raleigh Sept. 12 1866. 
Politics in Nortti I thank you for your prompt attention to the correction 

Carolina. c k t • i ^ 

oi Atkinson s pardon. 

I would have preferred \_page torn for rest of line'] had 
not assailed A. H. Jones, prior to his j)articipation in the 
late Phila. Convention, and even as to this I know noth- 
ing as to the part he took. If he approved, as I fear he 
did, the resolutions and address adopted at the conclusi<n, 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 779 

which urges, for the reason there assigned, negro suffrage 
and the adojDtion by this State of the Howard, amendment 
to the Constitution and the spirit of the proceedings of 
that body, evidently showing that party ascendency and 
the nature of the political hatred, and not a complete resto- 
ration of the Union on the basis of mutual confidence and 
kindness between the sections, thus then he can have no 
sympathy or respect from me. I had been disposed to re- 
gard him as a man of good intentions. If he concurred in 
the action or spirit of that Convention my views of him 
will be totally altered. 

Mr. Pell has repeatedly declared in his paper, that I 
am to be held responsible for nothing appearing in the 
Sentinel, not appearing over my name or declared to be 
published by my authority. He is personally and politi- 
cally my friend, and I generally approve his articles ex- 
cepting what seems to me to be injurious asperity to the 
Red Strings (among whom there are many good men) 
and undue commendation of the leaders in the Rebellion. 
They are now subdued, — in a small minority and likely 
to remain in the minority if not persecuted into popularity. 
Most of them — all of them so far as I know, desire to sub- 
mit to and obey the laws. ISTo reasonable man could ex- 
pect that recent hatred to their late foeman should be con- 
verted into love as the result of being conquered. Only 
the basest and least desirable of them pretend to such 
love. But enough of this. I am now as I always have 
been ardently for the Union, and I believe there were 
never any measures proposed in this country better cal- 
culated to keep up sectional hate and Disunion than those 
advocated by the Radicals, ISTorth and South. 

The Holdenites in ISTewbern headed by W. R. Thomas 
and E. R. Stanley lately got up a meeting and directed 
their chmn. Thomas to apjDoint delegates to meet others here 
on the 20th inst to bring out some "unmistakably loyal 
man" as a Candidate for Grovr. Holden has had circulars 
printed and sent out over the State to get his friends here 

7S0 jSTorth Caeolin"a Historical Commission". 

and bring out opposition to me. — It will either be a total 
failnre — or if thev nominate a man who will accept the 
nomination the nominee will not receive a respectable snp- 
ptort. A nmnber of the persons nominated by Thomas, as 
delegates, among them the mayor of the town, are out in 
cards declining to serve and expressing their disapproba- 
tion of the object. Public opinion is so settled down that 
no body opposing me nnder the auspices of Holden or his 
followers can stand the slightest chance of success. 
Washington, D. C. 

To A. M. Tomlinson. 

RaleigH;, Sep. 13 1866. 
Condemnation of Your letter of the 10th iiist, is received and is truly re- 

the newspapers. _c i • i- i i 

freshing to me. From the bottom of my heart I join in 
every sentiment in it. I abominate the journalism of the 
times. I am responsible for nothing save what appears 
over my o\y\\ signature, I have no organ — never have pre- 
tended to have. Xo paper has pretended to claim to be 
my organ. The Sentinel has repeatedly declared I was 
not to be held responsible for any thing in his paper not 
over my signature or declared to be published by my 
authority. In spite of this every issue of the Standard 
speaks of my organ. 

The Quakers ought to hold themselves aloof from the 
bitterness of wicked partisans of all sorts. If any of them 
think my opponent, if I have any, a better Union man, 
and better calculated to bring about the quiet which all 
genuine Quakers desire, they ought to carry out their views 
at the ballot box — but they will greatly err in joining in 
political meetings headed by such men as Tourgee. The 
statement in his published Phila.. speech in reference to 
me is a lie, as I believe all the pretended facts he states 
intended to make the Xorth hate the South. 

Bush Hill. 


To Dr. J. G. Ramsey. 

Raleigh Sep. 13 1S60. 

I am invited by the Prest of the A & C. Canal, together 
■with my board of Internal Improvement, to make an ex- 
cursion over this Canal to jSTorfolk — and if "we desire it to 
Xag's Head — Would you like to make the trip ( We 
must hold a meeting to appoint Directors for the AVil. ^ 
AY. R. R. in the latter part of Oct. I propose that you 
meet me here on Tuesday morning Oct. 23 to go by the 
next train on the R. »t G. R. R. and join AYinston at such 
point as he may designate. If this should not suit you I 
will appoint a day about that time for Mr. W. to meet us 
here and appoint Directors. An early ansAver is desired 
that I may consult wirh llr. W. 

I now deem it probable that the Radicals will run Logan 
against me. 


From B. 8. Hedricl\ 

WA^atixGTox, I). C. Sep. 16, 66. 

I received several days ago yours of the 12th but have j^igcussionofpoiit- 
had no time to reply. There was but little of the late '°^ '^^^ ^^'°^^*^' 
Phil. Convention that was southern, and in some sense 
the same may be said of both the Philadelphia Conven- 
tions. The fact is the South has got to fill second place 
all the time, until she has set herself in harmony with the 
great mass of the people who put down the rebellion. Peo- 
ple do not fight a great war through and then forget it 
next day or next year. So far as the Southern delegates 
had anything to do with the general management of the 
Randall Convention, they -had just as well telegrajoh their 
approval or send it by mail in advance, and so far as nine 
tenths of the delegates to the Hamilton Convention are 

782 ' ]^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. . 

concerned, they might just as well have staid at home. 
There were a few good honest men, men of ideas and 
thought for the South in this last Convention, but they 
were so lured by men who were only thinking of how to 
carry the Fall elections in the ISTorth, that they were not 
felt. I think spirit manifested by the leading Southern 
newspapers toward both conventions has had more effect in 
helping the extreme radicals than anything the radicals 
could do for themselves. The Sentinel managed to swal- 
low the loyal platform and resolutions of the Randall Con- 
vention and only put in a mild protest as to what it would 
do as "full Southern," but the papers in Va. and the rest 
of the South came right out and denounced the platform 
as not binding on them. The Hamilton Convention gets 
more inan half its influence from venomous denunciation 
of Southern editors, Mr. Pell among others. "Yankee" he 
describes the most opprobrious epithet in the Dictionary, 
and even the "dead dog of abolition" has to be stirred 
again. The thinking men of the ISTorth will be more in- 
fluenced to doubt the loyalty of the South by looking at the 
editorials of the Southern editors on Hamilton and Brown- 
low Convention, than they will be by the proceedings of 
the mere handful of men calling themselves delegates from 
the South. In Republican Govt, there must always be 
two parties. But so far public opinion in the N^orth has 
not shown what parties there are. Certainly there cannot 
said to be two parties there, and I judge that there will 
not be for some time. The conditions of things in the 
South creates a good deal of apprehension with men at 
the N^orth who are not politicians. The amount of violence 
they say is no greater than might be expected under the 
circumstances. But what astonishes them is that the au- 
thorities seem to have no power or disposition to punish 
the lawless. Quite a nural)er of the most brutal murders 
have been recently committed in Va. Ky., and Ala. and 
so far no steps taken by the local authorities to punish 
the felons. A riot is likely to happen in the best governed 

CoreespondEjstce of Jonathan Wokth. 783 

communities, and so of the foulest murders, but no such 
as this 'New Orleans affair could occur in the ISTorth with- 
out some steps being taken to punish the guilty. It looks 
as if the law abiding people of the South were again 
seized with the same apathy which possessed them in 1861, 
when they permitted violent, but lawless mobs to overturn 
the State Govts of most of the Southern States again the 
known and expressed wishes of the majority. I think that 
the domestic condition of N^. C. is as good as that of any 
Southern State. I think it is better. The failure of the 
crops in some portions of the State will set things back, 
and drive away population. But for that I think the State 
would be in a fair way to regain a state of peace and quiet. 

I have not seen A. II. Jones since last spring, or rather 
winter. But I understand that there is a good deal of vio- 
lence abroad in the mountain counties, and union men 
are really apprehensive for their lives. I have not suffi- 
cient means to know the truth of the matter, but there 
must be some grounds for the repeated complaints of the 
union men of that region. Holden is doing all he can to 
keep up the strife, hoping to make cat-paws of the union 
men of the West, to pull his chestnuts out of the fire and ' 

unfortunately Mr. Pell asserts Holden is keeping up a 
bad spirit. I am doing what I can to check mate Holden's 
schemes, but Holden by laying dark so long, nothing can 
be done with certainty. As soon as I know who Holden's 
candidate is to be I can tell pretty closely what he can do. 
Just now he is playing off Gen, Dockery as the man to 
beat you, but I have no idea who is to be his candidate. I 
hope that Lewis Ilanes will keep up his paper at least till 
after the election is over. A few good writers in his paper 
could do much to enlighten public opinion. Mr. Pell 
should read his own paper of last year and see what was 
his platform then and in what he succeeded. 

Since the Maine election, the !N". Y, Herald has an- 
nounced in its usual way that the contest in the jSTorth is 
to result in favor of the Republicans. That must be the 

784 XoKTH Carolina Historical Commissiozs". 

case, unless the Republican party divides. My own notion 
is that the Sonth had better have kept free from entangling 
alliances with the copper-heads of the ]Srorth, Many of 
the Republican politicians are just as big scamps as are 
to be found, but the sober industrious marrow of the 
Xorth will never vote for a copperhead. Th South wull 
gain nothing by fighting the battles of defeated Northern 
demagogues. ' 

The Howard Amendment will be ratified by all the 
J^orthern States this winter, IS^ew Jersey having taken the 
lead. If the South wall act reasonably the next Congress 
will act more liberally toward the South than the last did, 
for there will be quite a number of new men in it, and 
the approach of the next Presidential election will make all 
anxious to settle the question of reconstruction on the best 
prudent terms, and so Andrew Johnson will succeed in 
his main design of finishing reconstruction during his 
term of office. 

I note that Mr. Pell says in his paper by implication 
that the Howard Amendment disfranchises the mass of 
the Southern people. Xow he must have known that such 
is not the fact. The two things that the South as a section 
wall oppose is the cutting down of representatives to the 
voting or white basis, and the disqualification of certain 
men for office. The latter feature is the only one that 
looks like punishment and which will in no way benefit 
the ^orth. Of course the South wall not like to have the 
number of its representation diminished, neither wall the 
]!Srorth. But one or the other has to yield. If the basis 
is not changed-the ISTorth will lose ten or twelve members 
by the freeing of the negroes, and if it is changed the 
South will lose fifteen or twenty. This is on the suppo- 
sition that the question of negro suffrage is entirely ig- 
nored. As a section this matter of representation is the 
only one that the ITorth will be strenuous for, and when 
it comes to the pinch all parties ISTorth wall go for having 
as much favor as they can get, and all parties South wall 


do the same thing. It was for that reason that the North- 
ern men in Congress were not willing to admit even loyal 
men from the Sonth till they got the basis changed. Sel- 
fishness and sectionalism are as a oeneral thine; the rule. 

To A. y. SuUlvan. 

Eat.eigii Sep. 17 IS 66. 

I ordered a bbl of whiskey from my friend IST. Williams 
a few days ago. It has come to hand 36-J gals, cost, to my 
dismay, $182.50. I am requested to send the money to 
you to be forwarded. I send enclosed $100. — Will remit 
bal. as soon as I can get it. I had no idea that it would 
cost so much. I must dispense with so much expenditure 
on indulgence until I have an income equal to my ex- 
penses. I hope at the end of this quarter — 1 Oct. I may 
be able to pay the balance. 

Do those who sent Tourgee to Phila. recognise him as 
correctly representing their views ? 

High Point. 

To B. S. HedricJc. 

Raeeigh Se2J. 18/66. 
There is one portion in your letter just received in which Relating to Union 

. . . men in North 

1 am sure you are mistaken ; to-wit that Union men have Carolina, 
just cause of complaint as to the administration of justice 
in the Western part of this State. The larger portion of 
my time for a month past has been devoted to investiga- 
tions of this character. In every instance which I have 
investigated it has proved to be a false clamor on the part 
of bad men. True — honest men do not as a general rule, 
join in these clamors. They spring from those passions 
which have led them to commit breaches of the peace. 

Vol. 2—9 


They come from ultra Union counties, where severity in 
enforcing the Conscription act naturally engendered bad 
passions and led to retaliation after the close of hostilities. 

I do not believe justice to white and black, rich and 
poor — to all men was ever more impartially administered 
immediately after such a convulsion as we have just passed 
through, than it is in this State. Ever lover of JST. C. and 
of justice, has reason to be proud of our Judiciary. 

At my special request the judges dwell in their charges 
in every County upon the duty of inferior officers and all 
our people, seeing that justice is impartially done to the 
negro. Through these charges the popular ear is more 
efficiently reached than in any other manner. If the truth 
were known, all good men at the ISTorth would respect and 
honor us — but Tourgee and other like villiaiis, by a con- 
tinual stream of slander, lead many to think where there 
is so much smoke there must be some fire. 

Washington, D. C. 

To ]YilUam J. Wilson. 

Ealeigh, Sep. 18/66. 

Yours of the 4th inst received here today. It had no 
post-mark. If my answer shall be as slow in reaching you 
it will be of little value. There is no statute so far as I 
can remember or find, which confers on the Executive any 
right to take steps for procuring the right of way for the 
extension of the W. N^. R. R. to a connection with the 
Tenn. or Ga roads. This power, I presume, the Directors 
may exercise — and as they all favor the extension of the 
road as fast as possible there will be no doubt out as soon 
as they deem it expedient. 

I have ever voted in favor of every measure your rep- 
resentatives have recommended, tending to furnish to your 
delightful country an out-let to market and whatever posi- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 787 

tion I may occupy will favor any practical measure to ex- 
tend the road from Morganton -West with as little delay as 

I voted and urged others to vote for the ratification of 
the proposed amendments to our Constitution and regret 
that the result of the election was for rejection. 

I congratulate you on the acquisition of a good wife as 
do all my family. 

I hope you and my friend Keener will be here this fall 
as representatives of a people you have so faithfully rep- * 

resented heretofore. 

I now think I shall have no opposition. The Radicals 
are trying to get up opposition — but such opposition would 
be nominal. 

Forks of Pigeon^ Haywood Co. 

From A. V. Sidlivan. 
High Point, X. C. Sep. 19th 1866. 

Yours of the 17th inst covering a remittance of One 
Hundred Dollars received yesterday per Express. Amt. 
placed to the credit of IST. Williams. Will repeat to him 
jour explanation. 

I confess Governor I am at a loss in attempting to an- Politics, 
swer your question as to the views and objects of the 
Tourgeeites. They will assemble in Raleigh tomorrow 
and will doubtless give expression to their patriotic feel- 
ings and objects through the medium of the Standard. 

I have been quite busy for some weeks past and have 
not had an opportunity for mixing with the sovereigns 
much. In fact the red string men of this County are not 
very communicative with me and I entirely reciprocate 
their manifestations of indifference. 

I can understand how and why it is that an African 
sympathizes with his race and color and I think I have 

788 ]SroRTH Caeoi.i^'a IIistokical Commission. 

some idea of Christian philanthropy which takes in all 
created human beings. 

But this new fangied idea of worshipping the negro, 
and denouncing and prosecuting native born straight 
haired citizens, I cannot exactly understand. 

I know this, Governor, you course is approved by nine 

tenths of the honest and intelligent men within the limits 

of my acquaintance, but the wire working demagogues are 

against you. They want office, they are for repudiation, 

-I. and they are for a general distribution of effects. 

To make a good government (in my humble judgment — 
there is two ingredients, which they are sadly in want of, 
that is moral honesty and brains. 

I hope you will pardon me for this blunt expression of 
mv humble notions. 

To Henry T. Clarh. 

Ealeigh, Sep. 21/66. 

Yours of the 12th inst. postmarked 21st is received. I 
will inclose it tomorrow to the Prest, with this endorse- 
ment. '^I have long known Gov. Clark, and though differ- 
ing^ from him on national politics, I have always regard 
him as Hhe noblest work of God,' an honest man. I have 
no doubt of his loyalty and I earnestly recommend that his 
par-don be granted." 

I regTet that heavy pressure of business denies me the 
opportunity to answer at length your friendly letter. 

You will have seen that Holden and a handful of his 
devoted followers, yesterday nominated Genl Dockery to 
run as my opponent on Howard amendment platform. I 
understand H. told his friends that he had positive as- 
surance that the Genl would accept the nomination. It 
amazed me that any ITorth Carolinian should favor the 
ratification of that amendment. 

I hope this movement will awaken some interest in the 


I shall call a meeting of my board of Internal Improve- 
ment abont the 20tli of this month. Send me a com- 
munication explaining the R. R. mismanagement to which 
you refer. 

I send you by mail a package containing 1000 of my 
tickets. Please have them distributed to the precincts of 
your County. I also send you another package for the 
County of Wilson. Please do me the favor to put them in 
the hands of some friend who will attend to their distri- 


To C. C. Clarl: 

Raleigh Sej}. 21/66. 
I send you by mail a packas'e containins; 1000 of my The opposition 

^ , . Convention. 

tickets and ask you to have them distributed to the pre- 
cincts of your County. 

The Holden Convention of yesterday, in which it is pre- 
tended some 8 counties were represented, was a truly small 
affair. Holden asked for the Commons Hall for their sit- 
ting a day or two before the meeting. We granted the re- 
quest without hesitation. They did not choose to make a 
public demonstration of their weakness so assembled in 
Holden's office and declared that the people of IsT. C. ought 
to adopt the Howard amendment and asked Genl A. S. 
Dockery [illegihle'] whether he wished to be chief execu- 
tive of the State by standing on that platform. The essen- 
tial delegation was from N'ewbern — The next largest I 
hear from Wake — all of these self-appointed. 'No public 
meeting, so far as I have heard, nominated any delegate 
in this County. I have not heard of a meeting in Car- 
teret and know nothing of the delegates [iUegible] I have 
heard of no meeting in Alamance, Davidson or Davie. 

I do not believe that Thompson or Dick wrote a letter 
recommending the adoption of the Howard amendment. 

790 iSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

I will be glad to hear from you. The ball against me 
seems to have been put in motion in Craven but I sup- 
pose a candidate on the Howard amendment platform, can 
receive few votes in Craven. It is amazing to me that 
any JSTorth Carolinian can favor the ratification of this 

N^Ew Bern. 

To Judge D. F. Caldwell 

Kaleigh Sep. 21 1866. 

Yours of the 20th inst. acknowledging receipt of your 
pardon has been reed. You explain why you did not 
sooner acknowledge the receipt of the same and say that 
you are "reminded of your neglect by Mr. Battle's letter 
and now fulfill it." 

Inclosed I find a $5. bill. This is an enigma to me. I 
have sent to Kemp Battle and Rich Battle. ISTeither of 
them understand it. I suppose the money was intended 
for some other letter and inclosed in the one to me by mis- 
take; I return it herein. 

It is truly hard as you say that you should have to pay 
the expenses of war you always sought to avert. It is one 
of the common sequents of Civil War. 'Eo one struggled 
more persistently than I to avert it and I like you have 
lost much of the earnings of my life. 
The opposition The meeting yesterday was too small to assume the 

Convention. o «/ j 

name of a Convention. Mr. Holden had obtained the con- 
sent of the ofiicers of the Capitol that his Convention might 
sit in the Commons Hall. Their numbers proved to be so 
small that they did not deem it expedient to sit in Com- 
mons Hall, or to assume the name of a Convention. They 
met in Ilolden's office and nominated Genl Dockery on the 
platform of the Howard amendixient and sent young Logan 
to his residence to see whether he would accept. We shall 
see. — 


Holden is out in a long address to the people in further- 
ence of his object. 

To C. S. Win.^tead.^ 

Ealeigh Sep. 22/66. 
I send von bv mail a package containins; 1000 of mv Nomination of 

J- o o "^ Dockery by the 

tickets for re-election as Govr. Yon will mnch oblige me opposition, 
by having them distribitted to the several points of your 
County. ■ ■ ■ 

Yon will have seen that ]\Ir. Holden and a few of his 
friends have nominated Genl Dockery, on the platform of 
the adoption by this State of the Howard amendment to 
the Constitution of the U. S. It is represented by Mr. 
Holden that he has assurance that Genl D. will accept the 
nomination and stand on this platform. I am opposed to 
the adoption of this amendment or any other amendment , 
to the Constitution of the U. S. until we are represented 
in the proposing Congress. If Genl D. accepts the nomi- 
nation this will be the main issue. 

I am persuaded I shall be sustained by you : but whether 
I am or not you will oblige me by placing my tickets in 
the hands of some one who will see them properly dis- 


To W. L. Spi'ings. 

Raleigh, Sep. 22 1866. 
Yours of the 19th inst. is reed. 
The failure of both the com and wheat crop in manv Destitution in the 

. . " state. 

of the Western Counties of the- State, the almost destitu- 

' Charles S. Winstead, of Person, had been a Democratic member 
of the legislature before and during the war ; after the vrar he was a 
moderate Republican. 

792 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

tion of many among the masses of our people and even 
among those who possess large real estate in that grain 
growing portion of the State, and the heavy taxation for 
the U. S. Treasury, would make the collection of a suffi- 
cient tax to meet the interest on our State debt so burden- 
some that I think the Genl Assembly will not impose such 
tax at its next session. It is believed the bond holders in 
the State so fully appreciate the condition of our people, 
that they will not expect or insist on the levy of such a 
tax, as would be necessary to pay the interest on the State, 
the ordinary expenses of the State and the very heavy tax 
necessary to defraying the charges of sustaining the poor, 

This must not be construed as repudiation. The State 
will pay if the money can be raised on her credit. For the 
present the people can't pay by a direct tax, without griev- 
ous oppression. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

To ./. B. Mader. 

Raleigh Sep. 22/66. 

fion of teSte'"' ^ ^^^""^ y^^ ^y ^^^^^^ ^ package of 1000 of my tickets for 

re-election as Govr. 

Mr. Holden and a few of his friends have nominated 
Genl Dockery as my opponent on the platform of the rati- 
fication of the Howard amendment to the Constitution of 
the U. S. I am opposed to the ratification, of this or any 
other amendment to the Constitution of the U. S. until 
we are represented in the propossing Congress. 

Please have my tickets distributed to the several pre- 
cincts of your County. 



To B. Y. McAlen.^ 

Sept. 23 1866. 

Col. Wren and the Radicals of Randolph, Guilford, in regard to 
Chatham and perhaps Alamance, by appointing Tourgee 
their representative made him their mouth-piece. By 
their silence since the publication of his speech, they en- 
dorse it. I send to Mr. Robins, by his request, in youi* 
care a Tribune and a Herald containing his speech, which 
I think may be most effectively used in the canvass. 

I am still ignorant whether Genl Dockery accepts Hol- 
den's nomination. His tickets are being sent out by the 
Standard. They probably rely on their secret organiza- 
tions to run his name without his personal accej)tance. 


To S. S. Jacl'son. 

Raleigh Sep. 28 1866. 
It is not yet known here whether Genl Dockery accepts 
the nomination as my competitor or not. His defeat will 
be disastrous if he run. 

Mary says she is better. — The rest well — I learn. that 
Holden is sending out Dockery tickets. The dependence 
is on secret organizations. There are none of them here. 
Every body appears to be for me in Wake except Holden 
and son and Jim Taylor. 


1 Rufus Y. McAden, of Alamance, had at this time been a member 
of the legislature since 1862. He was Speaker of the House in 18ti6 ■ 
He was later prominent in financial and manufacturing circles. 

794 iSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To D. H. Starhuch. 

Ealligh, Sep. 29 1866. 
Discussion of The daily pressure of official duty makes it physically 

impossible for me to do much in the way of political or 
social cori'espondence. 

On all the great political issues of the Country for the 
past thirty years, you and I have agreed. Do we dis- 
aa'ree on the issue whether ]S[. C. ouffht to ratifv the How- 
arc! amendment ? 

I take this view. Those who take the affirmative side 
admit the legal organization of the State, otherwise the 
action of our Legislature would be nugatory. 

If the ratification by this State with that of 34 other 
States would make this proposition a part of the funda- 
mental law of the IJ. S., then I^. C. is one of the States 
of the American Union. 

Article 1 Sec. 2 Constitution of the U. S. declares that 
"each State shall have at least one representative." 

Sec. 3 same article provides that "the Senate of the 
U. S. shall be composed of two Senators from each State, 
chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years." 

ISTbrth Carolina is denied the right of having any rep- 
resentation in either branch of the ISTational Legislature, 
without inquiry whether those whom she offers as repre- 
sentatives, are constitutionally qualified or not. 

While we are thus denied any representation in Con- 
gress we are asked to ratify an amendment essentially 
altering the original compact. 

The Constitution clearly contemplated that every State 
should be represented in a Congress proposing alterations 
in the original compact. 

I desire to obey in good faith all the provisions of the 
Constitution of the U. S. and as I entertain no doubt of 
the correctness of these views I am opposed to the ratifi- 
cation of any amendment to the Constitution of the U. 
S., so long as we are denied representation in the Congi-ess 
proposing such amendment. 


These settled views make it unnecessary that I should 
discuss the merits or dismerits of the proposed amend- 

Upon a single feature I will submit a remark. 

I am now, as you know I have always been, in favor of 
the preservation of the American Union, upon the basis 
of strict confidence and genuine reconciliation between all 
parts. I have however, always view with equal disfavor 
the Northern party who -viewed the Constitution of the 
U. S. as "a leagTie with Hell" — and the Southern Seces- 
sionist. I know of no act or word of mine, public or 
private, not in exact accordance with these views, unless 
my participation in the State Government during the war 
should be regarded as at variance with them. Up to the 
unanimous action of the State Convention in 1861, as a 
Senator and a citizen, I opposed the call of a Convention, — 
and aj^propriation of money to arm the State, — and all 
other measures looking to Disunion. — When the Conven- 
tion was ordered, I refused to be elected a member of it. 
After that Convention had unanimously declared the 
Union dissolved, and declared the State one of the parties 
to the Southern Confederacy, and put her in a belligerent 
attitude to the United States, I was still a Senator under 
my election in 1860, and the General Assembly was called 
together in extra session. Driven by force of these events 
to take sides with one of the belligerents, I had no hesi- 
tation to link my destiny wdth my own section. I took the 
oath to support the Constitution of the Confederate States 
and thereafter acted in conformity with the provisions of 
that oath: but I did not believe that the N^orthern j^eople 
felt towards us the destroying malevolence which many 
of her leading men now avow, and which I still hope is 
not the dominant feeling of the ISTorthern people ; and I 
deemed it consistent with fidelity to my new engagements 
to bring about peace on the basis of the Constitution of 
the United States. I never joined in what I deemed the 
deceptive and absurd cry, "peace and Independence," 

796 JSToETH Caeolika Historical Commission. 

adopted generallv in this State bv those who now claim to 
be the only men in the Stat6 "worthv of public trust. 

This Howard amendment, if adopted, declares me so 
contaminated that I am unworthy to be elected to any 
office in the State — even that of a Constable. — I refer to 
my case as an illustration of many thousands of others 
in this State. 

Every citizen of the United States owed allegiance to 
the U. S. Those who violated that allegiance are about 
equally giiilty, whether they had ever taken the oath of 
allegiance or not: — and when the United States could not 
protect its citizens surely they ought to be excused for 
obeying the laws of the cle facto government which pro- 
tected them, and which they were impotent to resist. The 
Confederate Government ruled over us. We have divine 
authority for obying our rulers. Common sense ought 
to regard, at least with mercy, submission to physical 
power which we were unable to resist. This amendment 
recognizes as eligible to office those who took up arms vol- 
untarily to resist the United States or sought a seat in the 
Convention to dissolve the Union or who in any form aided 
to destroy the Union, provided such person had not, as 
an officer, taken an oath to support the Constitution of 
the U. S. 

I do not think this feature of the amendment calculated 
to produce general reconciliation. 

I have not the time at present to comment on the other 
provisions of the amendment, of much graver import than 
the disqualifying provision. 

I deem an amendment containing so many provisions, 
essentially altering the Constitution, and to be ratified or 
rejected as a whole, and proposed in a Congress in which 
several states were excluded from representation, is not 
deserving of ratification by any State in the Union. 

It is not known here whether Genl Dockery accepts the 
nomination as my competitor for Govr. or not, — and I am 
isTLorant whether he favors the ratification of the Howard 


amendment or not. [A^ext feiu lines cannot be read.^ 

Mr. Holden and Mr. Thomas and the few others who 
nominated Genl Dockerj, are nnmistakable Union men; 
while they profess to deplore my defaction from the sup- 
port of the Union, urge the adoption of this amendment, 
not because they profess to approve the provisions, but on 
the ground that it is offered to us as a condition precedent 
to allowing us representation in Congress, and that the 
choice is left us only to accept this or submit to worse 
terms. I know of no radical grounds on which they make 
this representation. The last Congress made no such 
declaration — If it had, what security have we that the 
next_ Congress would feel bound by it ? President John- 
son made known to us, early last summer, that if we 
would ratify an amendment to the Constitution of the 
U. S. which had been proposed while we were voluntarily 
excluded from representation in Congress, abolishing 
slavery — if we would amend our constitution so as to 
abolish slavery — declare Secession a political heresy and 
repudiate our State debt, he would deem us entitled to 
representation in Congress. The whole North seemed to 
acquiese in this plan. Scarcely a murmur was heard 
against it. We hastened to comply with all the conditions 
and elected men to represent us in Congress, not one of 
whom had ever advocated the doctrine of Secession, and 
whom we believed under any constitutional teste, entitled 
to take a seat. On the meeting of Congress, to our amaze- 
ment we found other undefined conditions were to be im- 
posed. Our representatives were rejected without inquiry 
as to their eligibility. Under these circumstances what 
rational ground of hope have we that if we adopt the How- 
ard amendment, it will not be followed by the require- 
ment of universal negro suffrage, general confiscation, the 
impeachment of President Johnson and other measures 
of degradation. 

The little squad who assembled here on the 20th inst 
under a call for a great State and mass union meeting 

798 XoRTK Cakolina Historical Commission. 

had leave from me granted on the application of Gov. 
Holden's son, a day or two in advance of the assemblage, 
to hold the meeting in the Hall of the House of Com- 
mons. I know not why they declined to avail themselves 
of the privilege, unless the paucity of the numbers — not 
enough to fill three benches. [Rest of page cannot he 
read.'[ They forgot that he and his chief associate 
Mr. C. R. Thomas, as members of the Convention of 1861, 
had voted the State out of the Union. It did not suit 
them to look into antecedents. They proposed to make a 
distinguished gentleman their standard bearer. He and 
I were Senators in the General Assembly of 1860-61. 
In Deer. 1860, tefore the ordinance of Secession, it was 
proposed to place in the hands of Gov. Ellis, an ardent 
secessionist, $300,000. to arm the State. Geiil. Dockery 
voted for this bill and I voted against it. On the final 
reading of the bill, in May, 1861, calling a convention, he 
voted for it, and I voted against it. I do not refer to these 
votes to call in question the patriotism of any body. Many 
worthy men differed from me. I refer to them only to 
show why these gentlemen wished to ignore the good old 
rule of judging men by their antecedents. 

I expected, when I commenced this letter, that it would 
be a short one. It had turned out to be rather a long one, 
in which I have indulged in free expression of my views, 
currente calamo, without any mental reservation. You 
may use it as you please, save through the press. 

Shall be glad to hear from you in reply. 

[P. S.] — Since the nomination of Genl. Dockery, I 
perceive the Standard is advocating that representation 
in this State should rest on the wliite basis. I infer from 
this that Govr. Holden would make a side issue — a bid 
for the vote of the populous AVest. I voted for the ratifi- 
cation of the amendments lately proposed to our State 
Constitution. Whether Genl. Dockery voted for it or not, 
I do not know. I understood it to be acceptable to the 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 799 

West. I deemed the amendments wise ones and voted for 
the ratification of them. As a legislator I have considered 
the ivliole State interested in developing the resources of 
the West and none of the representatives of the West have 
voted more steadily for measures of Western improve- 
ment, than I have. 

From D.F. Caldwell. 

Greensboro E". C. Sept. 30 66. 

I wish to call your attention to a matter which I think conditions in 
'^ state politics. 

deserves some attention. I allude to the methods and 
notices as also the purposes for which many foreign and 
native born scamps liars and villains are organising the 
people into what they are pleased to call the ISTational 
Union Kepublican Party. These unprincipled creatures 
are organizing these oath bound secret political leagues or 
clubs in every neighborhood. If I am informed correctly 
the method used to frighten the people into joining these 
clubs, is something after this fasions. First it matters 
not what a man's anticeadents are if he is against the 
Howard amendment and congress he is disloyal and not 
to be believed or trusted in any particular. 2. All dis- 
loyalty and disloyal men no matter who they are or what 
they have been are to be crushed out and put under the 
foot of the Republican Party if it takes a thousand years 
to do it. It is useless to talk of trying each one under the 
Constitution, in open court and by the laws of the land 
and a jury, where they will have an opportunity to con- 
front their accusers and have counsel and evidence. This 
mode of proceeding might do for a given number, but the 
country is too full of trators to dignify or tamper with 
treason in this way it must be rendered so odious through- 
out the length and bredth of the land that it will smell to 
Heaven. The I^. R. Union Party intend to deal with 

800 JSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

the traitors of the South as the people of California did 
with the gamblers and pick pockets of Sanfrisco and 
elsewhere — in that state. That is to make the party 
Judges and Jury both and dispose of them in the most 
just and summary manner, Andy Johnson not excepted. 
They have already as a party passed a law prohibiting the 
appointment of any more judges to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States until the number shall 
have reduced by death, resignation or impeachment to six. 
This law will keep a majority silent, etc. or like Old Judge 
Chase they will with the President be impeached. This 
much is secured. The next is to secure the passage of the 
Howard Amendment to the constitution. This done it 
virtually attaints four-fifths of the people of the Southern 
States and put them and their property and all their lib- 
erty and privileges of Congress to dispose of them and 
their property as they may please by a party vote of 
Congress that will be organized by the party and elected 
and sit as the great JSTational Republican Union Vigilance 
to try and condemn the miserable traitors in the most just 
and summary manner. And the members of the party 
that belong to the wide awake Clubs, Red String and other 
similar secret societies of the party will have it in their 
power through these officers to keep Congress thoroughly 
advised and posted as to the political state of all their 
neighbors. In other words they will have power to kill to 
"Kill and Make Alive" And woe be to the man or party 
that shall be fool hardy enough to oppose them. The 
heavens may weep the thunders roll the earth rock and 
the mountains tremble and quake — but the leaders of the 
Union Republican Party will not hesitate give back or 
flinch in the slightest degree they have laid down their 
program and they intend and will carry it out to the let- 
ter if the South will not come up at once and chearfuUy 
ratify the Howard Amendment and place themselves 
under the feet of the Union Party they will find that they 


will fare much worse hereafter than they will, if they 
were to crouch down at their feet and at once make a full 
and hearty surrender of themselves and all they have to 
he disposed of as this party may determine in their good 
pleasure. If the stuhbon traitors would but do this at 
once and in sincerity humility and truth five years would 
not roll over their heads before all of them would be par- 
doned upon the recommendation of the loyal members of 
their own immediate vicinity, so well authenticated as in- 
sures the imediate favorable action of the Party in Con- 
gress assembled without travelling them over the country 
with trying them by a Jury. And so any one may, if 
they will but now join our organization save their life 
property reputation and all the privileges of an American 
Citizen and at the same time identify himself with the 
Mighty Republican Union Party, and thus soon come to 
the front ranks in that party here in the South backed by 
the votes and suported ultimately by the African race as 
a unit which element will be a garantee of success in the 
South for generations yet to come. Those who do not see 
proper to hasten to ;]oin these clubs of patriotic loyalists 
will have to take what comes or may be meated out to 
them by the great jSTational Vigilance Committees and 
their auxiliray secret societies throughout the country. 

I have not used the words, but this is in substance and 
effect of the motives and reasons urged upon thousands 
by these uncompromising liars and vilans that are prowl- 
ing like so many ravenous wolves through the South to 
induce them by force or cowardice to join their secret cluhs 
or vote with the Malignants — and that this is honestly the 
program laid dov\Ti by the party or club now in power I have 
not a shadow of a doubt. Every move they make proves it. 
And the rapid manner in which they are organising these 
secret oath bound military clubs for the avowed purpose 
of arming them if they should deem it necessary to do 
so to carry out their purpose proves to my mind that they 

Vol. 2—10 

802 ISToKTH Caeolii^a Historical Commission. 

are in dead earnest when they make known their purpose 
as above set forth in substance if not in their language 
exactly. But I trust in God and cannot be awed by them. 
I hope and believe it is but the vain boasting of Rabshack.^ 
They may propose and intend to make us '''Drink our- oum 
piss and eat our oum dung," as did the vain boasting 
Asyrian declare they intended to make the poor famished 
Jews do in Jerusalem — and yet the Jews lived and the 
mighty host of Senacherib" it was that bit the dust. I 
have thought it my duty this morning to give you in the 
hasty and imperfect manner, a hint as to the manner in 
which the machine is doing work and end had in view, 
that you may, if it is thought advisable to set it forth in 
proper state you may have the proper data or informa- 
tion at hand to do so. Of course I have not written one 
word of this for publication just as I have put it to- 
gether — at a full canter — no not a word of it yet. I do 
think something ought to be written and published, and 
not a little but a great deal on this subject and that im- 
mediately. If we die let us die as Moses did with our 
own poor despised and enslaved people. If we are over- 
powered let us not sucumb but act the part of Christian 
Patriots as did Daniel of old — let us never bow to the 
Golden images of the Howard Amendment if we have 
to go to the lion's den of Radicalism — let our leaders 
have but the brave heart as Queen Esther to go forward 
in the right way whether the party or the throne stretch 
forth the golden cepture of power or not while the rank 
and file be like Mordecai robe themselves in sack cloth 
and pray to heaven to be delivered out of the hands of 
the wicked Hainan that have shown their bitter spite in 
erecting galuses or gibbits to execute us upon. 

You may think I have turned preacher, not exactly so, 
but you may tell Brother Pell if you like that I do not 
think there is enough of charity and strong faith enough 
in God and toward our poor sinful race. And yet I am 

1 Rabshackeh, II. Kings 18:27. 

2 Sennacherib, II. Kings 19:35. 


not for compromising with no Judas or Haman or Arnold 
not a bit of it. Yet there are thousands of honest well- 
meaning men who are misled and mis-guided bv others 
while these hundred that are cowed by fear while not a 
few think and that honestly it is best to make no opposi- 
tion until we get back into the Union, but to join the Radi- 
cals, and go with them, until we get our Representatives 
and then join issue with them. Most of these men I have 
every reason to believe are honest, as I know they are mis- 
taken — They say our head is in the Lion's mouth. We 
must get it out the best way we can. I tell them I never 
can do wrong that good may come of it, I am as forbid 
as a Christian to do so — if I did I would slander all Chris- 
tians and Patriots and disgrace my own name and an- 
cestors, etc., etc. 

Forgive me for inflicting on you this awfully long rig- 
amarole. But get Pell and Gales to ventilate this mat- 
ter, but I do not wish it to appear as hailing from Guilford 
County of Greensborough or this section of the state. We 
have stormy sea, high winds and the Union vessels have 
exceedingly weak and inefficient pilots on board. ITo 
weaker ticket could have been started scarcely and yet 
under all the circumstances it was the best we could do 
owing to the peculiar circumstances in which we are 
placed, and for the want of the property qualification of 
several that could have been got to run and would have 
made an effective canvass but by hard work I hope all 
may get through. I have written communications to one 
paper in another state for publication touching this mat- 
ter. I think if you could get some one to write to the 
National Intelligencer and then copy it it would do good. 

[P. S.] — I am decidedly of the impression that if sev- 
eral able articles were written fully ventilating the course 
pursued by the Malignants in the South and were forth- 
with published in the Southern papers it would tell for 
good — Think of this California Vigilance Connnittee or- 
ganization with the Auxiliary Clubs of A'^igilance to set 

804 ISfoRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

aside tlie courts. If the people stand such proceedings our 
liberties are gone. Turn the matter over in your mind 
and act upon it frankly — but quietly and as far from 
home as possible at first — and as correspondent. And then 
comment on the letters when published here at home is 
my idea, etc., etc., ISTo time to read anything I have writ- 
ten over. If anything be wrong you must set it dovvn to 
haste and confusion. The male closes soon and I must 
seace to write to get my letter in. 

[P. S.] — Much of this has come indirect from northern 
men, etc. 

To Colonel J. V. Bomford. 

Ealeigh, Oct. 1 1866. 

Alexander Moore, of color, who is employed as a servant 
in the chief offices of the Capitol and Julius, formerly my 
slave, have been allowed by your predecessors, with my 
assent, to occupy the houses they live in belonging to the 
State. They are both worthj^ men, and I hope will be 
permitted to remain in the houses they occupy. 

I hear that there are other colored occupants of some of 
the houses belonging to the Governor's mansion. ISTo 
others, excepting Alex, and Julius, are there by my as- 
sent or permission. 

I write this note at the request of Alex. — 

Raleigh, IST. C. 

To B. S. Hedrich. 

Raleigh Oct. 1/66. 
Your late letters have been received. The pressure of 
daily duties restricts me to a very brief reply. 
North Carolina I am yet ignorant whether Genl D favors the ratifica- 

tion of the Howard amendment, or whether he accepts the 
Holden nomination. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 805 

The Standard is sending out his tickets, from what I 
infer he is to be voted for whether he is a candidate or not. 
A secret organization exists in the State — supposed to he 
the same as the loyal League of the E"orth — which is co- 
operating with Ilolden. As to the extent of its member- 
ship I know nothing. 

The nomination of Dockery over me as an unmistakable 
loyal man is absurd unless you adopt the Holden theory 
that you are to judge men without reference to their ante- 
cedents. The journals show that in Dec. 1860 he voted 
for the appropriation of $300,000. to be placed in Gov. 
Ellis's hands to arm the State, while I voted against it. — 
In May 1861 he voted for a Convention to dissolve the 
Union while I voted against it — Ilolden and Thomas, the 
chief men who nominated him, sought seats in the Con- 
vention of 1861 and voted the State out of the Union — I 
refused to be elected a member of that Convention. Ante- 
cedents don't suit my opponents. 

Come what may I will not ratify an amendment of the 
Constitution by which I would declare myself ineligible 
as a constable and which makes eligible the most ultra 
Seccessionist who voluntarily voted the State out of the 
Union and voluntarily took up arms against the U. S., 
provided he had held no office before the war. We all owe 
allegiance to the U. S. as well those who had taken the oath 
as those who had not — and when the U. S. was not able 
to protect those who would have adhered to their allegi- 
ance, I do not acknowledge the criminality of those who 
obeyed the powers that were. 

Without referring to the many other incongruous pro- 
visions of the amendment to be ratified or rejected as a 
whole, I am with the President in his position that no 
amendment, proposed by the Congress while we are denied 
representation, ought to be ratified. 

As a conquered people we must submit to such terms as 
our conquerors shall impose, but no generous man ought 

806 ISToETH Cakolina Historical Commissiojst. 

to expect lis to hasten to the whipping post and invite the 
lash in advance of condemnation. 

I greatly fear that the H^orth does not intend we shall 
he allowed to be members of the great Republic, retaining 
any sense of manhood. 
Appointment of You mention that my appointment of Jas. Morehead ir 

Kailroad Directors. ^ l r j 

and Jno. A Gilmer jr were distasteful to some of my 
friends in Guilford. I am surprised at this. They were 
both for Union until war was begun. Their going to Ft. 
Macon with Jos. Turner and others — all Union men — • 
was, as I thought, wrong — but I stood alone then. If I 
had looked only to those to fill offices who did not partici- 
pate in the war, I could not have produced the general rec- 
onciliation among our people which I deem essential to a 
Union worth preserving. If the JSTorth would adopt a like 
generous course, gTatitude on the part of the great body 
of our people would soon make a great fraternal Union, 

To C. C. Clark. 

Oct. 1/66. 

po7itics^*^'^°^^°^ ^ inclose to you a letter for my client, Mrs. Maria 

Uranck, Richlands — Onslow County. I w^ould send it 
direct but do not know whether Eichland's P. O. has been 
restored. She wrote me lately, but her letter was mailed 
at JSTewbern. 

It is understood here this evening that Genl Dockery 
declines to accept the nomination, on the grounds that the 
nominating meeting was not large enough — and on the 
further ground that the election is too near at hand to 
give him time to canvass the State, — but approving the 
Howard amendment. — The purpose is, through secret or- 
ganizations, to vote for him without subjecting him to the 
mortification of defeat as a Candidate. You will probably 
find his printed tickets at every precinct. 


It is truly liiimiliating that any prominent man in iST, 
C. should so degrade himself, in order to purchase the 
dispensing favor of two-thirds of Congress, as to favor the 
ratification of any amendment to the Constitution, pro- 
posed in a Congress in which we are denied representa- 
tion, much more that there should he any white man in 
the State in favor of placing a negro and a white man 
side hy side in a jury box, and making ineligible to oifice 
nearly all her representative men. Politicians have the 
ignoble excuse that they thereby purchase the privilege 
of ruling over an unwilling people and by fawning buy 
exemption from Confiscation and other favors from their 
Conquerors. 'No full-blooded ^JTorth Carolinian will hu- 
miliate and degrade himself by favoring this amendment, 
whatever may be the consequences of refusing to ratify it. 

^Ew BEE:sr. 

From T. D. Bryson. 
Webster, Jacksox Co., IST. C. 

October the Isf,, 1S66. 

Yours of Sept. ISth is to hand together with your 
tickets, etc. I see since the date of yours that Mr. Alfred 
Dockery is your opponent and upon the Radical Platform. 
"We have but few Radicals in this County and they are 
growing beautifully less. 

I am a candidate for reelection in this County and am 
opposed to the Radical doctrine of ITegro equality and op- 

Gov. I was some what surprised upon receiving a letter 
from the Agt. of the State, Mr. Siler, Agt. for the collec- 
tion of Cherokee Bonds, informing me as (President of 
the Tuckaseege & Keowee Turnpike Road) that you had 
instructed him not to subscribe to that Road under the 
Bill of last session. This decision has made quite a 
damper in this County, as this road is so much needed 

808 E'oKTH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

that every man in the county is interested in its com- 
pletion, and we think the Bill so plain. The points made 
by Mr. Siler as he informed me that his first impression 
was that it conflicted with the Macon County Turnpike. 
The Bill is clear that it does not interfere with that road 
and further there are some outstanding debts due bv Mr. 
Siler (a very small amount which this bill does not inter- 
fere with. So I cannot see what grounds for delay. We 
further claim that under an Act of 1848 authorizing a 
survey for the Western T. R. and Act of 1852, Page 620 
Vol. 1st, authorizing Mr. Siler to retain the amount of 
the expenses of the survey and collect and pay into the 
Treasury, which amount he has retained and has in his 
hands now — has not been applied to any other purpose 
and that this bill repeals that law and applies that fund 
to this road. This position is taken by Col. Wm. H. 
Thomas and the candidates for the Senate that this fund 
is applicable to this road aside from the other bonds in 
Mr. Siler's hands. The road is now under contract and 
contractors at work under an order of the Company, as 
every person here thought the Bill plain and your decision 
has made quite a damper. I hope Gov. you will look into 
the Bills and let me hear from you at once. The road 
will cost but a small amount of the funds. If this de- 
cision had not been against the road we could have car- 
ried this county 10 to 1 for you. An early answer is 
all important. 

To N evens MendenJiaU. 

Raleigh Oct. 2 1866. 
Tourgee's speech. Xhe public know that you participated in the meeting 
which delegated Tourgee to the Phila. Convention. They 
have read his speech there. While uncontradicted by the 
persons who sent him, he must be regarded, and he has 
a right to claim, that he was a true exponent of their 


views and opinions. From the place where the meeting 
was held and your participation in it, the inference is 
generally drawn, that the Quakers, who are remarkable 
for their unity of action and among whom you are a 
prominent man endorse the view tliat Union, men are 
oppressed by the civil authorities of the State,^ — that they 
are in favor of disfranchising the great body of the white 
men of the State and allowing universal suffrage to the 
recently emancipated negro — that you favor a constitu- 
tional amendment which would exclude from office Gov. 
Graham and every other prominent man in N^. C, who 
have always stood up for the Quakers. 

You know that but for the efforts of Gov. Graham the 
Quakers would have suffered intolerable oppression. He, 
as I know, and many of his friends, regard you as seek- 
ing to persecute him. 

I know, but the public does not hnow, that you opposed 
the adoption of the resolution which slanders the State 
authorities and I believe that you and the Quakers gen- 
erally will vote for me in preference to Genl Dockery — 
pnd notwithstanding you may disapprove some acts of 
Gov. Graham during the war, I am sure, taking his whole 
life together, you would still sustain him. 

As you got into that Tourgee meeting, reluctant as I 
know you are to appear before the public, I submit to 
you whether you ought not to place yourself right by a 
note to the public, in the Greensboro Patriot, Old NoHh 
State or other news-paper. 

ISTew Gaeden. 

To Drahe ■& Sons. 

Ealeigh Oct. Jf./66. 
: this date that Hold 
idence of the most i 
doubted character, that it is not safe for a Union man in 

You vrill see in the Standard of this date that Holden concerning certain 
asserts he has in his possession evidence of the most un- opposition. 

810 ISTOkth Carolina Historical Commission. 

certain localities AVest of this j^lace to announce their 
views from the stump. ''We hioiu that one of our worth- 
iest public men has been driven from the stump and 
silenced by armed ex-rebels ; and we apprehend that the 
election will not be free at some boxes in that portion of 
of the State." — ''We knoiu the fact that the American 
flag was pulled down by armed ex-rebels at Jefferson a 
week or two ago." — The Sec. of State, Mr. Best, who is 
a worthy man and voted for Holden against me last Fall 
"Holden and get back — Worth and stay out of the 
Union" infomis me that he this day asked Holden who 
was the man "silenced by armed ex-rebels," — that Mr. 
Holden replied that it was Mr. Cowles, Candidate for 
the Senate in your district and it was in Iredell where he 
was thus silenced. I give you this fact for such com- 
mentary as the facts may warrant. My name must not be 
mentioned as communicating those facts. — N^or is it ex- 
pedient that Mr. Bests' name appear in the news-papers. 
He did not enjoin confidence but it had better be referred 
to without involving him in an issue with an unscrupulous 
man. You can refer to the facts as derived from a reliable 


To Dr. J. T. Leach} 


Kaleiqii, Oct. Jf, 1866. 

Defending his Mv intimate acquitance with you leads me to the con- 

record. _" ^ "^ 

elusion that you as an honest man, with enough courage to 
avow your sentiments. 

From two articles lately appearing in the Standard, the 
recommendations winch [Here foUoiu several lines that 
are iUer/ihle.] 

'Joseph T. Leach, of Johnston county, was a physician. He was 
prominent in the peace movement during the war and was elected to 
the Confederate Congress on the peace issue. After the war, unHlie 
most of the peace parly, he became a Democrat. 


Second. That joii regard us as a conquered people, 
bound to accept such terms as Congress may impose. 

Third. — that if we ratify the Howard amendment, we 
will be entitled to representation in Congress, and there- 
fore we ought to ratify it. 

As to the first proposition you will admit the safest 
rule of judging men is by their actions. 

In 1860 I voted against the bill putting $300,000. into 
the hands of a Secession 'Govr — General Dockery voted 
for it. See the Journal. 

In May, 1861 I voted on the final reading against a 
Convention — Genl. Dockery for it. See Journal. 

During the war I never said I was for peace and In- 
dependence. I considered and uniformly declared that 
this cry was absurd and deceptive and on all proper oc- 
casions said so, and maintained that we ought to make 
peace on the basis of a restoration of the Union. This 
I can establish by my letters written at divers periods dur- 
ing the war, often to men differing in opinion with me. 
Whilst I stood faithfully for my section, after I could not 
avert war, I never denied that I favored peace on the only 
practical basis — Union. Genl. D. indignantly denied that 
he favored re-construction. 

After the war was over and I offered to run for Govr. 
I put myself before the people, asking their support upon 
my Union Eecord. Holden had been a Secessionist. I 
never had. He voted the State out of the Union. I 
would not accept a seat in the Convention. 

Perhaps you say I was admired by the Secessionists 
and was therefore sustained. When their old associate 
turned upon them and reviled them, is it not natural that 
they should hate him ? They respect me as a life-long 
Union man. But the most ultra Union counties also voted 
for me — for instance, Alamance, Anson, Camden, 
Chowan, Davidson, Hertford, Davie, Forysthe, Gates, 
Granville, Montgomery, Orange, Pasquotank and Per- 

812 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Possibly you may have been led into tbe unjust cry that 
I have favored Secessionists in my patronage. If you 
think so, I ask you to review them. If I have given a 
government position to a Secessionist, I can't recall it. 
The only offices, having any rewards attached, were State 
Geologist, Private Secretary and Keeper of the Capitol. 
My private secretary was one of Mr, Holden's confidential, 
secretaries. He did not vote for either me or Holden. 
Both the others voted for Holden. All were as ardent 
Union men as you or I. 

My next most important appointments were the board 
of Internal improvement — Winston and Ramsey — ^both 
life long Whigs and Unionists — quite as loyal as you or I. 

All the members of the board of Literature were old 
Whigs and Union men till war actually commenced. 
Two of them ardently supported the war after it com- 
menced, as most union men did. 

Five sixths of the Directors I appointed on the R. 
Roads were ante-war men — old Whigs — several of them 
did not suport me — for instance, Cowles, Boyden, Ram- 
sey, of Carteret, and Lassiter. 

I appointed on the roads a few Secessionists. Strange 
is one. Best may be another. I don't know whether 
Pest was a Secessionist or not. I did not re-appoint 
meny of Holden's directors, because they had no stock. 
I made better appointments. 

I do not expect a man of your intellig'^nce and fair- 
ness to complain of my appointment of Gov. Bragg as a 
supervisor of the Lunatick Asylum. I selected five men 
distinguished for benevolence, intelligence and their per- 
sonal virtues. I did not care for their political antece- 

If on a candid review you condemn my appointment 
I shall be surprised. 

The editor of the Charlotte Detnocrat opposes me on 
the ground that I have proscribed Democrats. 

As to your second proposition I hold that the Union 


has not been dissolved. That JSTorth Carolina is in the 
Union and entitled to the benefits of the Constitution of 
the U. S. and bound to obey it. If not, our Genl. A. can- 
not ratify an amendment to the Constitution. 

As to the third proposition that the Howard amend- 
ment is offered to us as a condition precedent to our be- 
ing allowed representation in Congress, allow me to say 
that we not only have no assurance that its adoption would 
induce Congress to allow us representation, hut ive have' 
positive evidence to the contrary. After its adoption by 
Congress, a proposition was offered that whenever a State 
should ratify this amendment, such State should be al- 
lowed representation. This proposition was rejected. 
The amendment stands before us therefore for adoption 
or rejection upon its merits or demerits. I don't ap- 
prove it. 

When the Prest. presented his plan of re-construction, 
the whole ]^orth approved it. We complied with all the 
conditions. After ive had complied Congress refused its 
sanction. Before we make further amendments let us be 
sure their adoption will relieve us from our thraldom. 


To Editors of the National Intelligencer. 

Kaeeigh Oct. Jf 1S66. 
I enclose $10. for yr paper to July oOth 1867 as per 
your notification of Sept. 20th 1866. 

You will have perceived that I have no opposition for concerning the 

, . ^ __ _ • r-i work of tbe oppo- 

re-election as Govr, Mr. Holden s nominee, Genl Dock- sition. 
ery, refusing to accept the nomination, but endorsing the 
Howard Amendment as a condition precedent to the ad- 
mission of our representatives. If you would re-publish 
the resolution and vote thereon, declaring that any State 
adopting this amendment, should thereupon be entitled to 
representation, it would strengthen the friends of the. 

814 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

President. jSTo body here favors the ratification of this 
amendment per se. Some of our people are so anxious 
for the complete restoration to our relations to the Union 
that they favor the adoption of this amendment. Some 
would submit to any humiliation to effect this. / think 
we ought to ratify no amendment proposed in a Con- 
gress in which we are denied representation. 

Holden is sending tickets over the State exhorting the 
people to vote for Dockery for Govr., as a better Union 
man than I am. The comparison of our records shows 
that in Dec. 1860, Genl Dockery and I being Senators 
in the Genl Assembly, on a proposition to put $300,000. 
into the hands of our Secession Govr. to ann the State, 
he voted for the proposition, and I with only two others, 
voted against it. On the final passage of the bill in May 
1861, calling a Convention, he voted for and I voted 
against it. During the war, when events forced me to 
elect between the belligent sections, we both co-operated 
with the South, but I deemed it consistent with my fealty 
to the South to advocate peace on the basis of the Union. 
He repelled the idea of favoring reconstruction. 

This note is not intended for publication, but simply 
to call your attention to record facts. 

From S. 8. Jackson. 

AsHBORO, IsT. c. Oct. 5th 1866. 
Politics in Moore I have iust returned from Montgomerv Countv with 

and Montgomery. J o ,,' ./ 

a large amount of business on my table requiring atten- 
tion: — Genl. Woub and Col. Richardson are candidates 
for the Senate in Moore and Montgomery. Richardson 
for the Haywood Amendment and Woub against it. Al- 
len Jordan and McAlister are candidates for Commons 
in Montgomery. The first for H. Amendment and the 
other against it. It is thought by many, that Col. 
Richardson and Jordan would be elected. I gave your 


tickets for Montgomery to Sheriff McAuley, he is a good 
man, and will distribute them. Your tickets for Moore, 
I gave to Genl. Woub. I think you will get a good vote 
in Montgomery. M. S. Robins and Col. Wrenn are can- 
vassing Alamance. The candidates for the Commons here 
are Ashworth, Blair, Wm. Cannon, Wm. Macon — Walker 
and George Black. The two last for you and against the 
Amendment ; the others against you and in favor of 
Amendment. I hope our County is all right; but the 
prosjDects are a little gloomy. The Quakers are numerous 
here; and I see this evening that Jon Harris of Guilford 
is for the Senate and the TI. Amendment and from this, I 
fear the Quakers will generally follow. I will write again. 
Give my love to all. 

To B. S. Hedrich. 

Raleigh Oct. 5 1866. 

On the 19th May last Franklin Thompson, and J. W. ?attSoi°p?rdon. 
Thompson, of Onslow County, filed their petitions for 
pardon under the 1st Exception. They aver that they 
had tiled a petition in the summer of 1865 — The pardons 
have not come to hand. Please try to get them. The 
parties have made repeated applications for them. I 
think the omission to issue them is attributable to over- 
sight or other accident, as their pardon has been uniformly 

Washington, D. C. 

To ^yort]l & Daniel. 

Raleigh^ Oct. 6/66. 
Roxana writes me that she had 39 lbs of cotton in the 
bale you lately sold for W. C. Roberts & Co. — that net 
proceeds of sale in your hands is $114.30 — Of this sum 

816 isToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

place $12.09 to her credit, and I have this day drawn on 
you at sight in favor of J. G. Williams & Co. for the 
bal. $102.21. 

It now seems I am to be re-elected Govr without op- 
position, a thing which has not happened before so far 
as I know in the history of the State. Considering the 
extraordinary difficulties 1 have had to encounter and the 
untiring efforts of Holden and his followers to condemn 
everything I have done or omitted, I highly appreciate 
this exhibition of confidence. 

I am gratified to hear continually of your continued 
success in business. 

To T. D. Bryson. 

KaleicxH Oct. 7, 1866. 

Yours of the 1st inst. is just to hand. I reed a letter 
about the 12th of last month a letter from Mr. Siler, 
and soon afterwards other letters from other persons, ask- 
ing my construction of the acts of the last session of the 
Genl Assembly in relation to the Tuckaseegee & Keowee 
Turnpike Co. In reply to Mr. Siler I said. "I am not 
authorised by law to place any authentic construction 
upon these laws; but being willing to aid you, if possi- 
ble, I have examined the acts. The legislative will is so 
obscurely expressed, I think it would be well to defer ac- 
tion until the Genl A. shall pass an explanatory act. I 
would refer the matter to the Att. Genl for an opinion, 
if he were here. He is on his circuit, and your letter 
having had so slow a passage, and feeling confident he 
would endorse the course suggested, I deem it best to an- 
swer at once. If all parties shall not acquiesce in this 
course, let me know, and I will ask the Att. Genl to place 
a construction on this act". 

The foregoing, was not intended as "instructions". 
Soon after writing it I reed other letters on the subject 


and referred Mr. Siler's and all the other letters to the 
Att Genl. He called on me soon afterwards and assured 
me he would soon file his opinion in writing. He has 
failed to do so, probably because his duties on the circuit 
would not permit him to do so. He told me, from the 
examination he had then given the subject he did not 
think there was any conflict between the acts. I have 
not had time to give deliberate consideration to the ques- 
tion : — and if I had, I have no authority to give Mr. Siler 
any instructions on the subject — and have not done so. 

I hear of very few Radicals any where in this State — 
Holden advises all of them to vote for Dockery, and I 
presume they will do so. I am utterly opposed to the 
ratification of this amendment, — the Howard amendment. 


I'u P. 11. Winsioii. 

Raleigh Oct. 8/66. 

Holden and his followers and certain Loyal League se- prospects of the 
cret political co-workers will give Genl Dockery all the °pp°^^'^^^"- 
votes they can — probably about as many as he would have 
gotten as a Candidate. It will be a poor showing, but 
those who would not gape for the Howard amendment 
should not neglect to vote for me. 

Dr. Ramsey and I will leave here on Tuesday morn- 
ing, Oct. 23rd, by the R. & G. R. R. to visit the Albe- 
marle & C. Canal. Where shall we meet you ? 


To Marshall Parks. 

Raleigh, Oct. 8/66. 
I and my board of Internal Improvement and perhaps 
some invited friends will leave here by the R. & G. R. R, 
Vol. 2—11 

818 ISToRTH Caeolhsta Historical Commission". 

on Tuesday morning, Oct. 23rd, to make the excursion 
on your Canal in conformity with your polite invitation. 
AVhere are we to meet you ? 


To Dr. J. G. Ramsey. 

. Kaleigh, Oct. 8/66. 

I have written to Messrs Winston & Parks that we will 
leave here by the R. & G. train, on Tuesday morning 
Oct. 23rd, to make the excursion on the Albemarle and 
C. Canal. AVill you be on hand ? 

Rowan Mills. 

From David L. Saunders. 

Beaufort, Is^. G. Oct. 9th 1866. 

tion^hi^Carteret ^^ ^^^ doubtless anticipate strong opposition in this 
county, I have thought it proper to write to you to inform 
you that your friends are active and fully alive to their 
duty. With the exception of Dr. Arendell and Mr. W. I. 
Doughty the leading men in this county irrespective of 
former political predelictions are your warm supporters. 
Such men as Col. Perry, E. L. Bell, Esq., and others who 
take an interest in politics, are all earnestly advocating 
your election. I do not think the disaffection extends be- 
yond Morehead City, and if so, only to a limited extent. 
The Sheriff of this County has taken decided grounds in 
your favor. Be assured that those who oppose you are 
in a hopeless minority and will meet with certain defeat. 
You may rely upon Carteret. Col. Perry will be elected 
to the Ho. of Commons beyond doubt, and I think Mr. 
Koonce will go to the Senate. Bell and Koonce, candi- 
dates for the Senate, are both for you ; indeed it would 
be political death for either to oppose you. Personal dis- 


appointments and antipathies cannot influence men when 
great principles are at stake. The friends of Johnson 
must be sustained and the Howard Amendment and its 
advocates voted down. 

I have taken the liberty of writing to you because the 
times are encouraging and I am anxious for you to know 
that your interests are safe in this County. I regTet that 
I am not acquainted Math you, yet as a friend, I have 
ventured to address you. As a Carteret County man. 
deeply imbued with IvTorth Carolina patriotism, I cordially 
approve your Administration, and were I disposed to 
render the least objection to you it would only arise from 
your partiality to your old political friends, when the 
great body of the old line Democrats are equally as zeal- 
ous in your support. I would prefer to see no distinction 
when we should all know each other as conservative men 
and patriots, and not as Democrats or Whigs. We shall 
do our duty and you may expect a good report from this 

To J. Keener. 

Ealeigh, Oct. 9/66. 

I reed today a letter from Mr. Thomas, another from 
Mr. Bryson, and also yours. 

I did not give Mr. Siler any "instructions" but sug- 
gested whether, with the concurrence of all parties, action 
could not be suspended until further action making plain 
the will of the Genl Assembly. The last sentence of my 
letter is in these words. "If all parties shall not acquiesce 
in this course, let me know and I will ask the Att. Genl 
to place a construction on the Acts." — I have not heard 
from him since : — but having received other letters on 
the subject, I soon afterwards referred all the letters to 
the Att. Genl. He has been on his circuit and has not 
filed an opinion. I hope to get his answer soon and will 
immediatelv forward it. 

820 jSToeth Cakolina Historical Commission. 

I have no authority to give any instructions to Mr. 
Siler on the subject and in my letter to him expressly 
disclaimed any such power. 

I regret that my action has been misunderstood. 

Hoping Radicalism will receive little countenance in IT. 
C. and that you and all the friends of the President's 
policy may be sustained by the people. 


To 8. 8. Jachson. 

Raleigh Oct. 10/66. 
-;■:- * * * * vf * 

The Howard It will be a rcproach on Randolph if the people vote 

amendment. _ 

for Dockery as a better Union man than I. I am, as a 
Union man, as much opposed to the Howard amendment, 
as I was opposed to Secession in 1860. 

The Prest. is probably not sustained in any of the 
ITorthern States. This in no-wise changed my views as 
to the action it will be proper for this State to pursue. 
We ought to sustain or reject the Howard amendment 
upon its merits, and retain our self-respect. Further un- 
becoming concession can only beget contempt. 

Dockery' s vote will not be large — Mary and her ma. 
went to Wilming-ton last Monday. — Daniel writes us that 
Mary had chill on the way — followed by fever. I have 
much solicitude about her. She was apparently improv- 
ing when she left. She took a fancy to attend the Tour- 
nament in Fayetteville. I consented as I always do and 
now regret it. Dr. McKee was confident as to her im- 
proving condition when she left. 


To Henry M. Earle. 

Ealeigh, Oct. 10th 1866. 
Your letter directs mj attention to a subject on which 
I have heretofore bestowed no consideration. I would 
gladly examine the Act of the S. C. Legislature to which 
jou refer. Can you give me the date of its passage ? On 
more thorough consideration I may deem it expedient to 
adopt your suggestion. 

From D. H. Starhuck. 

Salem Oct. 10th 1866. 
Your letter of the 29th ulto I found at home on my Political condi- 

*^ tions in Forsyth. 

return from Davidson Court ; and no doubt you have 
thought strange in not receiving from me an earlier ac- 
knowledgement of the same. 

Things in this and adjoining counties are going all 
right. If Genl. Dockery had accepted Forsyth County 
would have given you 4 to his 1. 

The Union men of this county have an abiding con- 
fidence in your Union principles. They are fully posted 
of your Union sentiments during the war, and they can- 
not be induced to believe by the Standard that you would 
forsake your old friends and life long Union principles 
because such voted for you in preference to a man who 
had been as mean as they and who had deserted them in 
the hour when he saw that there was no hope for suc- 
cess for them. Besides your high character for integTity 
and known and decided opinions against repudiation 
would induce all honest men of all parties to support you 
in pi-eference to one whose only principle on this subject 
is to pander to a dishonest principle to get votes. Peter 
A Wilson and Elijah B. Teagiie will be elected in Com- 
mons in this County by a large majority because they 

822 jSToeth Caeolina Historical Commission. 

oppose the corrupt and damnable doctrine of repudiation 
while Charles Teague has become Allspaugh's candidate in 
favor of repudiation even of private debts. Our State 
is suffering more from the utter prostration of her finances 
than for any other cause. Her banks that prior to the 
war furnished $7,000,000 of sound currency have been 
ruined by repudiation, and our people not only impov- 
erished to that amount, but by destroying that amount of 
currency it has reduced the value of land in IST. C. at least 
one half, making a loss to the people of the State in this 
one item of not less than fifty millions of dollars. If your 
recommendation on the subject of banks last winter had 
been adopted it would have surely saved us much. I hope 
our public ofiicials will not lose sight of these things and 
the next Legislature be able to devise some plan to rescue 
the country from further financial ruin. 

To B. 8. Iledriclc. 

Ealeigh, Od. 11/66. 

On the 22 July 1865, the books in this ofiice show that 
the petition of L. H. Sanders for pardon was forwarded 
with the favorable recommendation of Govr. Holden. He 
held a petty office — apt. by the Collector in the County 
of Johnston. His pardon was advertised as granted by 
Govr. Holden. Mr. Sanders, now present, avers that he 
has never received his pardon. It has not been reed by 

He is a truly worthy man — never a Secessionist. 

Try to get his jDardon. 

Washington, D. C. 


To B. S. lieclrich. 

PtAEEIGH, Oct. 12 1S66. 

Ill the summer of 1S65, AVillis AVhitaker, Wake, as'ed Pardon recom- 

' 7,0 mendation. 

75 years, who supposed he might be worth $20,000 filed 
his petition for pardon. He is a quiet good citizen and 
I can conceive no reason whj Govr. Holden declined to 
recommend his pardon. He is very anxious about it. I 
recommend his pardon. 

I also recommend the pardon of W. A. Darden and 
A. D. Speight, both of Greene County, the former a tax 
collector and the latter assessor of Confederate taxes — and 
guilty of nothing else. Their petitions were filed in the 
summer of 1865 and suspended by advice of Gov. Holden. 

Washington, ~D. C. 

To J. M. Parrott. 

Ealeigh Oct. 12/66. 
Holden is rallying his friends to vote for Dockery. He 
will probably get as many votes as if he were a regular 
candidate. I hope my friends will take care that as many 
votes are cast as possible. The people, unfortunately are 
growing indifferent to elections. This tends to the over- 
throw of popular government. 


From J. ^y. Alspaiigh. 

Winston 1^. C. Oct. 16th 1866. 
Enclosed please find a Power of Att, upon which please politics in Forsyth 
afiix your certificate as to J). G. Fowle being a Judge of 
the Superior Court of Law and Equity in our State, and 

824 ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

return the same with a statement of the requisite fee in 
such cases, and I will at once enclose. 

Mj notion is that you will carry the country here again 
by a large majority, but the Radicals will no doubt vote 
for Dockery. I have pursued such a course in the canvass 
as I deemed best for our cause. The "Red Strings" or 
Radicals here have taken a strong hold, and under the 
management of such men as D. H. Starbuck and Mr. 
Masten, Sheriff of the County, and I. T. Leak who op- 
poses Johnson's administration they will in my opinion 
damage your majority in the county. Indeed, they confi- 
dently expect to elect E. B. Teagme and D. A. Wilsoi^ 
the nominees of the radical party for this district and I 
shall not be surprised if they succeed in accomplishing 
their designs. 

If the Howard Amendment is adopted my impression 
is that the Southern States will again be thrown back into 
a territorial condition. 

To J. }Y. Ilinlcs and Company. 

Raleigh Oct. 17 1866. 

In reply to yours of the 13th inst., I have pleasure in 
saying that I am personally acquainted with Joseph D. 
Cannon, Dr. Thos. D. Hogg and Geo. W. Swepson. Each 
of them is regarded as a man of substantial means and 
good business character. In our impoverished state they 
are regarded as wealthy. I have no doubt as to their 
performance of any contract they may make. 

Bridgeport, Conn. 


To A. MiUer} 

Kaleigh Oct. 18 1866. 

I learn that the contractor for carrying the mail from Mail facilities, 
this place to Fayetteville proposes to change his routes, 
going and returning on the East Side of the Cape Fear 
river — crossing the river at Fayetteville instead of cross- 
ing it at MciSTeill's Ferry some 24 miles this side of Fay- 
etteville. The effect of this change would be the discon- 
tinuance of the two offices, MciSTeill's Ferry and Millgrove 
oil the west side of the river, which are the two offices 
from which the county seat and the greater part of Har- 
nett County is supj)lied. The Court House is on the 
West side of the river and would be a post excluded from 
mail facilities, if the proposed change of route be made, 
the river not being fordable and the ferries all charging 

The present route is shorter by five miles than the route 
crossing the river on the bridge at Fayetteville, and for 
the winter, as I believe, a better road and the detention 
of crossing the river at the ferry is more than balanced 
by the increased length of the route on the East side of 
the River. 

I hope the route will not be changed, at all events until 
some other poste route be established by which the Court 
House in Harnett can be suj)plied with the mail. 

It is represented to me that on the route East of the 
River, for thirty six miles this side of Fayetteville, no 
post master has been appointed and qualified, unless it , ^ 

has been very recently done. 

I think the public interest forbids the proposed change 
of route and hope you will deem it your duty to use your 
influence to prevent it, until the matter shall have been 
fully considered. 


The postmaster at Raleigh. 

826 KoRTH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

To General G. J. Rains. 

Kaleigh, Oct. 20th 1866. 

Yours of the 24:th ult. reached here in my absence from 
the city, and owing to accumulated business and inade- 
quate clerical force, my answer has been too long deferred. 

The office of Adj. Genl., if your application had reached 
me, which it did not, would not have suited you, the salary 
being only $200. 

I forward your letter of Gov, Swain, Prest. of our 
University, — but fear there is no vacancy which would 
suit you. 

Hoping that Providence has brighter days in reserve 
for you ; 

From E. B. Drake. 

Statesyille, ^". C. October 2J^/66 

wfike?^^*^^^^*^"^ ^ regret to have to say that news has been received here 
from Wilkes that the notorious C. J. Cowles has been 
elected over O. H. Hill by a majority of 4 votes. There 
is ground to hope that Mr. Hill will contest his seat, and 
that the election will be referred back to the people, at 
least. There is not the least room to doubt that gross 
fraud was perpetrated at one or two boxes in Wilkes in 
behalf of Cowles. 

Mr. Hill is one of the best and most worthy men — 
unexceptional in all respects — that I am acquainted with. 
His defeat in any manner is to be deplored. 

"D. D." Dockery — -while might now be rendered Dead 
Dockery, is no doubt satisfied. 


To Daniel L. Bussell. 

RaleiCxH Oct. 29/66. 

During my recent absence from the city your letter of 
the 23rd inst reached here. 

I have to-day addressed a letter to Genl Robinson to 
ask his views on the question of binding minor children 
of color as apprentices. Col. Bumford is superseded by 
the return of Genl Robinson. I shall not be surprised if 
it leads to considerable correspondence. As soon as the 
matter assumes a definite form I will write you the ruling. 

Shoe Heel. 

To James Kyle. 

Raleigh Oct. 29 1866. 
Yours of the 2ord inst. is received. 
Owina; to the extreme dry summer much of the State, de- Economic prostra- 

^. _ "^ _ ' ^ tion in North 

pendence on grain crops, will be very hard run to obtain Carolina, 
subsistence until another crop can be made. The wheat 
crop was a sad failure. In the portions of the State 
where grain is the staple production there is almost no 
money. It will be with terrible difiiculty that the people 
can pay, in addition to U. S. taxes, the necessary amount 
to defray the current expenses of the State and the 
enormous expenses of the Counties in supporting the poor, 
paying the expenses of the insolvent convicts, etc., makes 
it out of the question to impose a tax this year to pay 
the interest on the State debt. I presume an Act will 
be passed authorising the issue of new bonds in place of 
overdue Coupons and such bonds as shall fall due for 
the next year- — and possibly for the next two years as 
the Genl Assembly meets bi-ennially. 

As to the ultimate redemption of paying interest and 
the payment of our bonds as they fall due I can only 
say that I am utterly opposed to repudiation in any form, 

828 ]S[oETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

but I think the mass of our people will not consent to 
be taxed to meet the interest until we shall be allowed on 
honorable terms representation in Congress. Our people, 
under the action of the North towards us, are growing in- 
different as to all governmental matters. ISTot half our 
people voted at our late election. 

New York City. 

To James Hay. 

Ealeigh Oct. 31 1866. 

The question which you propound is a purely legal one 
to which I can give no authoritative answer as Governor. 

Personally I entertain no doubt that a constable, who 
has not taken the oath of amnesty required in the proc- 
lamation of the President of the 25th May 1865, is not 
now, by reason of that omission, ineligible. If otherwise 
eligible and duly elected and qualified, I think you are 
bound to recognize his official acts as valid. 

Boon Hill. 

To Daniel L. Russell. 

Ealeigh Oct. 31/66. 

I inclose to you a copy of my letter to Genl Pobinson, 
and a copy of his answer just received, from which you 
will perceive that no redress is to be obtained from Genl 
Robinson. I shall send a copy of the correspondence to 
the Prest. of the U. S., in the hope of some relief — but 
I am not confident he will interfere. I presume he will 
refer me to the Courts. 

Please answer as to the facts Genl Robinson sets forth. 

Shoe Heel. 


From D. F. Caldwell. 

Geeensboko X. C. NoL\ 2 1866. 
I have I'list returned from the Mt. Yeruon Springs Cou- conditions in 

J i o ^orth Carolina. 

vention in Chatham. They had a very fine meeting, had 
considerable conversation and some interesting speeches 
and passed a preamble and resolutions — a little high fu- 
looting but as they were drawn up by Mr. McCoy of Fay- 
etteville we did not think it prudent to offer any amend- 
ment, to strip them of their verbiage, etc. I hope you 
will do all you can for us in the next Legislature. The 
truth is the road will come to a perfect standstill, if it 
does not rot down, if it is left as it now is. It should by 
all means be extended to the JST. C. R. R. This can and 
will be done if the mortgage the state holds on the road 
is lifted and the state takes the amount she has subscribed 
in stock, and then gives the company the power to mort- 
gage the road for funds to complete it, with what stock 
we can get along the line, etc., etc. The Road completed 
to the ]Sr. C. R. R. it mil give us a line by Rail and River 
to AVilmington, by the coal fields and ore banks and iron 
works in Chatham of 225 miles that cannot fail to prove 
profitable and of great practical advantage to a large sec- 
tion of the state ; especially the many agricultural and 
manufacturing interests of the state. This being the case 
I feel confident you will not be slow to avail yourself of 
all your influences and position to aid in its completion, 
etc. I have never seen such roads before in my life, they 
are absolutely almost impassable. I have done my best 
in this county, and though I have got ours in some bet- 
ter condition than I find them in Randolph and Chatham. 
still they are in bad condition, and under the present sys- ., 

tem they cannot be worked. When we indict an over- 
seers we find there is no fixed district etc and they get 
off at the cost of the county. I am clearly of the opinion 
that all the counties of the state should be laid off in town- 
ships of ten miles square or something like that. That 

830 JSToETii Cakolijsta Historical Commissiojst. 

these townships should be named by the county courts 
when laid off. That in the center of each should be an 
election precinct and that a certain number of magistrates, 
road and school commissioners and perhaps agricultural 
commissioners should be appointed or elected by the Leg- 
islature or county courts or by the people and no more. 
We can never keep down the number of magistrates in 
any other way. This is as certain as it is important. The 
road commissioners should have the power to apportion all 
the hands and assign them to their resj)ective roads and 
appoint the overseares and return them to the county 
courts to be recorded in this way. The bad roads which 
is frequently in hilly and poor parts of the county and 
where there is but a spare population, could get hands 
to keep them in something like passable order. We have 
in this county some very bad roads where this is but a 
very few hands while on others, where there we have nat- 
urally good roads, there is some 20 or 25 hands. While 
today I passed over five miles of the roughest road I ever 
saw and the oversears (in Randolph) had but 3 hands. 
And he told me he had tried to keep up the road with 
these but found it impossible to do so. These sugges- 
^ tions (though they may seem to be a small matter to you) 

I am confident are of vast importance to the public. Mr. 
Swaim, our County Court Clerk, has talked to me a great 
deal, with others, and has pressed upon me to call your 
attention. I have also conversed with several gentlemen, in 
other states who concur in opinion that there is no other 
plan to remedy our defective system but the Township 
plan that has been adopted by nearly all the other States. 
By thus having a central point to vote and transact all 
the business of the township, we can soon get up a com- 
petition and emulation among them — ^by offering 
premiums if no other way to the tovmship that has the 
best roads the best schools the best agricultural society and 
the least crime or criminals in it, etc. I have been as- 
sured that it is in this way that the people in many of 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 831 

the other states have managed to get up and difiise a 
helthy public and patriotic spirit among all classes of 
their inhabitants — even among the children at school. I 
am confident that it would not fail to do such for us in 1^. 
C. And most assuredly we need something of the kind. 
Our people are well nigh heart broken, their children 
growing ujo in ignorance, the older sons emigrating to the 
west, and leaving their old dejected and impoverished 
parents behind them, many of them to end their days in 
the poor houses of the state if their sorrows do not carry 
them to premature graves. I hope you will think of these 
things and recommend the revival of our schull beginning 
agricultural societies, and the appointing of magistrates, 
commissioners for roads, etc., in every township of the 
state. It can do no harm and I believe will do great good 
as has been the result in all the other states. We need 
organization and more attention to county and state mat- 
ters, and this is the only feasible plan. We must begin 
to difuse life and energy among the people. We must 
begin at the foundation and educate the people by letting 
the boys have a chance to act as constables, coroners, com- 
missioners, magistrates, etc. etc. there is too much family 
favoritism in all our appointments. Too many drunken 
men, etc. appointed. Let the districts like Alfred did 
the hundreds — attend to their o'^^m neighborhood affairs 
and if they do not attend to it well — let them suffer the 
penalties of the law and the reproach and disgrace that 
will surely fall upon them. When this course is pursued 
then we will soon see a change and not before. Another 
thing should be done all persons convicted of high mis- 
demeanors and crimes should be put to work on our roads, 
streets, or making brick as Maryland did before she had 
a penatentary indeed it was in this way she built and paid 
for her jDenatentary. Our jail is crowded now having 
less than 18 or 20 in it for crimes and costs, etc. But I 
have no time to sav more. 


From Daniel Russell. 

KoBEsoN City Nov. J^th 1866. 
Apprentice cases. Your favours of the 29th and 31st ultimo has been 
reed, in your last you state that you would enclose a copy 
of your letter to Gen. Robinson and his answer and re- 
quested me to answer as to the facts Gen. Robinson sets 
forth. You must have made a mistake as no copy of your 
letter or answer from Genl. Robinson was enclosed in 
your letter of the 31st, nor have I received any. I regret 
that I have not received the statements made by Genl. 
Robinson, as I am desirous of knowing what facts he sets 
forth, or what he pretends to be facts. I am very anxious 
to know what course is to be pursued. There has been 
a habeas corpus issued by Judge Gillam at the instance 
of a negro who professes to be the Step Father of some 
children bound by the County Court of Robeson at Aug. 
term. The writ was returned at the last Superior Court 
at Lumberton before Judge Gillam and he decided the 
Court had a right to bind the children and I was entitled 
to have them. Judge French who appeared for the negro 
man took an appeal to the Supreme Court. But after I 
left Lumberton my counsel Mr. McL. McRay agreed with 
Judge French that they would argue the case again and 
that I could make another reply to the writ. Judge 
Gillam told me at Smithville that I would have to be at 
Fayetteville while he was there holding Court which will 
set tomorrow week and perhaps about the 15th I will 
be there to let the case be argued over. I have no fears 
as to the Judges decision unless the miserable Bureau 
should interfere. I have not met with any one who seems 
to know what powers are given to the agents of the Freed- 
mans Bureau in relation to apprenticing coloured chil- 
dren, or any other powers. I am satisfied they have as- 
sumed powers not given in the law. I have just written 
to the Editors of the National Intelligencer and requested 
them to send me a certified copy of the Freedmans Bureau 


bill or both bills which has been passed by Congress. I 
am determined to carry the matter out and keep the ap- 
prentices if there is any law to justify me. If the Presi- 
dent refers you to the Civil Courts I should think the 
Bureau would not have jurisdiction in such cases. How 
does this man Robinson get over his letter to you last July 
in which he stated all matters were turned over to the 
Courts of the State. I am very much concerned about 
these matters and I am tired of being trifled with by such 
fellows as are put in authority in this State as agents of 
the Bureau. 

From C. H. Wiley. 
Geee^^sboro, it. C. Nov. 10th 1866. 
I take the liberty of enclosing a memorandum to which 
I invite your special attention. 

I know your interest in the matter in question — & this. 
its intrinsic importance, & the attention I have long given 
to it are my excuses for writing. 


Page I. 

Memorandum in Regard to the Swamp lands. 


1. Let the Legislature exempt them from taxation for Act of Assembly to 

-1 r\ -i r- t>e passed. 

lU or 15 years. 

2. Let the Legislature vest in the Literary Board full 
authority to examine, to perfect titles, to ascertain the 
amount, location and quality of the lands, and to improve, 
test and sell limiting the Board to an annual expenditure 
of, say not more than $3000 or $4000 jjer annum-, from 
the General School Fund, and requiring all other expenses 
to come from the lands. 

Vol. 2—12 

834 ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

3. Let the Board have power to bargain with private 
parties for drainage or cultivation, or settling, or experi- 
ments, hj taking parties into co-partnershij), the private 
parties to pay expenses, etc. 

4. To enable the Board to carry out these powers au- 
thorize it to appoint a 

Commissioner of School Lands, & Secixtary of Board. 
of Literature. 

Commissioner of School lands, & Secretary of Board 
of Literature. 

Commissioner of Let it be the dutj of this agent or officer 

Duties of. 1. To ascertain what lands belong to the School Fund, 

where located, state of the title, and character of the lands, 

and extent, and present condition. 

2. To have small maps constructed from old surveys, 
of each body, showing its position in the State. (Old 
maps of surveys have no county boundaries.) 

3. To register the lands and maps, with a description of 
each body. 

4. To perfect titles, and where lands have never been 
surveyed, to have this done, if possible. 

5. To call attention, at home and abroad, to the lands, 
invite examinations and solicit bids. 

6. To engage private parties to drain, improve, test or 
cultivate the lands by offering an interest in them, or 
giving parts of them, etc, etc. 

7. To engage persons especially to drain and cultivate 
parts of the Open Ground Prairie (What this land wants 
is paching. When it is plowed a few years the vegetable 
mould will sink and pack, sand mil be found a few inches 
below, and will mix with it.) 

8. To sell timber, keep off poachers, etc. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 835 


Su2Jervision of Literary Board. 

The Literary Board to consent to all contracts, receive Literary Board, 
and expend all moneys, sign all deeds, etc., etc. 

Filially. The Commissioner and Secretary of the 
Board to endeavor to keep the macliinery and the Spirit 
of the Com Schools alive — to keep the public in hope — to 
enlighten it as to the means of education, to devise plans 
and to stimulate and call out public opinion. 

The Act authorizing all the above can be made very secretary of Board, 
brief. Those things need not all be stated in the law. 
They are stated above to show my views of what should 
be done. 

From G. F. Lewis.^ 
Cleveland^ Ohio, November 12 1866. 

On returning home from Richmond I find letters from 
our correspondent at St. Louis, Mo. advising that an 
agent of your State has been there offering to sell your 
Agricultural Scrip at 40 cents an acre. 

I can hardly believe it as it has a direct tendency to 
injure you and us and all others dealing largely in it. A 
few pieces sold at this rate will prevent your selling the 
balance at any reasonable price. 

We deal largely in this Scrip having purchased the large 
states of Pemisylvania Ohio and Kentucky. If you de- 
sire to sell all your Scrip please advise me your price for 
the whole of it. At all events do not [glut?~\ the market 
by peddling on 1 or 200 pieces. 

^ G. F. Lewis was a land warrant broker of Cleveland, Ohio. 

836 ISToETH Cakolijsta Historical Commission. 

From D. F. Caldwell 

Gkeensboeo, Nov. IJfth 1866. 
Eaiiroad matters. You must pardon me for this hasty note. I have long 
been desirous to write you an article on state affairs, but 
have not been able to get all the data I desired, and have 
postponed, until I find it is now too late to effect anything. 
This much for my troubling you — If there is one man in 
the state, who does earnestly desire to see you signalize 
your administration by doing something for the lasting 
benefit of ones people and state I am that man. I am sure 
the way is open and I believe you have the will and pop- 
ularity. I see that all the enterprising portion of our 
population in this part of the state will soon leave us if 
something is not done to give our people hope. Over one 
thousand have gone and still this frightful exodus con- 
tinues. I feel touchy over conditions for I already see 
the beginning of the end if something is not done to give 
laboring men in this section of the state hope in the fu- 
ture if they remain among us. 

'Now as to what I thint ought to be done — the F. & W. 
R. R. ought to be extended up Deep River to this place as 
speedy as possible and if the state does nothing more it 
should do all the late committee asked. 2. The county 
courts must be authorized to lay off all the counties in 
small townships and give the people the power to elect 
road school and agricultural commissioners with a consta- 
ble for each whose duty it should be to take charge of the 
roads schools and Agricultural interests in each and in the 
city, etc., etc. 

Then we must have some sort of a currency — I had and 
still have faith in the scheme I proposed — ^but I will not 
again press it uj)on your attention. There is another 
plan that will work like a charm but will require some 
time, which I call to your attention and all the savants 
in whom you may have confidence. It is this — let owners 
Railroads unite in asking the Legislature to so amend 


their respective charters as to allow them the privilege of 
banking nnder the IN^ational Banking laws for a limited 
time if they fear a great mynopoly. If their prayer is 
answered then let them repair to Washington City and 
try and get Congress to pass a law authorizing the Post- 
master General or some one else to enter into a contract 
with owners of Railroads for some 15 or 20 years to come 
to carry the U. S. mail for a certain and stipulated price 
per mile per annum. And then let the Government of the 
TJ. S. issue to these roads bonds of the Government to the 
amount that the mail pay received will pay the interest 
on. These bonds may be redeemed by the Government 
and as additional security the roads may give the state a 
lien on all their jDroperty to redeem them on their 
tion. This would soon give us a currency strengthen the 
roads and enable them to encourage our manufactures 
milers farmers and mechanics. — by making them loans 
on land and produce. It would enable all our R.Eoads to 
husband and avail themselves of the incomes and deposits 
that might be made and bank on them to profit IsTationally 
so it would enable them to unite our Roads and cause 
them "to put forth all their efforts to send our trade, travel 
and produce over our own roads to our own towns and 
markets. It would cause all our Railroads accounts and 
especially these monied transactions to be kept in an 
honest and intelligent manner. There would be no more 
defaulters or unsettled accounts. This of itself would 
be worth thousands annually to the state and more to the 
road. Again it would soon give new life to internal im- 
provements within our borders. Then I hope to see what 
I declared ten years ago should be done the JST. C. Rail 
Road extended to Paint Rock and also to Cleveland on our 
extreme western border there to connect with the R.Road 
to Memphis. When we look at the amount N" York has ex- 
pended on the Roads and Canals to connect with the West 
What Baltimore has expended on her roads for the same 
purposes and what Virginia has, and now proposes to 

838 ISToBTH Cakolina Historical Commission, 

spend upon her canall and Road from IS^ewport ISTews, to 
the Ohio and contrast the annnity expended and yet re- 
quired to effect these great lines and then contrast them 
any one of them, with the sum required to extend our road 
as proposed we will be astonished that we have so miser- 
ably laged in this race. Our Route is the most direct and 
far the best and cheapest — to the Mississippi and equally 
so to Cincinnati and St. Louis — And via Arkansas and 
Texas a far Superior and nearer route to St. Francisco 
California and when IST. C. completes the IST. C. Rail Road 
as I have proposed Then the results will come in like 
sheaves af grain from a well reaped harvest field. Every 
effort ought to be made to accomplish forthwith this great 
work, if the state values it, and dedicate it and all its reve- 
nues to the cause of education — ^but I would not have you 
to recommend the state to embark another dollar in this 
or any other scheme of the kind when the individual stock- 
holders had not the full power & control of the road and 
its management. This is a sine qua non.. It is not only 
essential to life that the banks I have proposed should be 
got under way, but it is equally essential that the old usury 
laws should be reenacted. Also to prevent any private 
creditor from being swindled out of all he has it is im- 
portant that a deed or trust law should be passed requir- 
ing all who make trusts take in all the creditors and give 
up all their property and allow the trusts to stand for four 
years by paying a certain portion of the principal and in- 
terest anually and if the extent proves that the party is 
insolvent then let them pay in proportion to their ability 
giving all the creditors the right to bid and pay in his 
claims for the property. A company should be chartered 
whose duty it should be to devise ways and means to dis- 
pose of the swamp lands as soon as possible, etc. etc. liow 
don't think me officious in thus troubling you. I am not. 
I only desire above all things to see IST. C. redeemed the 
peace restored and Jonathan Worth a native son of old 
Guilford propose more to the Legislature and be the in- 


strument under God of having more done for our people 
than any that has gone before him. And these are some 
of the practical measures that I think ought to be recom- 
mended and proposed upon the consideration of the next 
Legislature. And having been so long acquainted with 
you formerly I have ventured to believe that I am aa 
near Governor in Jonathan Worth as I shall ever be, of 
jST C. Therefore feeling that our location raising and 
habits have been so nearly similar I could but feel anx- 
ious as I have before told you to see you get out of the 
old fogy track and I have therefore suffered my zeal for 
your success to push me out of the line of my duty and 
made me apjDcar offisious I hope not however, and if I 
have I crave your pardon. I hope you will consult with 
all the R R Presidents, Treasurer Wni. Mordecai Jones 
Dunn and others on my financial notions, and that all of 
them will concur with me, etc. Stafford our Sherriff out 
on 22,000 tax due has not been able to collect more than 
2000. He has put out all the rest for collection and many 
are running off. 

From William Clarh. 
Eco^-OMY Wayx Co., Ia. 11th mo. 18th, 1866. 
I have been waiting thinking thee would write to some Questions and 

j> 1 X n • • T 1 personal matters. 

01 US but aiJ m vain. 1 have heard or discovered from the 
papers that thee is again elected Governor of the state but 
cannot learn exactly to my satisfaction whether thee had 
really any opposition. I learned General Dockery was 
brought out by the Union party of that state and declined 
to run, and yet I see several counties voted for him and I 
see from the papers that our old county of Randolph gave 
him a majority though the voters seems to be small com- 
pared with former elections. I have not seen who were 
elected from Randolph and Guilford. What is likely to be 
the comiDlexion of your next Legislature? From the ap- 

840 i^OKTH Carolina Historical Commission, 

pearance thus far none of the southern states, at any rate 
with few exceptions, seem like adopting the amendment to 
the Constitution as proposed by Congress. I want thee to 
send me the best reasoning by newspapers, publick 
speeches, or otherwise from your southern Politicians. If 
there is any injustice to the South in that I want to see 
it. We hear but one side argued here and of course may 
be misled still I thought I could judge impartially and 
without prejudice. If I am wrong I would like to know 

We have had quite a gloomy time for the last few days. 
Our Brother-in-law B. Coffin has failed for a large amount 
and caused several of his friends to suffer severely, among 
others is his brother-in-law Wm. B. Hinshaw and son-in- 
law D. B. Bobbins who have had to make assignments of 
all their property and our brother-in-law !N. Dennis has 
suffered some $3,000. by him though he can live well 
enough without it and it may be that Barney may recover 
so as to pay part or all of it some time. I have nearly 
escaped as far as appears thus far. We rather disagreed 
some two years in regard to carrying on our business and 
when he went to the capital of our state we closed up all 
our copartnership and have got it wount up except a 
small amount of debt against us and about as much com- 
ing to us, so there has been no time in 10 years that 
I could have escaped so well so that I look upon my case 
as a very fortunate one. The newspapers set his liabili- 
ties at nearly one hundred thousand dollars above his as- 
sets, but I think that not likely to be so, though since he 
left here he has been largely in Pork and Beef packing and 
running a large cotton farm near Montgomery, Alabama, 
on which he works about 100 hands. 

Send me a paper or something that will post me up oc- 
casionally on the affairs of my old state, how is the politi- 
cal sentiment in your state in regard to the imigration that 
is now flowing in this direction. We think there is more 
this fall than has been for many years. This Coffin who 


is engaged in it has brought thousands and still they come 
but so far as I can discover but few of the better class are 
coming. Do the Banks at Raleigh sell exchange on JST. 
Y. and if so at what rates of exchange. Barzillai sends us 
word that he and Mary expects to pay us a visit next 
.spring. Kneed we ever look for one from any of the 
family ? I would like thee would remember me by send- 
ing me a letter occasionally, notwithstanding thy many 

To B. S. HedricJc. 

Ealeigh, Nov. 20, 1866. 

Cannot the President be induced to pardon Owen R. paXu^^"'^ 
Kenan ? He was a member of the Confederate Congress, 
but there is no conceivable distinction, which places in an 
attitude less deserving of pardon, than Bridgers, Dortch, 
Venable, Arrington, Lander and McLean. If there be 
any reason for withholding the pardons of certain other 
members to-wit — Graham, Turner and Gaither, all of 
whom were strict Union men till war had actually com- 
menced, after the pardoning of such men as Ashe, Leach, 
Ramsay and the other members of Congress I cannot con- 
ceive I am unable to conceive what that reason is. If you 
can, in any proper manner, get the President to direct his 
attention to the apparent discrimination against these men, 
I shall be greatly obliged to you. 

"Washington^ D. C. 

To B. S. Hedrich. 

Raleigh, Nov. 20 1866. 
I would like to do something, in such shape as would 
be agreeable to you, by pecuniary reward or otherwise 

842 jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission. 

making a proper acknowledgement that the State appre- 
ciates your services in procuring pardons, etc. 

The matter of our land scrip is referred to the Genl 
Assembly for further action. 

The offer and suggestions of Ex-Govr. Bibb will be sub- 
mitted to the committee to which the matter will be re- 

I regard his suggestion as very good, and with my pres- 
ent light, favor employing him as our agent. 

Washington^ D. C. 

From 0. G. Parsley. 
Wilmington, E". C. Nov. 22nd 1866. 
Railroad matters. Yours of the 20th inst. at hand. Until day before yes- 
terday I did not know who would be the State proxy at 
our W. & W. R. R. meeting, but then learned from a con- 
versation with Dr. Arrington that he held the appoint- 
ment. I certainly have no j)ersonal objections to the ap- 
pointment and do not know that others would have had or 
have, until from information from your letters and his 
actions at the meeting of the stockholders of the Wilming- 
ton & W. R. R. yesterday it seems very apparent that in- 
fluences have operated which perhaps may not be alto- 
gether proper. The charters of both our roads provide 
that none but a stockholder shall act as proxy at the meet- 
ing and that no officer of the roads shall act as proxy. At 
the meeting of the W. & W. stockholders yesterday Dr. 
Arrington represented a large number of shares, the 
proxies of which had been it is alleged procured by Col. 
Fremont an officer of that road for the purpose of controll- 
ing the action of that meeting. By the recommendation of 
Col. Fremont and Mr. Drane, each an officer of the re- 
spective roads, he is made the State proxy at the Man- 
chester meeting on the 28th, although he owns no stock in 


the corporation. The object of the charters to prevent 
officers from controlling the action of the meeting may in 
this way be entirely defeated. The State cooperating with 
the officers of either road can defeat the individnal stock- 
holders — appoint whom they please and make the salaries 
of the President and superintendents and some of the 
other officers, w^hat they please. Do yon think snch influ- 
ence proj^er ? 

I do not know that there will be any opposition to Mr. 
Drane for the Presidency of the Manchester Co. I hardly 
think there will be — I do not know that the complaints and 
dissatisfaction of which I spoke in my last letter are suffi- 
cient to make a change desirable. I am by no means 
satisfied that Mr. Drane is not the best man we can get 
for the position. But I am well assured that the State 
proxy appointed on his and Col. Fremont's recommendation 
will if they wish it vote for him although a majority of the 
individual stock might prefer another. My desire is that 
he who represents the State may go into the meeting un- 
pledged and unbiassed and that the individual stock may 
not be controlled by the influence of the officials of the 
Railroad, terminating here the State cooperation. 

The State proxies, until within the past two years, have 
been accustomed to consult and I think respect the wishes 
of a majority of the individual share holders. Since; 
rather to rule tliem to their own choice. I hope the Dr. 
may act in such manner as may not give cause for com- 
plaint at his. appointment. 

844 JSToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

From Robert B. Gilliam.'^ 

, Oxford, Nov 22nd 1866. 

Objections to a I understand an application has been made to you to 

Court of Oyeriand ^ '- '' 

Terminer. oi'der a Couit of Ojcr and Terminer to be lield for this 

county — the object being to have sentence pronounced upon 
a culprit heretofore convicted of a capital felony, v^ho 
broke jail before the day appointed for his execution — and 
has been since arrested. If such be the object of the ap- 
plication, I beg leave to suggest that it cannot be accom- 
plished in the way proposed. The act to authorize courts 
of Oyer and Terminer provides that they shall have juris- 
diction "by a grand jury to inquire, and by a petit jury 
to lieur and determine all felonies, etc.," "and all such 
cases whereof jurisdiction is hereby conferred pending for 
trial in the Superior Court of any County, shall be deemed 
in the Court of Oyer and Terminer held for that county, 

I see no very urgent reason for anticipating the usual 
term of the Superior Court, even if there v^as no legal 
difficulty in the way, but however that may be, it seems 
' to me very clear that a Judge holding a Court of Oyer 
and Terminer would not be authorized to award sentence 
of death upon a prisoner situated like the one in this 

I take the liberty of mentioning the matter, because it 
occurred to me, you might probably, if the court was or- 
dered, appoint me to hold it and I thought it best to ad- 
vise you of my views beforehand. 

And even if the Court of Oyer and Terminer should 
be applied for in this county for purposes strictly within 
the act, I have to request as a special favor that some other 

^ Robert B. Gilliam, of Granville county, had been a member of the 
convention of 1835. He had later been many times a member of the 
legislature, and in 1862 was Speaker of the House. In 1863 he was 
elected to the Superior Court bench and remained there until 1868. 
He was elected to Congress in 1870 and died before taking his seat. 


person than myself may be appointed to hold it — Fonrteen 
weeks of incessant labor have tried my constitution pretty 
severely, and I wish if possible to enjoy perfect rest both 
of body and mind until the coming spring. Should a 
Court be thought necessary here, I have no doubt Judge 
Fowle or Judge Barnes would consent to hold it. 

From B. S. Hedrich. 
Washington, D. C. Nov. 22, 1866. 

Inclosed is a letter from Gov, Bibb. I have not time 
to write more now. Your letter of the 20th relating to 
"pardons" is "imperfect," only one page being sent, prob- 
ably by mistake in mailing. I have not yet seen your 
message, except a brief abstract in the city paper of today. 

I saw the Attorney General today in relation to pardons 
and he has promised to take up and report soon on some 
of the names you mention. I cannot find an application 
in full for Willis Whitaker of AVake. There is a petition 
of Wesley Whitaker, Jr., of Wake, suspended by Hoi den. 

Will write again soon. 

To James L. Orr. 

Nov. 27th 1866. 

I am requested by a member of our Genl Assembly to 
ask you for a copy of such laws and ordinances as have 
been passed in your State since May 1865 — I mean such 
as have been printed in pamphlet form. 

May I ask whether your Courts are yielding obedience 
to Genl Sickle's orders of Oct, 1 1866 ? I propose to ap- 
peal to the Brest, of the TJ. S. The military Commandant 
has very recently sent me a copy of this order, specially 
calling my attention to the 5th and 6th paragraphs. 

Columbia, S. C, 


846 JSToETH Cakolina Historical Commissiojst. 

To Edivin G. Beade. 

Dec. 5 1866. 
Plans of the oppo- I am Satisfied that Mr. Loffan is now in Washinslon 
City as the delegate of a caucus held a few evenings ago at 
Gov. Holden's, for the purpose of aiding in overthrowing 
the present civil govt, of the State. This influence ought 
to be counteracted. I have no ofiicial power, but think 
you could possibly do much good if you would consent to 
go to Washingi;on. Will you go ? If so I will ask Judge 
Pearson and any third person you may name to go also. 


From Edwin G. Beade. 

Raleigh Dec. 5/66. 
I have (11:00 o'clock P. M.) now your letter of today 
requesting me to go to Washington with Judge Pearson 
and another. I regret that I am obliged to leave the city 
in the morning. I have requested Judge Merrimon to 
see you and talk with you freely about it, I have only 
time to say in this note that if there is anything which I 
can do, or which prudent men think I can do to save the 
State of course I am ready to do it at whatsoever peril or 
cost. I exceedingly doubt whether anything can be done. 
Further than this Judge Merrimon is possessed fully with 
my views. I shall be pleased to hear from you again. 

To James L. Orr. 

Dec. 13 1866. 

I propose to leave here tomorrow to see the President 
in relation to Sickles' order of 1 Octr. and earnestly in- 
vite you to join me there — at the Ebbitt House. Will 
you go? 

Columbia, S. C. 


W. H. Bagleij to D. F. CaldweU. 

Decemher IStli 1866. 

Gov. Worth is absent and I have no authority to desig- 
nate an agent to represent the State in the investigation 
of the Davis Burglary case by CoL CogswelL CoL Bum- 
ford invites us to have an agent to act with Coh C. and 
make the investigation a joint one. I hope, in the absence 
of Govr. Worth, that you, or Genh Gilmer will act for the 
State upon this suggestion of mine. If you cannot please 
see Genl Gilmer in regard to it. I have written also to 


To Natlianiel Boy den. 

Decemher 29, 1866. 
At as early a day as may be convenient to you let me Expenses of the 

c • • TTT 1 • mi Washington 

know the exjienses oi yr mission to VVashingi:on. ihe mission. 
Genl A. has authorised the payment of the same and 
having paid from my o^\ti j)urse the expenses of myself 
and the other two Comrs and made an advance of a small 
part of yours I desire to adjust and draw for it. 

I am also anxious to have your report of what you may 
have learned and yr general views as to the feelings of 

Yr appointment on the commission gave universal satis- 

To Nathaniel Boyden. 

Jan. 1 1867. 
Your very satisfactory letter giving me a narrative of 
your proceedings after I left you in Washington is re- 
ceived, and I herewith inclose $10. the balance due you 
for expenses of this trip. 

ISToETH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

I think our JSTational affairs are assuming a more healthy 


To Peter Adams. 

Jan. 2 1867. 

commissfonto -"- ^^"^^ nominated on the Comn to Washington A. S. 

Avashington. Merrimon, J. M. Leach, J. A. Gilmer, Bedford Brown 

and P. H. Winston. 

There is no one on the Comn. "better fitted for it than 
our friend Gilmer — but I should not have appointed him 
but for your letter urging it, because from the informa- 
tion I have had as to his health, I had supposed that quiet 
was essential to his complete restoration. See him and 
assure him that I would not have him go if he thinks he 
would thereby endanger his health. 

To William A. Graham: 

Raleigh^ Jan. 3/67. 
Meeting of Council I call mv couucil next week to appoint a board of In- 

of State. 

ternal Improvement, Literary Board, etc., and especially 
to ask their view as to the course proper to be pursued by 
me in the contingency that Congress declare the present 
State government a nullity. My notion for meet- 
ing such a contingency is to decline to surrender vol- 
untarily to a governor appointed by Congress or elected 
by others than voters entitled to this franchise under our 
Constitution — and if imprisoned for disobedience, to ap- 
ply by Habeas Corpus to a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of the U. S. for enlargement — and thus endeavor to sus- 
tain our State Govt, by the action of the Supreme Court 
of the U. S, I will be glad to have your views on this. 

Coerespondej^ce of Jonathan Worth. 

I may be called upon to act when I cannot consult my 
council or others in whose judgment I confide. 

I deem the matter as to our swamp lands important, and 
want an able Literary board. It consists of three mem- 
bers. Mr. Mendenhall (to my relief) has resigned. 
Stephen D. Pool, whom I did not know well when I ap- 
pointed him last year has removed to ISTewbern and does 
not suit me. J\Iaj. Husted of this City, I will continue 
on my board. If you and Gov. Bragg will consent to 
serve, I would be glad to make you members of the board. 
Would the appointments have any semblance of incom- 
patability with your position as Senator ? Should you be 
admitted to a seat in Congress you could resign. If you 
decline to accept, can you suggest two good names ? 

I write at home. 

To Samuel A. Harris. 

Ealeigh, Jan. 3 1867. 

Yours of the 5th inst is just received. 

I lately sent by mail to the Chm. of each Warden Court 
in the State a copy of the act of our Genl A. touching the 
subject of your letter. When answers to the letters shall 
be received they will be submitted to the Chief Assistant 
of the Freedman's Bureau. Until this is done I can give 
no precise information as to the extent of relief to be 
expected from this quarter. 

If the Chairman has not received my letter, please let 
me know. 


Vol. 2—13 

850 JNToETH Carolijn^a Historical CoMMissioisr. 

To E. J. Warren.' 

Jan. 3rd IS 67. 

At the time the application was made to me by a very 
large inimher of the citizens of Pasquotank, endorsed by 
Dr. Speed, John Pool and others I was informed that you 
were absent from the State. 1 declined to act until you 
or the Solicitor from your Circuit should be heard from 
on the subject. A few clays thereafter, I received a let- 
ter from Mr. Eure recommending the pardon, which I 
thereupon granted. Some days after the issue of the par- 
don, your letter on the subject came to my hands. 

I deem this exjDlanation due to you, as I have in no 
case granted a pardon, where it was known to me that the 
judge who tried the case, deemed the exercise of clemency 
inexpedient. If your letter had been received in time it 
would have received due consideration. 


To Miss M. A. Bide. 

Raleigh^ Jan. 3 1S67. 

Your late letter and inclosures explanatory of your plan 
for getting up a school or schools on a large scale for the 
education of orphan females whose fathers died in the 
service of the Southern States in the late war, was duly 
received. How fervently do I wish you success — and you 
may rely on my co-operation. 

You ask me to nominate some suitable persons as Treas- 
urers. I suggest Oeo. W. Mordecai, of this city, Wm. A. 
Wright, of Wilmington, Philip A. Wiley, of Fayetteville, 
Jno. D. Whitford, ISTewbern, Jesse H. Lindsay, Greens- 

1 Ed^-ard J. Warren, of Beaufort county, had been several times a 
member of the legislature, and was a member of the conventions of 
1861 and 1865. Governor Worth appointed him a Superior Court 
Judge in 1865. He was President of the Senate in 1871. He was a 
Whig before the war and became a Democrat afterwards. 


boro, D. A. Davis, Salisbury, J. G. Lash, Salem, R. F. 
Simoiitou, Statesville, T, W. Dewey, Charlotte, Genl. 
Robert Vance, Asheville, 

If other names, in other localities, be desired, I will 
designate them if requested. ■ . 

]\Iav jou be successful in this the noblest charity in the 
line of benevolence to which you have devoted your life. 

To Duncan^ Navaro & Co. 

Jan. 3 IS 67. 

Yours of the 2Sth inst. is received, asking my co- 
ojDeration in a gift enterprise for the benefit of destitute 
Southerners. There are many here greatly needing and 
deserving the charity of the benevolent. I know little as 
to gift enterprises and do not know in what way I am to 
co-ojDerate, but the object is one in which you can have my 
hearty help in any proper way in which I can give it. 

jSTew Yoek City. 

To L. 17. GiJhert. 

RaleiCxIi, Jan. ^ 1867. 

Your letter and accompanying bill for charter for the 
American Industrial Association of Iv'orth Carolina is re- 
ceived. It strikes me that your designs may benefit the 

Under the Constitution and laws of the State a private 
law cannot be passed until 30 days notice of the applica- 
tion shall be given. The Genl Assembly will convene on 
the 28th inst. I have had a notice prepared and send it 
to the Senfinel news-paper published here for insertion 
and have directed the editors to send their account to you, 
for the payment of which I have made myself responsible. 

852 !N'oRTH Carolin'a Historical Commission. 

My time, in the strange condition of onr Federal rela- 
tions, etc. is so engrossed that I fear I may not be able to 
give your business the attention necessary to insure the 
passage of your bill, and I recommend that you address 
Thadeus J. Bryson, at this place, asking him to call on 
me for the bill. He is a member of the House from 
Jackson County and I think will take an interest in get- 
ting your bill passed. Wishing you success, 

JSTew York City. 

To Rev. Robert N ewmann. 

Kaleigh, Jan. Jf. 1867. 
Yours of the 17th inst. has not been answered sooner 
because other duties have engrossed my attention. 
Climate and Re- The climate and resources of this State are most invit- 

sources of North 

Carolina. ing — and our impoverished condition makes immigration 

most desirable to us — but the groundless suspicions con- 
tinually kept up against us by the dominant power in 
Congress, and the uncertainty as to the future action of 
our Conquerors, dispirit our people. Until the revolu- 
tionary schemes of Congress shall be abandoned and ap- 
prehension of cruel domination cease, we can do little. 

We know little as to the best plan of inducing immi- 
gration and cannot hope that many immigrants will settle 
among us while we are held as a conquered province — 
and every way reviled by our conquerors. I shall most 
earnestly co-operate in any scheme of encouraging immi- 
gTation whenever the action of Congress shall be such as 
to leave us any ground to hope that such scheme will be 

Our Genl. Assembly, which has taken a recess till the 
last of this month, has the subject of encouraging immi- 
gration under consideration. If you can suggest any spe- 
cific thing we may do, which you think would bring immi- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 853 

grants to this State, I will lay such suggestions before the 
committee having charge of this subject. 
Xew York City. 

To Eer. Bohert Xewmann. 

Raleigh, Jan. Jf 1867. 
During the late war myself and mv son D. G. Worth offering for sale 

^ tj 'J a tract of land. 

of Wilmington, and my brother-in-law X. G. Daniel of 
Wilmington as a counteract of our depreciating currency 
purchased a very valuable tract of land in Horry District, 
S. C, containing about 3,500 acres. I ow^n half and each 
of them one-fourth. They are merchants in Wilmington 
and my attention is directed to home affairs. We would 
like to sell it. 

The tract consists of about 600 acres, originally swamp, 
of exceeding fertility. A principal canal has been cut 
so large that the swamp is never inundated. Some 150 
acres were brought into cultivation years ago and other 
residue, without important expense, might be cleared and 
cultivated. The portion of it not reclaimed has much 
valuable timber. White oak, Poplar, Juniper — the whole 
of it capable of producing the most luxuriant crops of 
cotton, corn, etc. which any land will yield. 

The original proprietor, a Scotchman, who died without 
heir in this country, made a large fortune on it, by the 
cultivation of cotton, and laid out, by tasteful and judi- 
cious ditching, the portion which he brought into cultiva- 
tion, but the proprietors since have neglected the ditches 
and it would require a small outlay of labor to put it in 
productive condition. 

The remainder of the land — say 2700 acres is covered 
by a first forest of long-leaf pine, most of which has been 
boxed for turpentine and worked about four feet high. 

The buildings on the place are not valuable, but capable 
of furnishino- comfortable shelter to a few families. 


The place is about 7 miles distant from flat [Two ivoi^ds 
illegibW] with excellent road to the jilace of shipment. 
The ontlet to the ocean is by way of Georgetown. 

The place is capable of a large operation in timber, 
stores and lumber besides the culture of cotton and corn, 
so that many laborers could be profitably employed on it 
at once. 

We would sell this tract at $3.00 per acre, gold, one 
third down, and a credit of any reasonable time for the 
residue, secured by retaining title until the purchase 
money should be -paid, and interest at 1 per cent paid 

If you can effect a sale for us, we will allow you 5 per 
cent and it to be paid as fast as we receive the purchase 

If this description shall awaken your attention, any 
agent you may send to examine the land will receive every 
facility from Worth & Daniel of Wilmington, who have 
a map of the premises, and one of whom, if desired, 
would accompany such agent. 

The growth of cotton and the production of the pine, 
offer the most inviting field for profits, and the operations 
could be put in action on this place at once. 

false reports. 

To C. B. DihUe. 

Jan. 5 1867. 

Contradiction of Attribute my neglect to answer yours of the 20th ult. 

to domestic grief and the pressure of public engagements. 

Myself and associates, when at Washington, did what 

we could to remove the impressions prejudicial to this 


The people of ]S[orth Carolina were never more loyal 
to the Constitution of the United States and never more 
obedient to jSTational authority. 

Cokrespojstdence of Jo]srATHA^r Worth. 855 

The allegation so often repeated, that Union men and 
negroes cannot have justice in our Courts is without color 
of truth, but a small class of base men wrong us, to curry 
favor with the dominant party in CongTCSS, over anony- 
mous signatures, are indefatigable in supplying the Chron- 
icle and kindred papers with new falsehood for nearly 
every issue, — and as the papers which publish these lies 
don't want truth to overtake them, they never publish a 
contradiction. This keeps up ill will towards us among 
the masses. 

I do not believe members of Congress are misled by 
these lies. They have too many facilities to ascertain 
the truth — but many, I fear, are willing their constituents 
shall continue to believe we are monsters. Xearly all of 
them deem the continued ascendency of the present domi- 
nant power the magTium bonum and the deem the con- 
tinued exclusion of the South from Congress — and the dis- 
franchisement of the great body of our people and right 
of suffrage to the lately emancipated slaves essential to 
preservation of their party power. The idea of winning 
our confidence by allowing us our constitutional rights 
and attaching us to them by magnanimous confidence, 
they will not entertain. They rely on force only, and un- 
constitutional schemes of reo-ulating suffrage among us, 
now th^t no State South will voluntarily assent to ratify 
an amendment proposed in a CongTess from which we 
were excluded and with features revolting to a people re- 
taining any self respect. 

I inclose to you a copy of late inaugural. 

In a few days we will have in Washington a few of our 
ablest men whose character as Union men is far better 
than that of a few miserable sycophants among us who 
first stirred up Sectionalism and now meanly claim to be 
the only people among us deserving Northern confidence. 

Xew York City. 

856 ISToRTH Caeolina Histoeical Commission. 

To F. B. Satterthivaite.^ 

Jan. 5th 1867. 
Relating to a peti- In the case of J. J. Perkins' petition for pardon, the 

tion tor pardon. .... . . 

consideration of which has been deferred, because it did 
not appear to be absolutely necessary to decide it at present, 
and because of duties public and domestic, have not given 
me time for the careful consideration of the case. I am 
struck by the omission to give any account of the transac- 
tion. The case as presented seems to rest for my action 
simjDly on the universal wish of the local community that 
clemency be extended, while the facts attending the com- 
mission of the offence are not set forth. When a judge 
in an Assault and Battery case imposes a j&ne of $500. 
and six months imprisonment, I think that proper respect 
to the Judiciary, compels me to assume there must have 
been some heinous criminality in the transaction, and 
when I am asked to pardon, and the history of the trans- 
action is entirely suppressed, I doubt the propriety of 
yielding to the request, though backed by the entire local 
community. Is it not due to the Judge to assume that his 
judgment rested on truer grounds than the passions and 
sympathies of the connnunity ? 

I infer from some of the papers that the transaction 
sprung from some family feud between Perkins and Clark 
and that a pardon of Perkins would tend to compose this 
feud. I do not find in the papers any assurance that such 
would be the result. 

I have before me nothing from the judge — And the en- 
dorsement of the Att. Genl. not recommending the par- 
don, but postponement of the imprisonment of Perkins to 
the indefinite time when Clark shall be tried presents to 
my mind an embarrassing question as to my power so 
to act. 

As it is some weeks yet before the imprisonment would 

^ Fenner B. Satterthwaite, of Pitt county, had been a member of the 
legislature and of the conventions of 1861 and 1865. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 857 

commence I defer action till I shall hear from Judge Mer- 
rimon, or until I shall be made more fnlly cognizent of 
the facts. I will not allow the beneficent power of clem- 
ency vested in the Executive, to cripple the power of the 
judiciary to repress crime. The worthy names pressing 
the pardon of Perkins entitle his application, accompanied 
as they are by facts, to the most respectful consideration, 
and I regret that my necessary absence in the public ser- 
vice prevented your seeing me on the subject. On this as 
w^ell as other matters of public concern, I would be glad 
to have a personal interview with you. 

To A. C. Coivles. 

Jan. 5th 1867. 

I some time ago ordered a bbl of whiskey from my 
friend X. Williams. His agent (he being from home at 

the time) sent me a bbl containing 37 gals, at $5 

$185.00 requesting remittance by express. The amount 
oversized my purse. I sent $100. and owe $85. Will 
you do me the favor to pay him the $85. and let me hand 
it to you when you come down to the Genl. Assembly ? 

At this rate a poor Govr. who keep a quantity of meat 
and bread and fuel must treat himself and friends on 
short allowance of whiskey. 


To B. S. Hedrich. 

Jan otli 1867. 

Thos. Futrel of Randolph County, a deputy marshal, 

took the census of 1860. He died in 1861, I believe. He 

took no part in the war. His widow Julia Ann Futrel, 

in deplorable indigent circumstances, writes me there is 

858 North Caeolina Histobical Commissiojst. 

a bal. of $184. due her husband for this service. Whether 
claims of this sort to Southern deputy marshals are paid 
under any circumstances and if so, the measures necessary 
to be taken, I know not. Please send this note to some 
claim agent — and if he shall think rhj thing can be made 
of it and he will write me I will put him in communication 
with Mrs. Futrel. 
Washington, D. C. 

To D. L. 8 wain. 

Jan. 5 1867. 

Your kind letter of condolence was received. I cannot 
as yet recover from the afflicting shock. My lovely and 
beloved daughter whose life was so free from guile that I 
♦ cannot remember even to have had occasion to rebuke her, 
is continually present to my mind, and so enervates me 
that I can scarcely perform my duties, now so numerous 
and diversified that I should scarcely be equal to their per- 
formance under other circumstances. 

You will have seen that I nominated A. S. Merrimon, 
Jno. A. Gilmer, P. H. Winston, Bedford Brown and 
J. M. Leach to go to Washington under the resolution 
you drew up, one of the chief objects of the mission (the 
only specified object) being to get relief from the land 
tax. ISTone of them have given this subject any thing like 
the consideration you have. I suggest that you commu- 
nicate to them your views. Gilmer declines to serve on 
account of ill health. I have not nominated another to 
fill his place. Can you suggest a fit man to fill his place ? 

P. S. ■ I inclose $10. which I believe is the sum due 
you on acct of expenses of our late trip to Washington. 
Chapel Hill. ' . 


To ir. F. Leal\ 

Jan. 5 1867. 
Your late letter is received. The duties of my position, Political con- 

" ditioiis. 

enormously burdensome on account of our anomalous con- 
dition make it impossible for me. to answer at all — much 
less at any length, the many kind letters received from 
sources — as in the case of yours — where if it were possible, 
I would like to go fully into the subject. 

The most alarming feature of our aifairs at present, is 
the effort of Holden and his followers to ride into power 
by the disfranchisement of the great body of our white 
men and the universal enfranchisement of the negroes. 
The negroes are carried away with this prospect. It is 
greatly to be feared that he will engender malevolence to- 
wards the whites in the minds of the simpler race. 

Congress is not deluded to the extent you suppose as to 
the disposition of the South. The grand object is the re- 
tention of power oyer us, and the stories as to our loyalty 
are matured and encouraged to justify their revolutionary 
measures in the minds of the great masses of their people. 

Anything our leading Secessionists would swear would 
be treated as real perjury. Representations by such of 
our people as went, into the rebellion not by choice, but 
by force of surrounding circumstances, made to the mod- 
erate Republicans, is much more likely to be efficacious. I 
have appointed Bedford Brown, Jno. A. Gilmer, Judge 
Merrimon, Genl. Leach and P. H. Winston to go to Wash- 
ington to do what they can and make to us such sugges- 
tions founded on what they may learn, as they may deem 
suited to our condition. 

I am clear that we assent to no pretended compromise 
by way of amendment to the Constitution — proposed by a 
fraction of a Constitutional ■ Congress, but that we place 
our reliance on the judicial and Executive departments 
of the Govt, and if they fail manfully bide under fate as 
mere force, which we are impotent to resist, may impose. 

860 ISToETH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

I have not only hope, but confidence that the action of 
the Supreme Court sustained by the Prest. will shield us 
from all the proposed schemes of reorganising our State 
government, or changing our State Constitution, if our 
people remain firm in asserting our rights. If the South 
become panic stricken aiid lose sight of their rights and 
dignity, the National Government, losing sight of the Con- 
stitution, will soon become chaotic and degenerate into a 
great mob, ruled only by the will of the hour. 

Any further concessions will but invite further en- 
croachments — and instead of protecting us, will result in 
the total overthrow of Constitutional liberty. 

Besides my public cares which oppress me, I am ener- 
vated, almost prostrated by a late grievous domestic ca- 


To B. 8. Hedrich. 

Jan. 5 1867. 

A gentleman of the bar of this State has sent me the 
inclosed argTiment with the request that I will submit it 
to some gentleman of learning who has considered the 
subject and return it to him with such remarks on the 
same as such person may be willing to make. 

Having heard when in Washington City that [dc'] Judge 
Sharkey in what way the expression of the Supreme Court 
could be obtained on the subject discussed, I ask the favor 
of you to submit the argument to his examination, if he 
be in yr city, with request that he examine and return to 
me with any remarks he may be willing to make on it. 

Washington^ D. C. 


To Jil. C. Johnson. 

Jan. 5th 1867. 

Yours of the 29tli ult. and the newspaper referred to the°Howarr ^'^ 
by you reed. I have read your article 'The political fu- ^^^^^dment. 
ture of the South," with profound pain. In my opinion 
no calamity which power can inflict on us can equal that 
likely to result from voluntary ratification of the Howard 
amendment. And I think w^e cannot expect honorable 
j^erformance of any terms of compromise unconstitution- 
ally proposed and accepted without apprehension of more 
grievous oppression. 

I do not deem it politic under any circumstances, for a 
peoj^le or a man to accept terms of settling a controversy 
whereby, such people or man would forfeit self-esteem. I 
think the State will be protected under our present Con- 
stitution, by the action of the Judiciary and the Executive. 
If Revolution has gained a head by which the present Con- 
stitution is to be trodden down, and I can see no security 
against its rage, by the concessions you propose. The 
dominant power, when we voluntarily yield to degrading- 
terms, will naturally lose all respect for us. 

I am for relying on the Judiciary : and if that fail us, 
manfully biding the fate physical power may impose. I 
have never been a Secessionist. 

Lexington^ Ky. 

To Thomas Rwffin.^ : 

Jan. 7 1867. 
A citizen of this State who desires me not to furnish Asking advice, 
his name, has sent me the inclosed argaiment, with the re- 
quest that I submit it to some eminent constitutional law- 

^ Thomas Ruffin, of Alamance and Orange, the most distinguished 
jurist of the State, for many years Chief Justice. He had been a 
member of the Peace Conference of 1861, and while there was con- 
vinced of the necessity of war. 

862 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commissiojst. 

jers and return it to him with their views as to the sound- 
ness of his argument and conchisions. 

AVill you examine it and if you deem it expedient, sub- 
mit it to Gov. Graham and let me know your views 

The terrible domestic calamity which I apprehended 
when I saw you, almost disqualifies me to discharge my 
public duties. 

I grow stronger in my faith that we shall find in the 
most conservative feature of our government, the Judi- 
ciary, a shield against the most Revolutionary plan of Con- 
gress, and just now feel more solicitude for domestic quiet, 
than I do as to the Congressional plan of Territorialising 
the State. Holden having lost the confidence of the white 
race, by associating with our external foes, to engender 
animosity betw^een the whites and blacks and to get into 
power through the agency of the poor ignorant negro. He 
has made much impression on them hereabouts and 
through the agency of secret lawyers, I fear wull deceive 
the masses of them as leaders often deceive and mislead 
the more intelligent whites. 


To ^yi^tinrn A. Graham. 

Jan. 7 1861. 

On our visit to Washington lately I found Senators 
Sharkey, Parsons and Marvin there. Would it not be 
well for you to go on and spend a week or two longer 
there ? 

You will have seen my nominations a few days ago, 
under the resolution- authorising me to send a Commission 
and pay their expenses. Mr. Gilmer declines to go on ac- 
count of ill health. I will place you on the Commission 
if you will accept. 

Or you may go on at once without further communica- 
tion or at any time within the next week or two. 



To John A. Gilmer. 

Jan. 7 1867. 

I much regret that your health would not vrarrant the 
acceptance of the mission to Washington. 

i have had no response from any of the other parties 
nominated, save Genl. Leach who writes he would go. 

When I went over to Randolph with you last Fall I 
called on ]\Ir. Julian to pay for rail and Steam passage. 
He told me you had paid for us. I then called on you to 
refund when you threatened to knock me down if I named 
it. jSTot wishing to receive such rough use I said no more, 
hut thought you were over generous. jSTow they have sent 
their bill to me here — for passage of myself and Steve 
and I j)aid it and as I much preferred to pay it, it is all 
right, if you didn't pay it also. If you did, make them 
refund. I have their recpt. 


To Leivis Ilanes. 

Jan. Sth 1867. 

Mr. Gilmer, whom I nominated as one of the commis- Appointment to 

TTT T • 111 1 • ^1 ^^■ashington 

sion to go to Washington under the late resolution oi the Mission. 
Genl. A. declines to go on account of had health. I have 
not heard whether Judge Merrimon or Mr. Winston, have 
gone or will go. Messrs. Leach and Brown are now in 
Washington. I hereby nominate you as one of the com- 
mission and request you to go on at the earliest day pos- 
sible. Go to the Ebbitt House. - I am authorized to re- 
fund your expenses. You are selected on account of your 
Union record. It may be of advantage for you to have 
along your speech in the Commons in 1864 or 1865. A 
State electing you and me certainly exhibits no strong 
Secession proclivities. I desire that you stay in Washing- 
ton as long as you may think you can do any good for 
jSTorth Carolina. 

S64 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

[P. S.] — I write from home and cannot send yon a copy 
of the resolution under which yon are appointed. A copy 
was sent to Mr. Leach and Mr. Brown. 


To Bedford Brown & J. M. Leach. 

Jan. 9th 1867: 

The mails are probably obstructed whereby I have heard 
nothing from judge Merrimon or Mr. Winston. I have 
appointed Lewis Hanes in place of Mr. Gilmer, who de- 
clines to go on account of bad health. 

I hope you will not be in a hurry to leave Washington. 
Stay as long as you may think your presence serviceable 
to the State. 

It is not necessary that you act as a joint commission. 
If some have to leave very soon others might remain longer. 

Washinc^ton^ D. C. 

To Bedford Brown & J. M. Leach. 

Jan. 9th 1867. 
Other commissioners not heard from. Proceed lei- 
surely in your commission. Will write fully. 
Washington^, D. C. 

To Nereus MendenhaU. 

Jan. 10 1867. 
You mentioned to me when I last saw you that you had 

a petition for the pardon of Davis, convicted and 

sentenced to be hanged by Guilford Supr. Court. I sup- 


posed that petition was to be presented at a suitable time. 
Having heard nothing more from it, and the day of exe- 
cution being near at hand, it has occurred to me it may 
have been entrusted to some person who has neglected to 
present it. 

The facts which have been presented to me, make the 
impression that he is a criminal bent on evil; but being 
young and ignorant, I feel inclined to commute the sen- 
tence of hanging for a long period of hard labor in a peni- 
tentiary, should the Genl A. authorise such commutation. 

A petition, asking me to respite him until it shall be 
ascertained whether such power of commutation shall be 
conferred on me, would probably receive a favorable re- 
sponse. As the facts now appear before me I shall cer- 
tainly not pardon him. 

Xew Gakdex. 

To Bedford Brown and others. 

January 12 1867. 
Knowino' that Gov. Swain had ffiven to the matter of concerning 

"^ *^ Uolden's speech 

the tax on lands under the Act of Congress of 1862 much i° Raieigh. 
consideration and thinking that his reflections and re- 
searches might be of service to you I addressed him a let- 
ter on the subject — and herewith inclose his reply. 

The late efforts of the ;N"orth Carolina Radicals who de- 
rive all their notions and blindly follow their leader Mr. 
Holden, look to the disfranchisement of the great body of 
the whites and the enfranchisement of all the negroes, 
whereby the negroes would become the dominant political 
power in the State. Mr. Holden has thrown off his dis- 
gTiise — addresses the negToes in night assemblies — has 
printed and circulated among them for their sigTiatures 
asking Congress to carry out this program — And in a 
speech made to them a night or two ago, as I learn from 
an intelligent negro who was present (no white men save 

Vol. 2—14 

866 JSi^okth Cakolina Histoeicai Commission. 

those less respectable than the negroes were present) that 
he told them iSTorth Carolina had made last year some 
100,000 bales of cotton. He inqnired whose labor made 
this cotton — who got the money, etc. The design is to 
make the negroes dis-satisfied with the whites by making 
them believe they are still in effect slaves, working for the 
whites. He succeeds in deceiving the credulous creatures — 
and winds up with the assurance that they are soon to be 
relieved — that in a short time their oppressors will be put 
out of power and the State government committed to their 
hands and a few benevolent white men like himself. 

I do not know that the knowledge of these machinations 
can aid you in your mission — -but I deem it proper that 
you be advised of this new phase in domestic affairs. 

The white emissaries of Holden operate in getting sig- 
natures to these memorials through extensive secret or- 
ganizations both among the white and colored population — 
Red Strings — loyal leagues, etc. — and by holding out to 
others, not attached to these organizations, that their only 
chance to save their lands from confiscation, is to sign 
these memorials. Even so intelligent a man as Junius 
Sanders, of Johnston, told me on yesterday that one of 
these memorials was presented to him and he was urged 
to sign it to save his lands. 

I believe through these agencies a flood of petitions 
numerously signed by blacks, nearly en mass, and by many 
whites, will shortly find their way into Congress from 
this State, praying for the abolition of the present State 
Government and a re-organization according to the most 
ultra schemes of the revolutionary Disunionists who now 
lead the Congress. 

Washington. D. C. 

Coreespojntdea'ce of Jonathan Woktii. 867 

To George Howard. ' 

Jan. 12 1867. 
I am anuoj^ed by an editorial in the Tarboro Southerner Request for 

,. , ^ , . . , . , . , , , . -, information. 

01 the 10th iiist. m which it stated that there are organized 
conij^anies of malefactors in Pitt^, Greene, etc. — that the 
militia, called out to suppress these organizations, have 
sustained defeat, etc. and acknowledging the impotencv 
of the State authorities to arrest the disorder and a con- 
sequent call on the Federal authorities for help. Read 
the article, !^[othing I have seen in any Radical Journal 
furnishes so much pabulum to those who would reduce us 
to a territorial condition. I have had no official notice 
of the existence of such organizations. I hear there are 
lurking robbers and murderers but I had not been informed 
that the}^ had attempted to resist the execution of civil 
process, or that they had so banded that the militia could 
be of any service. The difficulty, as I understand it, con- 
sists in ascertaining the names of the guilty parties. 

If your editor had acted wisely they would have in- 
formed me by letter, instead of furnishing the best of ma- 
terial to those who would destroy us. 

If you can furnish me any information or make me any 
suggestion tending to enable me, even by stretch of Execu- 
tive authority, to bring these malefactors to Justice, I 
will be greatly obliged to you. 


To W. T. Fairdoth. 

Jan. 12 1867. 
The character of the State, at home and abroad, is being Request for infor- 

Ti 111 •11-TiTT mation as to con- 

greatly damaged by the reports with winch the local ditions in ttie East. 

papers, Tarboro Southerner, ITewbern Commercial etc 

are continually filled, as gross murders, robberies, etc. in 

Pitt, Greene, and other Counties in your Circuit. If 

there be any truth in these statements they require some 

868 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commissiois'. 

remedy. They are doing us incalcuble mischief abroad, 
whether true or untrue. I am most painfully distressed 
by them. Can you suggest any thing which I can do in 
the premises ? Can you not possess yourself of the need- 
ful information and devise some plan of bringing these 
malefactors to justice ? Or get the editors to cease to 
furnish a handle to those who wish to disparage the civil 
government of the State. If the crimes are committed the 
effort should be to have the malefactors arrested and pun- 
ished. These publications expose the State to obloquy and 
in no way tend to arrest the evil. 


To Tf. F. Leah. 

Jan. 13th 1S67. 

yie\vsal\o^the I pcrccive by youTs of the 9th inst. that I must have 

attitude of the i ij?i i • j. t • ix 

Radicals. exjDressecl myself obscurely or inaccurately m reply to 

your first communication. 

My idea is that members of Congress Iniow that there 
is no real intention on the part of any considerable num- 
ber of Southerners to offer further resistance to the gov. 
of the U. S. To prove to them by high-minded Southern 
Secessionists that no disloyalty now exists in the South, 
which they already hnowj, will accomplish nothing. They 
are willing that the masses of their constituents shall labor 
under the impression that we are still disloyal. They are 
unwilling the masses shall be undeceived. The sole mo- 
tive of their action is the retaining of party ascendency, 
but it is necessary to make the honest masses believe they 
are moved by ijairlotic motives. They will not hear evi- 
dence much less allow it to be published, tending to es- 
tablish our willingness to obey the laws and constitution 
of the U. S. Tliey hnow (I mean the members of Con- 
gress know) that we submit in good faith — but they don't 
intend their constituents shall know it. If we offer evi- 


deuce which Gov. Graham asked leave to offer a year ago, 
they will not hear it — or will suppress it. Their sole 
motive is the retention of political powers. We cannot 
reach the popular ear of the ISForth through Congress. 
Dawson and other Southerners who mingle among them 
and make speeches and give direct explanations, produce 


To Editors of tlie ]YlInuiigtoii Journal. 

Jan. 13 1867. 
I was pained to see republished in your Journal an Protesting against 

, the publication of 

article from the Tarboro Soutlienier oi, the 10th inst. false reports, 
stating that "organised companies" of malefactors in Pitt, 
Greene, etc. existed — that the militia had been called out 
to sustain "defeat" and winding up by a humiliating ac- 
knowledgment of the impotency of the State authorities 
and an apjjeal to the Federal authorities to give protec- 
tion. — Xothing I have seen, considering the source whence 
it emanates, furnishes such rich material to the Radicals. 
If banditti are rampant in jST. C. — if her militia has sus- 
tained ''defeat" from them — and the State is so impotent 
that it becomes necessary to appeal to U. S. to aid us in 
the execution of our criminal laws, the radicals have 
a pretty fair excuse for reducing us to a dependent terri- 
torial condition and endeavoring to control our municipal 

But it is untrue. — Not an instance has occurred in the 
State where a Shff has had resistance within 18 months 
in any locality of the State to call on his posse to aid in 
executing process. The militia of the county has not sus- 
tained ""defeat" by banditi and if they had, the Executive 
of the State should have been called upon, before a piteous 
appeal is made to Federal authority for help. The article 
in question will do us incalculable mischief. I pray you to 

870 ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

have more care of the publication of such strictly well-cal- 
culated (but not intended) to furnish pabulum for our 

If crime is rampant in Pitt, Greene, and neighboring 
counties, it is the fault of the people and the local au- 
thorities to do their duty, and not the impotency of the 
State authority at large. 

I can see no good end to be accomplished (but much 
mischief) by the publication of unpunished outrage with 
which the press of the State abounds. 

If facts come to the possession of the editors of our 
Journals wherein there is apparent ground for suspicion 
that the Judiciary, the Executive, or any other State officer 
has neglected the performance of the duties imposed by law, 
the good of the State at present requires that such default 
should be well ascertained before an imputation is made 
tending to justify the abolition of the State government. 
Instead of news-paper articles such facts should be com- 
municated to the State officials as would be likely to aid 
them in the performance of their duties. I beg you to 
consider these suggestions. 

To C. C. Clark. 

Jan. 13 1867. 
Concerning false You will have pcrceivcd that the news-papers of your 
place, as well as the Tarboro Southerner, the Goldsboro 
News and others, are frequently publishing as matter of 
much import which reach them of flagrant outrages com- 
mitted by unknown individuals or bands. A late number 
of the Sentinel asserts that these outrages are committed 
by "organised companies" in Pitt, Greene, etc. that the 
militia have made an effort to give relief and have sus- 
tained "defeat," and the editors, acknowledging the im- 
potency of the State authorities to protect the orderly, call 
on the Federal authorities for protection. I see this article 


transferred to the Wilmington Journal and I suppose it 
will go the rounds of the State press. l\"ow if there be 
any ''organised'' bands of malefactors, and the local au- 
thorities are too feeble to resist them (which I believe to 
be untrue) an appeal should have been made to the State 
Executive before furnishing food to the Radicals by an ap- 
peal to the Federal authorities for help. Iso such appeal 
has been made to me, because, as I suppose, there is no 
occasion for military aid. I fear the justices of the peace 
and other local officers in that part of the State are grossly 
negligent in pointing out and bring malefactors to Justice. 
I have heard of no difficulty any where in executing pro- 
cess. T see no recent notice in the Commercial of the ex- 
ercise of Lynch law in Greene. 

These publications in Southern papers, are greedily re- 
published in the Radical Journals to the great detriment 
of the State. The Tarboro article is an acknowledgement 
of the impotency of the State government, founded on a 
false statement of facts ; and an appeal to powers wdiich 
are disparaging and oppressing us, to keep here a military 
force to protect the quiet citizen, whom the State authori- 
ties cannot or will not protect. 

These publications are doing us incalculable mischief 
as you will readily see. What can I do in the premises ? 
I perceive nothing that can be done only to exhort these 
editors not to allow their anxiety to furnish a news article 
to furnish pabulum to our enemies while there is no 
counter benefit to set off this mischief. If they would im- 
press all the people that laws cannot protect them, if they 
are too cowardly or so remiss that they dare not or will 
not expose the names of the perpetrators of crime against 
them, they would exhibit sense and deserve well of the 
public. And if it be true, which I do not believe, that 
"organised" bandits prevent the local officers from dis- 
charging their duties, then an appeal for help, in a proper 
manner, not through the press, should be made to the Ex- 
ecutive for aid before we are held up to the nation as un- 

872 jS^oktpi Carolina Historical Commission. 

able to execute our laws and a humiliating appeal made 
to our ojDpressors for help. 

I do not deem it fit that / make a direct appeal to these 
editors. The object of this letter is to ask you to use your 
influence with such of them as you may properly approach 
to discontinue a course so decided to us. 

If there be any thing I can properly do, to aid in the 
execution of the laws, I need not assure you of my readi- 
ness to even stretch my powers to accomplish the object. 

I shall be obliged to you for any suggestion you can 
make touching this subject — remarking that my present 
impressions are that the evil complained of is not want 
of power in the State nor counties — but the cowardice 
of the people wronged. In the language of Vance, "peo- 
ple who allow themselves to be pressed upon without re- 
sentment, cannot expect the laws to protect them." 

!N^Ew Bern. 

To Lydia Maxwell. 

Jan. 15 1867. 

Defending the Yours of the 7th has just come to hand to-day. I was 

state and its , , . . , ^ r • ^ ^ 

people. glad to receive it, but was sorry to gather irom it that 

this the incident which lately took us to Washington, to 
wit, to protest against a military commander, abolishing 
our govt, by proclamation — , made us sink deeper — are 
you at variance with the opinion you had previously enter- 
tained that I had some pretensions to charity — and good- 
ness of heart. You think every human man "N^orth and 
South" would have approved Genl Sickle's law forbidding 
the infliction of corporal punishment^ — and as I disapprove 
it you do not disguise that in your estimation I do not 
belong in this class of men. I*^ow I give you credit for 
candor in this declaration. I know no good men, ISTorth 
or South, save a few who have their minds so engrossed 
with the vice of slaverv that all other crimes become venial 


in their estimatioii, who disapprove of my action in this 

We have no Penitentiary. In my last message, a copy 
of which I will forward to yon, I recommend the building 
of one. Until this shall he authorised by law and after- 
wards, a governor must see the laws of his State executed. 
The law of Moses, and of England, for some 1500 years 
past, have made whipping the punishment for certain 
crime. Our laws, since the first constitution of the State 
have made whipping the penalty for bigamy, larceny, etc. 
You say it is a relic of barbarism. See. 25 Chap. Deuter- 
onomy, Matthew Chap. 5 v 17, Christ tells us that he did 
not come to destroy the law but to fulfill it. See Exodus, 
Chap. 27 V. 2 — . Whipping was ordered by Moses. Some 
of his laws are not expressly abrogated by the laws of our 
Saviour are still in force. I have not been taught to regard 
Moses as a barbarian — nor our English ancestors for long 
centuries past, nor the people of your native State. I 
know it is quite the custom of many of our Northern 
friends to consider jSTorth Carolina as out of the pale of 
civilization and to call whipping for crime, notwithstand- 
ing it is traced to the Divine LaAvgiver, as you call it a ■ 
relic of barbarism — but we have not lost all self esteem 
and find no reason to blush at the statistics of crime in 
ISTorth Carolina as compared with the State where the peo- 
ple deem themselves so much wiser and so much more 
civilized than they deem us. These disparaging compari- 
sons do not tend to the cordial restoration of kind feelings 
between the people of all sections of our country which all 
good men ought to cultivate. If you think we retain '''a 
relic of barbarism" and we deem the horror you profess 
at whipping a rogue or bigamist, as sickly sentimentality — - 
mutual charity should restrain us from harsh commentary 
upon each others' views. 

I do not object however to putting such criminals in a 
penitentiary instead of whipping them — but I do object 
against a military officer being invested with power to an- 

74 JS'OETH CaeolijXa Historical CoMMissioisr. 

mil such of the civil laws of the state as he may deem im- 
wise and mj attempt to resist this arrogant assmnption of 
power ought to elevate rather than lower me in the esti- 
mation of all good men — and with the certainty to which 
you refer that you and I must soon appear before the great 
judge, I have no apprehension of condemnation for this 
act of my life. I regard it as a merit. 

I have never known an hour when I did not desire the 
preservation of the Union and the Constitution. Hence I 
abhorred Secession which sought to dissolve the Union — 
and hence I equally abhor Eadicalism which treats the 
Union as actually dissolved, and undertakes to state to 
the States how they shall execute their Constitution and 

I was amazed at one Avho knows some thing of the con- 
dition of nine tenths of the freedm.en to ask that all of 
them at once shall be placed on the same footing with the 
whites as to voting and holding office. I am willing some 
standard of intelligence or property shall be adopted by 
which the better class of them — and all of them as they 
reach such Standard — may have the privilege and I am 
willing to be taxed to help any of them remove to Indiana 
or elsewhere, where ( I infer from your letter) they may 
expect equality with the whites — And I hope as much as 
I can hope for any thing in the face of all history and ex- 
. perience that you may succeed in making the negro the 
equal of the white man — I desire that they be educated — 
but as you have few negroes among you and you are rich — 
your land dotted over with school houses, the same liberal 
benevolence which makes you send young women and 
money here to educate the blacks, you must have educated 
young negresses among you. When you and I want 
a bed-fellow we prefer a white person to a negro, and on 
the same princi|)le you ought to send your educated ne- 
gresses here. When a white young woman comes here to 
take charge of a negro school, though she may be impelled 
by a high sense of religious duty, a suspicion among stran- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 875 

gers will arise that the impelling motive is the treasurer's 
money : and when a white yonng woman makes negroes 
her associates here as well as in Indiana, a suspicion aris- 
ing from the adage, "birds of a feather flock together," 
excludes her from the company of well bred people, at 
least until a long course of good conduct extorts esteem. ^ 

The representation which I suppose you continually 
read and believe that Union men and negroes are mal- 
treated and cannot have justice before our Courts are with- 
out color of truth. Tliey are originated and propagated 
with the malicious purpose of keeping up hostility towards 
us. Our laws have been reformed so that no discrimina- 
tion exists to the prejudice of the negro as to his rights to 
personal security and protection to his person and property 
and the law is as impartially administered in this State as 
it is in any of the United States, and this fact no respect- 
able person here will deny. Special instances of cruel 
wrong occur here as they do every where. I ardently de- 
sire a restoration of the Union on the basis of mutual kind- 
ness, but I look for no such result while the jSTorth shall 
assume superiority in virtue and intelligence over us and 
assume to demand of us the enactment of laws and amend- 
ments of the Constitution which we deem pernicious to us 
and degrading to us. 

I would not restore slavery if I could nor would one 
man in ten in this State : and nobody expects its restora- 
tion, but whenever I conclude the negro is entitled to polit- 
ical and social equality with me, I shall not feel humili- 
ated when any of my kin shall inter-marry with negroes. 
The Caucasian race always has been and always will be 
superior to the negro race. 

In conclusion let me say I have long endeavored in all 
my conduct public and private to act as nearly as possible 
according to the cardinal principles of the new testament — 
the chiefest of which I regard as Charity — and hence I 
do not allow myself to iMnJc ill, — much less to speak ill of 
others with whom I cannot agree as to principles of mor- 

876 I*ToKTH Carolhsta Historical Commission. 

ality and religion, — and carrying out this doctrine I desire 
that the iN'orth and the South — that each State, as provided 
in the Constitution, shall make such laws as they deem 
proper, and not inconsistent with the Constitution of the 
U. S., without intermeddling with others. 

I have made this letter much too long. I wish your let- 
ter had been confined as it began to a revival of old recol- 
lections and a sketch of our family conditions. It would 
have been most gratifying to know how many children you 
have, whether they are living near you and doing well — 
and to have heard something of Camden Thomas, Reu- 
ben, etc. 

Liberty, ITkion Co., Iowa. 

To Nathamel Boyden. 

Ealeigh, K C. Jan. 18 1867. 
****** -:v 

Hoidenl course ^"^J latest information as to Holden's operations among 

his new clients — the negroes — is that he is being less suc- 
cessful than he has usually been in deceiving the whites. 
In this city are a few negroes whom he formerly owned 
whom he sent oif handcuffed to be sold from their wives 
living here. There statements here impair the confidence 
of the negroes in the professions of their new ally. Out 
of the city his paper has little circulation and the reports 
of his late servants travel nearly as fast as his new-born 
professions of zeal for the African race. At present the 
negroes seem to be exhibiting more sagacity than could 
have been expected. 

I can make no suggestion as to the action of your Com- 
mission save only that you must be the judges how long 
some of you shall remain in Washington. / favor the 
longest period of stay which your judgment may approve. 



To J. A. EngeJliard,} 

January 19th 1867. 

Yours of the lOtli instant, in reply to mine touching the rjf"^™"'^' ^""^"'^ 
matter of the j^ublication in the Tarboro Southerner, has 
been received, and it shows as I expected, that the publi- 
cation, so far as the Journal was concerned, was an inad- 

I like your suggestion about writing to the Editors of 
the Southerner, and, in doing so, you are free to use my 
letter in the way wliich, in your judgment, it seems most 
likely to produce the effect desired — except that of pub- 

I addressed a letter myself to the Editors of the South- 
erner, at the time I wu-ote to you, and have their response, 
which is anything but satisfactory. They give me the 
name of their informant, but with the chicken-hearted 
plea that I will not use his name for fear of retaliation at 
the hands of this same "'banditti \ They, in effect, assail 
the civil authorities for not arresting a set of thieves, the 
fear of whom drives them, in their timidity, to a con- 
structive participation in their guilt, by concealment of 
the names of the perpetrators. In this state of things, I 
can do nothing, but despise their weakness : — and I will ■ 
thank you to do what you can towards protecting our peo- 
l^le at large against the damaging effects of the general 
circulation, through the press of the State, of such reports. 


To Thomas Ruffin, Sr. 

Jan. 19 1S67. 
Our friend Eaton is not the author of the article, which 
at the instance of the writer of it, I submitted to your re- 
view. I am strictly enjoined not to give his name. 

1 Editor of the Wilminoton Journal. 

878 ]^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

I took the same view of the article which you do, but 
could not state so clearly as you have, the logic by which 
I reached my conclusions. 

Hills B ORG. 

To A, 17. Ingold. 

January 19 1861. 
False reports. jf q^^^. gtate government were so inefficient as it is rep- 

resented to be in article from the Tarboro Southerner, re- 
published in your last issue, there would be very plausi- 
ble grounds for the re-construction project. I am almost 
disheartened by the continued pabulum our press is fur- 
nishing to our enemies. If we are such barbarians that 
organised banditti overcome — ^'defeat" our militia and 
the State authorities are so impotent or indifferent that 
our Southern Journals have piteously to implore Federal 
help, we have little cause of complaint, if the Radicals 
take charge of us. And it is not true that there are any 
organised bands of banditti — the militia has not been 
called out — much less sustained "defeat." I have not been 
called upon to aid the civil authority for the very good 
reason that no such aid is needed. ISTo opposition is 
offered to the execution of civil process. 

I know no other way to repress the publication and re- 
publication of these articles which do the State more mis- 
chief — much more mischief — than Hoi den and his fol- 
lowers can do us, but appeal to the editors of news-papers. 
I am persuaded this clipping found its way into your 
paper by oversight. I have addressed the Southerner and 
have their answer. They only state talk the foundation 
of their indiscreet editorial. 

This must be regarded as a friendly and confidential 
communication. You can say if you choose that you learn 
from a reliable source all the facts I have stated, except 
my correspondence with the Southerner. 



To IF. A. Hearne & William Biggs.^ 

Jan. 19 1867. 

Yours of the 14:tli was received last night. 

I had no idea that you intended the miscliief wliich I False reports, 
was sure would result from the late article. I knew you 
were warm friends of my acLministration and that you 
earnestly endeavored to sustain the State govt. I desired 
my own friendly manner to express my strong convic- 
tion that yr article and others of similar character, ac- 
knowledging the impotency of the State authorities to re- 
press crime and therefore calling for Federal help as a 
mistake as to facts alone and not as jorejudicial to the best 
interests of the State. As I expected, it is going the 
rounds of the papers, and wherever credited (and it will 
be greedily credited in the Radical States) it proves that 
our ]3eople are lawless, and our State authorities impotent 
or grossly remiss. 

The facts as you state them in your letter of the 14th 
do not warrant your news-paper attitude, and turn out 
as they have turned out every where in the State where 
I have had any occasion to investigate. The militia were 
not called out and consequently did not sustain ''''defeat." 
You do not pretend that the Shff. cannot operate process 
or that your justices of the peace will not perform their 
duties — but your informant, from cowardice or other 
motive, neglects to call on the civil authorities to redress 
the wrong done to him by highway robbery. He knows, 
or could find out through the friendly "officer" who caused 
his mule to be restored to him, luho robbed him — and in- 
stead of issuing a warrant for the robber, he furnishes the 
facts for a sensation news-paper article, disparaging the 
State, but is not willing his name shall be used to bring 
the malefactors to justice. As you give his name to me 
coupled with the request that it shall not he used, you 
place the gentleman in an unenviable attitude in my esti- 

1 Editors of the Tarboro Southerner. 

880 I^OKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Illation. I consider you as having the right to impose con- 
ditions to your disclosure, and hence your wishes will be 
respected — but remember — I have no respect for your in- 
formant, notwithstanding your endorsement, in the posi- 
tion in which you leave him — as giving information dis- 
paraging to the government of his State and seeking to 
shelter his name from responsibility, l^o government can 
protect a peoj^le too cowardly to expose the names of those 
who maltreat them. This is the only trouble in the locali- 
ties to which you and other journalists are continually re- 
ferring. There is neither want of power nor of disposi- 
tion in the civil authorities of the State to repress crime, 
but catching is before hanging, and a panic seems to pos- 
sess the minds of the people in certain localities. If a 
thief steals a horse, the injured party is afraid to expose 
him lest his house should be burned. Civil government, 
or military government, would be equally impotent while 
this want of spirit is exhibited by the individual citizens 

I do not understand by 3^our letter whether Mr. Wind- 
ham got his mule returned through an ^^o-fficer' of the ban- 
ditti or of the militia. 

This hasty letter is personal — but intended to subserve 
a public purpose. You ought, as I think, to explain your 
editorial, which has given rise to it. 


To ^Y. L. Springs. 
-^" . Raleigh, Jan. 22/67. 

Opinions as to Owiiiff to the SHOW or Other causes, your letter of the 

attitude of North ° 

and South. i7th did iiot reach me till to-day. 

I find difficulty in answering your inquiry. [Here fol- 
low aho'ut tivo pages which cannot he read.'] 

The T^Torth says we don't believe you and you shall here- 
after let the negroes rule and none of you, who are white, 


save those whom many regard as meaner than the negroes, 
shall have any part in the government, a man of common 
sense like yonrself can find no difficnlty in nnderstanding 
the feelings of onr people. 

In my opinion friendly feelings to the North can never 
be restored by the course pursued by the dominant party 
in Congress — and without such friendly feeling, jSTorth 
Carolina will not pay the debt, excejDt upon military co- 
ercion, the greater part of which is due to those whose 
late actions justify her in regarding as her enemies. 

Your question, therefore, in my opinion, depends upon 
the action of Congress. If they should acknowledge us 
as a State — receive our representatives — and recognize 
our rights under the constitution as interpreted by the 
Supreme Court of the U. S., jSTorth Carolina would pay 
her debts and perform all her duties under the Constitu- 
tion — In speculating in our stocks you must solve this 
political question. As I view the action of the dominant 
power in Congress, I find nothing to justify your invest- 
ment in ]M. C. stocks. It all tends to an overthrow of our 
constitution and the assumption of all the powers of gov- 
ernment by Congress. 

My individual opinion is that you make no investment 
in the bonds of ISTorth Carolina — and I believe investments 
in the bonds of provinces of the IT. S. are equally unsafe. 
Eevolution is now rampant. Any speculation as to the 
result of a revolution may suit a political gamble — but 
not a man of your prndent views. 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 

\'()1. .3— 15 

882 ISToETi-i Caeoj.ina Historical Commission. 

To Williaon J. Yates^ 

J any. 23 1867. 

reportshiThe'^^'^'^ ^^6 publication and republication of articles through 
^^^^^' the newspapers to the effect that our laws or the non- 

administration of them, as must be obvious to every body, 
does great injury to the State abroad, and ought to injure 
it, if the facts stated were true. There is not a locality in 
the State where any resistance has been offered to the 
execution of Civil process, so far as I have heard. The 
complaints are confined to a few Counties where the cow- 
ardice of the citizens is such that they will not inform the 
civil authorities and bring to punishment those who injure 
them, lest greater injury should be inflicted by the male- 
factor. • Laws cannot j)rotect a people who are too cow- 
ardly to prosecute those who injure them. 

E^ot an instance appears in any of the re-publications 
which alleges any defect in the laws or any dereliction of 
duty on the part of the officers of the law, excepting one 
charging that the militia had been called out and sustained 
defeat. This w^as all a mistake. The militia had not been 
called out — there had been no defeat. 

I give you these facts which you may use or not as you 
think proper. Of course they must not appear over my 
name but I will be responsible for their accuracy. 


From Rev. RoheH Neicmann. 

A^Ew York 2Jf/l, 67. 
Suggesting encour- I received your letter in due time and thank you very 

agement of "^ ^ ./ 

immigration. much for it. It is true that the unsettled state of the Coun- 
try is damaging all interests of the. people, but I trust it 
will come to an end in some w^ay or other. Emigration 
especially is needed in my humble opinion under all cir- 

Editor of the Charlotte Democrat. 


ciimstanees and may be least iufected by politics. The 
German Emigration is the best of all that any State can 
get as is sufficiently proved by facts well known to all. As 
for myself I am no Agent, Politician, or anything of the 
kind, except a German Pastor of the Church of the Ger- 
man people, appointed by my Church for the Innnigrants 
of my people. Disgusted with the Irish administration 
of Emigrant matters as I have witnessed it for years here 
in New York I would be happy to see other channels 
opened for our German Emigrants. Believing besides that 
the northern parts of the South are well adapted to Ger- 
man Immigration I would consider it a good w-ork to be 
done for your Country as well as for my people if it was 
undertaken and carried out on moral and if possible on 
christian principles. In such a work I would command 
a great influence as I am well known amongst my people 
both here in America and in the old country. The Yan- 
kees are very clever to undertake and carry out such things 
in their own way. Lately when I came to a friend of 
mine, I saw hand bills lying on the table. In looking over 
I found that a new town and settlement was to be started 
somewhere in California. Lots in said town were offered 
to anybody gratis, even wnthout condition of building or 
settling on it. If you don't go yourself — it was stated — 
you will take interest that others will go and settle there. 
ITow the idea struck me that some similar plan ought to 
be adopted by your State or any other State in the South. 
Give for instance a homestead to some families in a Coun- 
try that is to be settled and the ball will come into rolling 
and the tide of Immigration will swell more and more. I 
could bring it before my people perhaps better than any- 
body else and would do it with pleasure if carried on on 
good principles and the Emigration that might come under 
such directions w^ould not be the worst after all. Then if 
the Emigrants w^ere to be landed directly on the Southern 
shore they would escape their northern friends that are 
waiting for them like wolfs at the old landing places and 

884 ISToKTH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

their landing would be improved in many respects and 
tlieir protection too in many ways. In regard to your own 
plot of Land I would wish you to give me the state of 
climate — of the surrounding Country, if healthy for north- 
ern constitutions, etc. As I intend to go over to Germany 
about the latter part of next month in order to look into 
and get acquainted with all matters pertaining to EmigTa- 
tion, I would take your statements with me and make 
them known to people that are interested in such matters : 
At the same time I would be obliged to you if you would 
let me know in time what steps are taken by your Legis- 
lature and what inducements are offered to German Immi- 
grants. It might be turned to good account under God's 

[P. S.] — Please excuse my deficient English. 

To James M. Leach. 

Jan. 29 1867. 

In reply to your inquiry as to what I remember in re- 
lation to a loan made by me as Pub. Treas. from Mr. 
Perkins about the 1 Feb. 1863 — I state 

That when I entered on the discharge of my duties as 
Public Treas. in January 1863 there was not money 
enough on hand to meets the demands on the Treasury. At 
the time of making the loan the Genl Assembly was in 
session and I had not money enough to pay the per diem 
of the members and other officers and the daily demands 
of others holding small claims against the State — and I 
made this and some other loans from individuals under 
laws then in force authorizing the Treasurer to make such 
loans. The money w^ent into the Treasury to meet any 
demand which might be made according to law, — the most 
urgent ones at the time being the expenses of the Genl 
Assembly then sitting. 

Correspondence of Jonathan AYorth. 885 

To Nathaniel Boyden & Leivis Hanes. 

Jan. SO 1S67. 
Be cautions about agreements, as the resolution under 
which you are acting may not be construed as conferring 
such power. You say you are asked to ''agree" on a 
course of action for the Southern States. 
Washington D. C. 

To D. F. Caldwell 

Feb. 9th 1867. 

I have carefully read all your communications to me Financial matters. 
touching the sad condition of our inonetary affairs and 
endeavored to place them in the hands of members capable 
of comprehending your views. I find many disposed to 
favor Berry's scheme. If it shall be found to work well 
on a small scale — if the currency shall be found with a 
comparative small issue, shall be found to answer the pur- 
pose of money. If the small amount he projjoses to issue 
shall be accepted by bond holders, then your more enlarged 
views will be carried out. If it will not work in a small 
way, there can be no hope for its success, looking to the 
exchange of the whole amount of our bonds for such cur- 

jMake no a]]ology for writing me, and be assured all 
will receive the consideration due to an old and sincere 
friend who has bestowed much thought on the subjects he 
discusses and do not misconstrue my omission sometimes 
to answer. It is physically impossible for me to do half 
the writing I would like to do. 


886 N"oETH Cakolijsta Histokical Commission. 

To Edivard Bnght. 

February 12 1867. 

I send jou herewith an abstract from reports from offi- 
cial sources in the counties named, as to the numbers re- 
quiring assistance. Many of the Counties have not yet 
replied, and this abstract must necessarily fall far short 
of the entire number. The Legislature has made an ap- 
propriation for the paying of freight — and I am willing to 
meet this expense unless your association assumes it. If 
your contributions could have been made in money, it 
would have been much more conveniently distributed 
among the different counties, by local agents appointed to 
lay out in food and. clothing the amount sent, and the 
freight saved. Our people wall remember gratefully your 
benevolent association and the people of ISTew York. 

Will wante you again in a day or so. 

New York City. 

To Eev. RoheH N ewmann-. 

Feb, 12 1867. 

Yours of the 24th ult. came duly to hand. 

Our Genl. Assembly now in session has under consider- 
ation but has not as yet adopted any immigration scheme. 

Our people are peculiarly solicitous to invite German 
emmigration, but our impoverished condition — and the 
extreme destitution of money and uncertainty of our po^ 
litical condition will probable result for the present in 
non-action on all immigration schemes. 
Describing a tract I Understand the location of the tract of land I described 
to you as being particularly salubrious : the climate in 
latitude 34 ISTorth, very pleasant. Some 200 acres of the 
tract has been boxed and worked slightly for turpentine 
and could at once be made productive of large gains. Each 
of us who own it, is so engrossed in other affairs that w^e 

CojKEESPOXDE:srcE OF Jonathan Woeth. 887 

have made no attempt to give attention to it, either with 
the view to the cultivation or tlie sale of it. In the range 
of a large acquaintance in Xorth and South Carolina I 
know no piece of equal value Avhich can be bought at 
double the price at which we offer it. Plaving 150 acres 
of extraordinary fertility ready for the plow without other 
expense than the cleaning out of the ditches and 450 acres 
more drained into the main ditch covered with fine timber 
and near marshes, navigable water — and the whole 600 
acres exceedingly fertile it is a most inviting investment 
for a man who could bring to it the requisite labor — or 
for a small colony of laborers who would co-operate. 
Xew Yokk Citv. 

To John Kerr} 

Feb. 12 1867. 
Your earnest appeal in behalf of Wm. Johuson has been Answer to a peti- 

^ '■ tion lor pardon. 

reed, and considered. 

It is conceded that he was properly convicted of bur- 
glary. The claim for a pardon rested on the ground that 
the punishment prescribed by law is too severe. It 
struck me that it was harsh — but it seemed most unrea- 
sonable that a man convicted of so great a crime should 
go unpumished and the County of Rockingham pay the 
cost. Your appeal has not removed this conviction. He 
cannot be executed till the Spring Term of your Court. 
In the meantime the Genl. A. may pass an act establish- 
ing a Penitentiary, and giving the Executive power of 
commutation. Should this be the case I would not par- 
don him, but would commute the death penalty for a 
term of hard labor. I deem the granting of the pardon 

^ John Kerr, of Caswell, had been previously a member of the leg- 
islature, a member of Congress, and a Judge of the Superior Court. 
He was one of those arrested by Kirk in 1870 and discharged by 
Judge Brooks. 

jSTorth Carolina Histokical CoMMissioisr. 

on the condition of the payment of costs and the pledge 
of Wm. Hill and yourself that he will at once leave the 
State — quite as merciful a decision as the facts warrant. 

To W. A. Hearne & William Biggs. 

Pel. ISth 1867. 
Explanation of a Yours of the 11th iust., coveriuff article signed ^'Oca- 

late editorial. . ' . . 

ola and written as you say hy a man of intelligence and 
responsibility, is before me. 

As the commmunication does not state on what part 
of the extensive coast of the State these outrages occurred 
and furnishes not one name of those who committed the 
wrongs or who suffered the wrong, it gives me meagre 
data on which to act. 

If your correspondent will give me the names and resi- 
dence of persons by whom the acts of criminality set forth 
were perpetrated, I will communicate them to officers of 
Justice who will bring the alleged criminals to trial. 

I learn from Mr. Granberry, of Currituck that a mer- 
chant vessel named Sheridan was stranded on the coast 
near Roanoke Island some time since — that a number of 
persons have been arrested under a charge of stealing the 
wrecked goods, some of whom have given bail, and others 
unable to give bail, are in jail — that they are to be tried 
before the district Court of the U. S. next Apl and he 
has heard they were maltreated while in custody, but he 
knows the names of none of the parties. 

I am entirely satisfied with your explanation and thank 
you in this instance for sending me this communication 
and hope your correspondent will give me the specific in- 
formation or refer to the persons who can give the in- 
formation necessary to enable me to act efficiently. There 
is no defect in our laws or lack of efficiency in our of- 
ficers of justice, but an unfortunate disposition to furnish 


lengthy articles for the news-papers, in place of prosecut- 
ino- criminals. 

To Colonel Berry. 

Feb. IJf 1867. 

I have entertained the opinion all the time that the 
currency would be below par which your bill Avould fur- 
nish. From the facts stated by you as to the S. C. cur- 
rency, I hoped it would not be greatly below par. Since 
my conversation with you, I learn that the issues by S. 
C. do not exceed $300,000. that the notes are redeemable 
in Greenbacks at the Treasury — and that notwithstand- 
ing this and the comparatively small indebtedness of the 
State, they are some 10 per cent under par. I conclude 
therefore that ours would be greatly under par — and con- 
sequently that the whole of the taxes of next year would 
be collected in this currency so depreciated that it would 
not answer the purpose of the Treasury and I therefore 
fear that the plan will injure instead of benefitting the 

Having expressed to you my willingness that your bill 
should be favorably considered candor compels me to say 
that the facts which have come to my knowledge since 
my interview with you, and more mature reflection have 
changed my views. 

P. S. I think nothing can be done to restore State 
credit till ]Srational affairs are settled. 

To Edward Bright. 

Feb. 15 1867. 
Your letter of the 11th inst. has been reed. Relief of distress. 

Col. Bomford and myself have had a conference to- 
day. He feels it necessarv to obtain the consent of his 

890 XoRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

military sujDeriors before he can act on this commission. 
He is an excellent man and personally will most cheerfnlly 
cooperate with me, and we will, as speedily as possible, 
meet and submit a report as to the destitution of the peo- 
ple in this state. In the greater portion of it, those hav- 
ing charge of the poor, report their ability to prevent 
starvation. In a few Counties where an extraordinary 
drouth last summer cut off the crops, there being no 
money scarcely, the people are positively unable to supply 
the requisite amount of food to prevent extreme suffering, 
- — if starvation itself can be prevented. 

In some Counties, remote from transportation, there 
is enough to spare in the hands of some to supply the 
wants of others, but want of money makes it impossible 
for the authorities to buy. In a few such Counties, pe- 
cuniary aid jjlaced in the hands of proper persons to 
make the purchases, would be better, more economical — 
than the shipment of corn from jSTew York. 

J^EW York City. 

To Daniel L. Eussell. 

Feh. 16 1867. 
Apprentice cases. J j^^ve uot been furnished with a copy of Genl. How- 
ard's order relating to apprentices — ^but understand he is 
satisfied with our laws — and that there will probably be 
no further interference — but you know little reliance is 
to be placed on the decision of arbitrary tribunals. The 
Courts always had the right to cancel Indentures, as I 
think, upon sufficient cause showii. You should attend 
the Court and show, if you can, that the binding was ac- 
cording to law — and that if the Court shall decide that 
the indentures are void on the ground that the apprentice 
was not present at the binding, (the apprentice being 
present) the Court will probably re-bind to you, if you de- 
sire it. 

Shoe Heel.' 


To Jolin A. Gilmer. 

Feb. 16th IS 67. 

I have confided the whole matter relating to the militia Miiitia matters, 
to YOU and have not bestowed a half hour's attention to 
the subject about which I am more ignorant than I should 
be. It seems to be that the officers of the militia ought to 
be furnished with the militia laws and the rules and tactics 
bv which they are to be governed. I have not perceived 
that any steps have been taken to supply them and am 
ignorant whether the Adgt. General or the Govr. is in- 
vested with the authority to supply the officers with copies 
of militia laws and such other forms for returns and reg- 
ulations for drill, etc. as may enable them to discharge 
their duties ; or whether the Genl. A. must make provision 
for such providing. An organised militia, without this 
aid to the performance of their duty seems to me to be 
particularly absurd. I call your attention to this mat- 
ter. The Genl. xV. will probably adjourn soon. If any 
thing is to be done in this matter, it must be done 

It seems to me vou should be able to get vour salarv in- 
creased and see that any defects in our militia system 
should be corrected if any such defects have occurred to 

Say to your father that I would be pleased to have his 
views on the Borden, Hanes, Jones, Marvin, Powell Shar- 
key scheme. 


To B. 8. Hedrich. 

Feb. 16fli 1S67. 
The Stephen's bill as a basis for abolishing the State Reconstruction 
Government in the States lately at war with the U. S. ''''"' 
asserts that "said pretended government affords no ade- 

892 ISToRTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

quate i^rotection for life or property, but coiiiitenances 
and encourages Secession and crime". This assertion in- 
cludes ISTorth Carolina. It is a monstrous falsehood. In 
this doctrine two thirds of the House of Representatives 
have asserted a wicked falsehood — ivicl-ced because every 
man knew or woidd have known, if he desired to know, 
that the judges of this State could compare favorably both 
as to personal virtue and legal learning with the judges 
of any of the States which utter this slander against us. 
When the Genl Assembly, some weeks ago, passed resolu- 
tions declaring that justice was impartially administered, 
one member, Blythe of Henderson, declared he could not 
vote for the resolution, because it was not true that jus- 
tice was impartially administered. A day or two after 
Waugh of Surry introduced a resolution reciting this 
remark of Blythe, and calling on the judiciary committee 
to inquire in what instance the Courts had failed to ad- 
minister .justice impartially. Blythe and a few other 
partizans who sat with him were summoned to appear 
before the committee and furnish the proofs. You no 
doubt saw the report of the committee and Blythe's re- 
treat. The imputation upon our Courts is a colorless 
falsehood — and no honest man should make such imputa- 
tion without some proof to sustain it, and as no proof 
could be adduced here by the partizans of Stephens it is 
fair to presume none exists. IsTow our friends Boyden 
and Hanes have assured us there were many Representa- 
tives who indulged toward us no feelings of malevolence, 
but sincerely desired restored Union on the basis of 
genuine reconciliation, but I find all of them endorsing 
this falsehood which each of them knew would embitter 
instead of conciliating'. Is it possible all of them have lost 
sight of the respect for truth in their anxiety to con- 
demn us? 

I suppose no man holding a seat in Congress will plead 
even in palliation of his falsehood the slanders of a de- 
praved press, but if they w^ere even to resort to the Stand- 


ard and all the lying presses of the State which are court- 
ing Radical rule over us, they can find nothing to sustain 
this slander. I can scarcely realize that the House of 
Representatives of the United States are capable of so 
unworth}^ an act. If it be true as to other States, (of 
which I have no evidence) I know it to be false as to this. 
It is an affirmative proposition, and if true, proof could be 
adduced to sustain it- I defy the production of any proof 
from any respectable source. 

I infer from the late action of Congress that their 
fixed policy is to force universal suffrage for the blacks 
and to disfranchise the great body of the whites, whereby 
the political power of these States is to be transferred to 
the negroes, w^ho, as they think, would vote for Thad. 
Stephens or other such men as next President. It seems 
to me the i^orthern people, judging by the action of their 
representatives, desire to heighten and extend malevolence 
between the sections in order to control us according to 
their pleasure and without any regard to constitutions State 
or ^NTational. I pray God, I may be mistaken, but the 
late action of Congress forces me to this conclusion. 

I presume you have a better opinion of Congress — and 
I shall be thankful to you for any information tending 
to change my views. 

p. S. The Genl. Assembly would adopt the late basis 
of settlement, called the ^orth Carolina plan, if assured ' 
that it would be a finality and that our representatives 
would be received. Boyden and Ilanes represented to 
us that Bingham and other Republicans favored it. We 
see these very men voting for the Louisiana and Stephens 
bill, and take it they only want to make us ridiculous. 

Washixgtox, D. C. 

894 ISToKTH Carolijnta Historical Commission. 

To James L. Orr. 

Peh. 21 1867. 
Genl Assembly are trying to harmonise on the J^orth 
Carolina plan of compromise. AVill probably adopt it 
soon. If pressed to immediate action there would be 
considerable division. 
Columbia, S. C. 


From B. 8. Hedrich. 

Washington, D. C. Feb. 22, 1867. 

Rec^onftmctfon^*^ Yours of the 16th inst. I received day before yesterday. 
What you state about the wickedness of such statements 
as the preamble of the Stevens bill is true, but I do not 
see how any one can prevent it. If you should say any- 
thing to Stevens about it, he would reply that he spoke 
only what he had authority for saying from men on the 
ground. The worst of the matter is that with men like 
Holden, and others from IsF. C. constantly making the 
statements they do, it is impossible to set the State right 
till she gets restored to her position in the Union. I was 
making a friendly call a few evenings ago, and in con- 
versation said that matters were getting on in IST. C. as 
well as could be expected under the circumstances ; that 
the Courts were as able and impartial as they ever had 
been, and as they are anywhere. The gentleman to whom 
I addressed myself, a clerk in the Treasury Dept. replied 
that he had it from undoubted authority that Union U. 
S. Soldiers were shot down in IST. C. and no effort made 
to punish the murderers tho' they were well known to the 
authorities. I asked him for his authority and he gave the 
name of Mr. French, late direct tax Commissioner for IsT. 
C. jSTow I know Mr. French, but have not seen him 
for sometime. He is generally considered a fair sort of 
a man. When he is required to back up his statement 
he will probably put it off on some one who told him, 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 895 

and so the matter will vanisli about as Tourgee's mill- 
pond with seventeen dead negroes in it. But after all 
YOU must recollect that not one member of Congress in 
twenty has either the time or opportunity to examine for 
himself. He trusts to some one who he thinks would not 
mislead him, and the man who misleads gets his infor- 
mation from some man who has been frightened by the 
reports he backs up. If all the Southern States were as 
well governed as J^. C. I believe the work of reconstruc- 
tion would be comparatively easy. It seems to me that 
the main thing to be done now is to get IST. C. some how 
separated from the other States that are still hostile to 
a settlement. Members of Congress take many of their 
notions of the South from what they see in Virginia right 
across the Potomac, and there quite a number of times 
men have been murdered, and the authorities have re- 
fused to take any steps to punish the murderers, and in 
several instances the county courts have refused to en- 
tertain suits against rebels by Union people. From all 
I can learn life and property is better protected in JST. C- 
than it is in many parts of Tennessee. The right way is 
then to sustain the State authorities, and get the State 
restored as soon as possible. The Bill just passed tho' 
very objectionable in preamble, and unjust in several of 
its provisions, is still milder than any bill that can be 
passed. The Sherman (Senate) bill would have gone 
through but for the combined copperheads and Thad 
Stevens Radicals. ISTo matter what is done, whether this 
bill becomes a law or some other, still the principle of 
universal suffrage will be the law, and Ashley, Thad. 
Stevens and men of that class think they can carry in the 
next CongTess the Louisiana bill applied to all the States, 
with confiscation. I think Beverdy Johnson in the speech 
in the Senate stated the case very fairly when he voted 
for the amended bill. You will see his speech in the 
papers of Wednesday. The bill as passed opposed by 
what is knovm here as the Southern Bepublican associa- 

896 XoETii Carolina Historical Commission. 

tioii. Tliev are nearly all for the Louisiana bill to be 
apj)lied to all the States. Most of these "Southern re- 
publicans" are ISTorthern men who have gone clown to 
Tex., Ga. Ala., Miss, and S. C. with the idea of getting 
high office and have failed. ISTow if they could get 
through the La. bill they would expect to be appointed 
Govs, and members of Council and the like. It is for that 
reason that they are opposed to the bill. For the bill 
passed continues the present State Govts., as provisional. 

It is exceedingly important that the true friends of 
the State take no imprudent step just now. If this new 
bill becomes a law the Legislature should call a Conven- 
tion to meet in May, June, or July, to form a State consti- 
tution. If this bill fails some other will be passed by the 
new Congress in March, unless Thad. Stevens thinks that 
he can fight off all plans of reconstruction till after the 
next presidential election. I have little doubt that a Con- 
vention will be called in I^. C. before the close of next 
summer. It is for the Legislature to consider whether 
they will take the initiative or whether thej^ will leave it to 
Hoi den. 

I would say more but for the uncertainty that hangs 
over the next ten days. I shall be glad to hear from you 

To Governor Parsons.^ 

Feb. 22 1867. 
Just as we got ready to act, we received notice of the 
action of Congress. Would not action now simply humil- 
iate without doing any good ? 

Washington, D. C. 

' Lewis E. Parsons, Provisional Governor of Alabama in 1865. 


To James L. Orr. 

Feb. 22 1867. 
There" was here almost no obiection to the proposed Relating to com- 

•' ^ ^ promise plan of 

amendment granting limited suffrage to the negroes. If Reconstruction. 
the State were free from extraneous interference such an 
amendment, as I think, would be politic in view of the 
State's best interest. 

The section inhibiting the States from abridging the 
immunities and privileges of a citizen of the U- S., I 
regard, as the nest egg- from which new strife would be 
hatched, if the plan were adopted, or if not adopted, 
would be construed as securing to the negro the right to 
be elected to the Genl A., to Congress, etc. This we will 
not concede to avert any vengeance which may be in store 
for us. If we are to be humiliated to this extent, we 
can at least avoid humiliating ourselves. If its proper 
construction be simply a re-aiSrmation of clause 1 Sec 
2 Art. 4, Constitution of the U. S. it is mere surplusage. 
It would furnish plausible ground of argument and it 
would be insisted and very probably construed as restrain- 
ing the States from denying to a negro any privilege ac- 
corded to a white man. 

With some modification of this Section, we had reached 
such harmony that the plan could have been carried 
through, as I think, with sulficient unanimity to have 
made it subserve the purposes' contemplated. Just as 
we had got ready to act with some harmony, we were ap- 
praised of the late Act of Congress — and I now think our 
action would simply humiliate us and effect no good. I 
have sent a telegram to this effect to Gov. Parsons. If 
our friends in Washingi;on do not concur in these views, 
in deference to their wishes we may still act. 

I shall be glad to hear from you on this subject 

Columbia, S. C. 

Vol. 2—16 

898 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Governor Parsons. 

Feb. 22 1867. 
Compromise plan Just RS we had ffot our views so harmonized as to make 

of Reconstruction. _ ° 

our action effective the news of the action of Congress 
reaches us, and the impression now is that the proposed 
action would be injurious, instead of beneficiaL In view 
of the demands of the Act of Congress, our concession 
would be so insignificant, that it would subject us to 
ridicule and contempt, and have no tendencv to strengthen 
our friends, in the impression of many. If you still think 
we should act, telegraph to me. 

Gov. Graham and our other friends agreed not to be in 
the way of the action proposed. 

The late telegrams from Washington have produced no 
excitement here — but all infer that the dominant power 
will not be satisfied with any concession we can make 
without a voluntary degradation on our part more terri- 
ble than any infliction which the most rabid can impose. 

I still hope the nation is not demented and that we 
may yet be saved from total and hopeless ruin. 

Washington^ D. C. 

From B. 8. Hedrich. 

Washington, I). C. Feb. 2Jf, 67. 

I have a letter from Mr. Busbee in which he says that 
the legislature is expected to adjourn on Thursday. I 
hope they will not go just yet, at least till the fate of the 
bill now befoTe the President is decided. It is rumored 
that the President will veto it on Wednesday. So the 
legislature can by waiting one week more know what to do. 
Please urge this. If the legislature adjourns to meet 
next Fall, it will not meet then. 

It is my firm conviction that a convention should be 


called, unless the legislature propose amendments to the 
constitution. No, the Convention is the thing. 
I will write a^-ain soon. 

To B. S. Eeclriclc. 

Feb. 26 1S67. 

Your late letter was reed last night. 

We have not received Mr. Johnson's speech. His vote 
on the late measure is to me most surprising. Accord- 
ing to his previous speeches he must have regarded it as 
unconstitutional. I had regarded him as a firm supporter 
of constitutional lavr. I understand that he voted for it 
on the ground of his conviction that if that bill failed 
to pass one more objectionable would pass. If Reverdy 
Johnson's notions of constitutional duty have become thus 
lax, it is a mournful sign of the times- 

You think the Genl Assembly should call a Conven- in regard to can of 
tion. If you mean that it should call one according to 
the State Constitution under which the members were 
elected and which each of them swore he would support, 
I would have no objection. I would favor it — and would 
prefer that it extend suffrage to negroes, having $200. 
worth of taxable property — and I would not object to 
its being extended to those who could read and write, 
though I regard the latter teste as no strong evidence of 
intelligence and good citizenship. 

If you mean that the Genl Assembly should order a 
Convention by the voters, who alone could vote under the 
late act of Congress how could any conscientious man 
reconcile such act with his official oath- If your idea that 
v,'e ought to impose on ourselves the disfranchisement the 
act proposes and immediately give the right of suffrage 
to all the negroes, do you think either our friends or our 
enemies would thereafter respect us ? Could we respect 

900 E'oRTH CAEOLiisrA Historical CoMMissioisr. 

ourselves ? If it be the intention of the Isrorthern people 
to destroy us, our humiliation would be likelier to beget 
their contempt than their pity, and would not be likely to 
avert their vengeance. If we are to be utterly ruined, 
which now seems probable, the general feeling is that it 
is not justifiable to commit suicide even to avoid being 

Washington, D. C. 

From B. S. HedricJc. 

Washington,, D. C. Feb. 26, 67. 
Plans of the Radi- I have a letter from Mr. Battle- He thinks the Legis- 

cals 111 the State. _ ^ 

lature will do nothing. I am sorry for it. If they ad- 
journ now they may as well go home and stay for I do 
not think that they will ever again assemble. It is not 
yet known whether the new bill as amended will pass. 
If reasonable men from the South could be heard I feel 
sure that it would be modified. The most unjust part of 
it is that disfranchising all who ever took an oath to sup- 
port the U. S. Constitution, and were afterwards in any 
way involved in the rebellion. But bad as that matter is 
I do not believe Congress will accept anything less harsh. 
The fact is every proposition will be much worse and 
worse. There is also another matter that I wish to com- 
municate confidentially, that [is] for yourself and your 
most trusted friends. I have it on good authority that Dr. 
Powell and Holden have a scheme, approved by certain 
members of Congress to go to work and organize a new 
so-called loyal State Govt. They will begin by invita- 
tions to the people to assemble in their sovereign capacity 
and elect delegates to a Convention at which all loyal men, 
white and black will be allowed to vote. This Conven- 
tion will form a constitution and such as will be acce]3ted 
by Congress. Everybody knows what Holden means by 


lojaL It means those who vote for him. I have little 
doubt that this scheme of Holden's will he put iu opera- 
tion either nnder the military bill or under some such 
bill as the Louisiana bill. 

I was glad to see Mr. Starbuck here today. He came 
on a summons from the Judiciary Committee- 

AYhatever is done by the present Congress will be known 
in a few days. 

With best regards. 

To 0. G. Parsley & Co. 

Ealeigh, Fehy. 27 1867. 

I was duly advised by the benevolent association of 
ladies in IST. Y. of the shipment of the 3000 bu. com to 
you to be distributed to the necessitous by myself and Col. 
Bomford — not Genl. Eobinson. Col. B. Chief of the 
Freedman's Bureau in the State, would not act on the 
Commission without leave from Genl. Howard. I was 
yesterday advised by Col. B. that permission to act had 
been accorded to him — and I hope by to-morrow that we 
shall have agreed as to the distribution and if so, you 
will be immediately directed to what point you may send 
it. The Bureau will provide for transportation on the 
R. R. I will pay your charges and marine charges. 


From B. S. HedricJc. 

Washixgtox, D. C. Feb. 28, 67. 
The Convention which should be ordered by the Legis- Discussion of a 
lature would be one in accordance with the laws of the 
State and of the United States. I judge from what you 
and ]\Ir. Battle write that nothing could be done short 

902 ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

of letting matters drift, which will lead to the entire over- 
throw of the present State Govt. So far as constitutional 
authority goes, the present State Govt, is based solely 
on the authority given by the President to Holden. Con- 
gress assumes that it has the same right to form a State 
Govt, that the President has, that is that it has the au- 
hority to empower the people to form a Govt, for them- 
selves, which is really what the President did. For after 
all the right of the governed to form their own govern- 
ment is the fundamental principle of the U. S. Constitu- 
tion. The Congress derives its power over the subject 
from the section which guarantees a republican form of 
Govt, to each. State, which the President interprets as 
giving the Executive the power to secure republican Govt, 
for the State. Congress now has the power to take to it- 
self this function, and whether expedient or unexpedient 
it wuU do it. 

As to the abstract question of suffrage I cannot see 
how any one set of men have a right to exclude any other 
set of men from voting, especially in matters relating to 
the fundamental law, such as constitutions. Only those 
can be excluded who are not part of the governing body, 
such as foreigners and criminals. There is no reason in 
^ the abstract why $200. should enable a man to vote. In 

the matter of educational and property qualification I 
cannot see what justice or right there is in requiring more 
of a black man than a white. If any discrimination 
should be made it should be on the scriptural rule of 
"luJiere much is given much will be required." 

Leaving all abstractions aside I can very well under- 
stand that it may be very inexpedient and injurious to 
give universal suifrage. But as soon as you take the 
■ground of political expediency almost anything may be 
defended, for instance monarchy, despotism, aristocracy, 
or an}'' other system that has its admirers and sup23orters. 
But on the ''Pepublican Theory" it is a political fallacy 
to deprive any class of the full franchise of a man. And 

CoKRESPONDEisrcE OF Jojstathan Wokth. 903 

as a matter of fact, yon are just as certain as anYt]iing 
can be to have nniversal suffrage. This will be either by 
the voluntary act of the State, or by the Act of Congress. 
If the present Congress does not pass the Military bill 
over a veto, the next Congress will probably do noth- 
ing for a while. But I think there is very little doubt that 
a bill similar to the Louisiana bill will be passed by the 
next Congress. The Legislature may as well adjourn sine 
die, unless they can call a Convention and every body to 

We had an election in Washington on Monday with 
universal suffrage. It was as orderly as any election we 
have ever had. The old Mayor was very abusive of 
the negroes and opposed to giving them suffrage. He was 
beaten by the candidate that was friendly to suffrage. 
But more than half of the Conservative candidates for 
Councilmen were elected notwithstanding that the Mayor 
on the same ticket was beaten. It was a real pleasure to 
see the improvement effected in the character of the dem- 
ocratic procession. Heretofore every Democratic proces- 
sion in this city has carried transparencies with low and 
filthy matters in regard to niggers, miscegenation, and sim- 
ilar matters. But now no such things are to be seen. In 
fact all reference to niggers disappeared from the trans- 
parencies. I do not see why the adoption of real im- 
partial suffrage will not entirely remove the negro agita- 
tion from politics. And if it shall be found on fair trial 
that universal suffrage is not conducive to the public weal, 
it can then be changed as eYerj other real reform has 
been effected. 

It seems to me that it is of the utmost importance that 
a full restoration of the State be effected with the least 
delay possible. All interests require it. If matters go 
on as they have been for the last year the State will lose 
a large part of its population. It was on this ground that 
President Johnson went for the Military bill. 


Relief of distress. 


[P. S.] Senator Ben Wade is to be Vice President on 
and after March 4, or rather President of the Senate 
and if the President should be impeached Wade wonld be 

T'F. H. BagJey to 0. G. Parsley & Co. 

February 28th 1867. 

I am instructed by the Governor to request that you 
ship at once of the corn in your hands from the jSTew 
Yorls: Soutliern Relief Association, One thousand bushels 
to Salisbury, the U. S. Quarter Master at that place con- 
signee — Thirteen hundred bushels to Charlotte, the U. 
S. Quarter Master at that jDlace consignee. Col. Bom- 
ford has instructed Quarter Master Mears of your City, 
to co-operate with you and give you all the aid in his 
power, in its removal, shipment, etc. The Bureau agrees 
to transj)ort it on the Rail Roads and such expense as is 
not met by the Bureau, will be met by the State, upon the 
receipt of your bill for this cause. Would it be convenient 
to you to keep the remaining YOO bushels in your ware- 
house until the points of its distribution are decided upon, 
(which will be in a few days). Col. Bomford will order 
it to be received in the U. S. ware-house in your city. 


Distribution of 
supplies to the 

From W. H. Bagley to H- M. Houston. 

Fehruary 28th 1867. 
I am instructed by the Governor to inform you that 
he has named you to act, on the part of the State, in the 
distribution of the corn which has been contributed by 
the 'New York Southern Relief Association, among the 
suffering of your County. One thousand bushels (1000) 
have been assigned to your County and will be shipped 


in a few days, from Wilmington to Charlotte, (consigned 
to the U. S. Quarter Master at the latter place) subject 
to the orders of yourself and Mr. Darling Brown, who has 
heen designated by the U. S. Military authorities to co- 
operate with and aid you in its distribution. 

The distribution is to be made among the indigent with- 
out regard to race and color, or political or religious 

Blank receipts will be forwarded to you and Mr. 
Brown to be signed by the parties receiving contributions, 
which, it is desired, should be returned to this office, to 
be forwarded to the Belief Association in ISTew York, that 
they may see that their benevolence has been properly dis- 
posed of. 

Much is left to the discretion of yourself and Mr. 
Brown — and you will regulate your distribution according 
to their known necessities. 


To Daniel Freeman. 

Fehruary SSth 1867. 
I am instructed by the Governor to inform you that Distribution of 

T 1 T -, ^ 1 oi • 1 supplies to the 

he lias named you to act, on the part of the btate, m the needy, 
distribution of the corn which has been contributed by 
the jSTew York Southern Belief Association, among the 
suffering of your County. One thousand (1000) bushels 
have been assigned to your County and will be shipped in 
a few days, from Wilmington to Salisbury, subject to 
the orders of yourself and Mr. D. A. G. Balmer, who 
has been designated by the IT. S. Military authorities, to 
co-operate with and aid you in its distribution. The dis- 
tribution is to be made among the indigent without re- 
gard to race or color, or j^olitical or religious opinions. 
Blank receipts will be forwarded to you and Mr. Balmer 
to be signed by the parties receiving contributions, which 
it is desired should be returned to this office to be for- 
warded to the Belief Association in ]Srew York, that they 

906 l^OETH Cakolijn^a Historical Commission. 

may see that their benevolence has been properly disposed 
of. Mnch is left to the discretion of yourself and Mr. 
Palmer and you will regulate your distributions according 
to their known necessities. 

P. S. The corn will be consigned to the IJ. S- Quarter 
Master at Salisbury. 

W. H. BagUy to L. L. Polh. 

February 28th 1867. 
fuppiies^to ae^ I ^^^^ instructed by the Governor to inform you that 

"^*^'^^'' he has named you to act, on the part of the State, in the 

distribution of the corn which has been contributed by the 
ISTew York Southern Relief Association among the suffering 
of your County. Three hundred (300) bushels have been 
assigned your County and will be shipped in a few days 
from Wilmington to Charlotte (consigned to the IJ. S. 
Quarter Master at the latter place) subject to the orders 
of yourself and Mr. Wm. McParland, who has been des- 
ignated by the U. S. Military 'authorities to co-operate 
with and aid you in its distribution. 

The distribution is to be made among the indigent 
without regard to race or color, or political or religious 

Blank receipts will be forwarded to you and Mr. Mc- 
Farland to be signed by the parties receiving contribu- 
tions, which it is desired should be returned to this office 
to be forwarded to the Relief Association in JSTew York, 
that they may see that their benevolence has been prop- 
erly disposed of. Much is left to the discretion of your- 
self and Mr. McFarland and you will regulate your dis- 
tributions according to their known necessities. 

P. S. The corn will be consigned to the U. S. Quarter 
Master at Charlotte. IST. C 


To J. M. Hamlin. 

Mar 2 1867. 

It would give me pleasure to grant your request, if the 
circumstances of the times would allow it. An act has 
recently passed forbidding the organization of the militia 
in the ten states excluded from representation in Congress. 
It is in accordance with what seems to be the present 
policy of Congress, and I suppose will pass the Senate. 
I think you had better forbear until (if ever) we are 
recognized as entitled to our constitutional privileges as 
a State. 



To B. 8. Hedricl: 

Kaleigh Mar 2 1867. 
I have done my best to induce the Genl A. to rescind Political condi- 

^ tions in the State. 

their order of adjournment on Monday next, but for ten 
days past, as has been usual time immemorial, numbers 
have left from clay to day, until there was a bare quorum 
(two thirds of all the members of both houses) to call 
a Convention. We still ho23e we have some constitution. 
At all events we trace all our power to a Constitution we 
are sworn to support. We are not yet resolved to act on 
the assumption that political chaos exists and we are at 
liberty to act in violation of our oath to support the Con- 
stitution both of the State and United States, as we un- 
derstand them. We acknowledge our duty to subordinate 
our individual views as to constitutional interpretations to 
the Judiciary. 

We have had no late intelligence from AVashington. We 
are not advised that the Sherman scheme is yet a law — 
and if it were, we do not know whether it contemplates 
the call of such a Convention as it proposes, by the State 
Legislature or by Act of Congress or by military au- 
thority. If it shall appear to be necessary the Govr. and 


Council can and will call an extra session. Holden and 
his followers, as is understood here, will proceed, immedi- 
ately after the adjournment, to hold primary meetings 
and get up a Convention to be elected by the negroes and 
such, of the whites as they may allow to vote. They give it 
out that they have the assurance of the Congressional lead- 
ers, that the acts of such a Convention will be recogTiized 
and validated by Congress. 

In this upheaving of civil government, we look only for 
anarchy: — and unversal despondency, except with the 
Holdenites, prevails. They expect, apparently with good 
reason, to be sustained and supported by the power of the 
nation. If they suceed in their plans they will make these 
ten States unhealthy appendages of the Union, which will 
soon disease and destroy the whole body politic- 

P. S. The Senate voted last night 27 to 13 for the call 
of a Convention. The thirteen, I am told, were all men 
of Radical proclivaties — The House did not vote on it, 
because a Constitutional quorum was not present. It is 
understood that more than two-thirds of those present 
would have voted for it. 

Washingtok-, D. C. 

To D. L. Swain. 

Mar. 3 1867. 
mission to Wash- After a Conference with Govs. Graham and Vauce, I 

ingtoE. (2 1- • • • 1 • • T 

am conlirmed in my previous impression that it is my duty 
again to visit Washington, to ascertain as nearly as possi- 
ble our present status and to decide after the best lights I 
can obtain, what ]Srorth Carolina can do, if any thing, to 
avert total ruin. They heartily concur in my associating 
you and Judge Ruffin with me on this mission. 

Gov. Graham thinks we should spend a day in Rich- 

I will hold myself in readiness to go at the earliest 


day yon and Judge Ruftin may agree upon. I shall write 
Judge Rulfin this evening. I regret to ask of you this 
sacrifice but feel constrained to urge your acceptance of 
this commission. 

If preferred by you I will meet you at Hillsboro, and 
go by the Danville road and spend a day in Richmond as 
we go over. I hope the time you fix may not be longer 
off than next Thursday. 

I am authorised to pay our expenses by draft from the 
Public Treasury. 

Please let me hear from you at the earliest practicable 

You will do well to confer with Judge R., as to the time 
of departure as soon as you receive this. 

Chapel Hill. 

To Thomas Bii'ffin, Sr. 

March S 186T. 

After a conference with Govs. Graham and Vance I Ssstoiflo^wasi- 
am confirmed in my previous impression that it is my ^"§*°"- 
duty again to visit Washington, to ascertain as nearly 
as possible our jDresent status and to decide, after the 
best light I can obtain what JSTorth Carolina can do if 
anything to avert total ruin. They heartily concur in 
my appointing you and Gov, Swain with me on this 

Gov. Graham thinks we should spend a day in Rich- 

I will hold myself in readiness to go at the earliest day 
you and Gov. Swain may agree upon. I shall write Gov. 
Swain this evening. I regret to ask of you to make this 
sacrifice, but feel constrained to urge your acceptance of 
the commission. 

If preferred by you I will meet you at Hillsboro and 
go by the Danville Road and spend a day in Richmond 

910 JSToRTH Caeolijn^a Histoeical Commission. 

as we go on. I hope the time joii fix may not be longer 
off than next Thnrsday. I am authorised to pay our ex- 
penses by a draft on the Pub. Treas. 

Please let me hear from you at the earliest practicable 

P. S. You would do well to confer with Grov. Swain as 
to the time of departure as soon as you receive this. 


To W. WhitaJcer. 

Mar. 6 1867. 

My onerous duties here have occupied my time so fully 
that I could not answer promptly your letter of the 24 ult. 

I read it to Major B. He is very poor — much poorer 
than your showing proves you to be — and does not think, 
in view of the circumstances under which he made the 
loan to you, that he should be called upon to make a sale 
of yr property to raise the money he loaned you. 

I have made such efforts out of my slender means to 
aid my children and friends that I have no disposable 
means, or I would offer my aid. 


To J. M. Worth. 

Mar. 6 1867. 
matters. ^^"^^®® Yours of the Ist iust. reached me j^esterday. 

I fully and heartily concur in all your views as to our 
factory interests and had determined to attend the next 
annual meeting and carry them out — but I cannot dis- 
charge my responsible duties to the Country without go- 
ing to Washington at once in order to get more accurate 
information than I can otherwise obtain. 

I have sent Jesse Walker my proxy and expressed dis- 
tinctly my concurrence in your views. 


I have to-day expressed, in a letter to Br. B. G.^ my 
views somewhat at large, as to our political status, who 
will show you the letter if you desire to see it. I am 
every way oppressed with my duties public and private. 

I shall probably remain several days in Washington, — • 
at the Ebbitt House. As to continuing to act as Govr., 
as in all other things, I must act on events as they arise. 
I can conceive of no state of things which will induce me 
to give my sanction to the Disunion views of the Radicals. 
I have fully as much abhorrence for them and believe they 
are less patriotic than Secession was in 1860-61. 

To Jesse WaJher. 

Mar. 6 1867. 

I had fuUv intended to be present at the next meeting various business 

" matters. 

of the stockholders of Cedar Falls Co. — but I now fear 
that my public duties will forbid it. 

I inclose to you my proxy, expecting you to act for 
me as you may think it best to act for yourself, remember- 
ing only that I think, with Br. Milton if we leave the man- 
agement of our business to men whose chief interests in 
business are centered in other and rival business that our 
stock will soon be sunk — and that however unpleasant it 
may be on many accounts, a total change in the manage- 
ment must be promptly made, if we would save ourselves. 
Owing to my peculiar condition I desire that this expres- 
sion of my views may be regarded as confidential. 

If the course I indicate be adopted a very minute 
and full statement of our effects and the debts due by 
and to the corporation should be required before decisive 

If possible I will be present and take my full share 
of responsibility. 

I expect to leave for Washington in a day or two to 

1 B. G. Worth. 

912 ]S[oETH Caeolina Histokical Commission. 

get at more accurate information than I can otherwise ob- 
tain to govern my action in my present responsible posi- 

]Sr.EW Salem. 


Ealeigh, Ma?'. 5 1867. 

I hereby appoint Jesse Walker to act as my agent and 
proxy in all meeting of the stockholders of Cedar Falls 
Co. until this power shall be revoked by me. 

Witness my signature and seal. 


To B. G. Worth. 

Mar. 6th 1867. 

I reed in due time the pen-maker and have had it in 
daily use since. I ought to have acknowledged the receipt 
of it, and returned to you my cordial thanks for it and the 
pens you sent me : but I presume you have snatched 
[hours] from your very busy occuj)ations in sensible busi- 
ness time enough to have some appreciation of my trouble 
in the wilds of politicks. 
Political condi- The actioiis of the JSTorth, not their words as yet, in- 

dicate their ultimate purpose to be to give to the negroes 
in these States political control in the expectation that by 
this means they (the ITorth) will retain their political 
control. Until lately policy has required them to pretend 
they were acting under the constitution which the masses 
once reverenced. They begin now to feel strength enough 
to throw off the disguise and establish over the States a 
full military despotism under the avowed principle that 
the rise of the people — the 'people then represented, ought 
not to be fettered by constitutional restraints. Most of 
them still pretend their object is to guarantee Republican 
govt, to these States, and to this end they indicate the 
principles we are to incorporate in our constitutions and 


send bayonets enough here to control our law. The Se- 
cessionists conducted their machinations under the guise • 
of reverence for the constitution until tliej got the minds 
of the South maddened and then threw off the guise- The 
Eadicals are beginning to throw off disguise. Their ac- 
tions which always speak louder than words, leave no 
doubt in my mind, that their real purpose is to make 
the negroes the dominant power in these States and con- 
fiscate and turn over to them the property of the whites. 
At present the great body of the jSTorthem people do not 
desire this but the leaders do, and the masses are led by 
their leaders as the victim is led to the slaughter. As an 
excuse to carry out this desigTi they require of us terms 
of pretended compromise which no one having any man- 
hood and respect for the constitution can except, in order 
to make our refusal to accept the terms an excuse for 
carrying out their designs. The President's late vetoes 
which prove as conclusively as human logic can prove any 
thing, that the dominant power has thrown away the old 
chart and compass, the constitution, — and are sailing and 
are guided only by the furor of their party leaders, is con- 
temned and despised — ^and the gTeat intellect of Reverdy 
Johnson quails before the storm and consents to vote for 
measures he admits to be unconstitutional, to avert, as he 
obscurely asserts, more unconstitutional measures. 

Amidst the desertion of lick spittle Secessionists, such 
as Chalmers, Holden, et id omne genus; and the threats 
of impeachment, evidently not idle, which the infatuated 
Xorth holds over the Prest., I am filled with admiration 
at his noble self-possession and the courage with which 
he holds up the flag, when he cannot but feel that the ship 
is sinking. 

I shall go to Washington in a short time — say within 
a day or two, — to possess myself of the best information 
possible, for the guidance of my conduct. 

The great body of our people is so sick of hope de- 

Vol. 2—17 


ferred, that I think it not improbable that they will yield 
.to the demands of the iSTorth in the^vain hope of being al- 
lowed some part in the control of the government under 
which they live. It is evident to me that the only mode of 
averting ISTorthern wrath, is to shout for Stephens and 
Sumner: as the only ground of protection from l^orthern 
Democrats is to shout for Democracy: Party ascendency, 
now as at the beginning of our troubles, and not Patriot- 
ism, controls all the actions of the political leaders on 
both sides- 

To Worth & Daniel. 

Mar. 7 1867. 
We all thank you for your box of oranges received — • 
and the keg of which we were advised last night and which 
has not come to hand. 
Gloomy political I cauuot perform my duty in my present position with- 

out a clearer apprehension of the whole revolutionary 
program than I can acquire here. I shall start to Wash- 
ington to-day or to-morrow — and take such action on my 
return as I may deem best. The late action of Congress 
is generally confessed to be unconstitutional — but it has 
passed according to the [forms] of the Constitution, and 
as we have no power of physical resistance, it must be 
obeyed until the proper tribunal, the Supreme Court of 
the U. S., shall declare it null and void. A large part of 
the Court, and possibly a majority of it, unites in the revo- 
lution, or are terror stricken and will shrink from a manly 
discharge of the judicial independence of former times. 
If I find there is no remedy in the Supreme Court, there 
is no course left but obedience or resistence — the latter is 
impossible. I feel deeply my responsibility. 

I deem it very uncertain as to how long I shall be al- 
lowed to occupy my present position. In revolutions no- 
body can anticipate the action of revolutions and therefore 

Cobrespojstdejvce of Jonathan Worth. 915 

I have little confidence in my prescience. If I cannot 
resist, either by the judiciary or physical force, what course 
is then left. It seems to me that obedience no longer be- 
comes degradation — but sensible prudence. If I say I 
will not execute the law it must result in putting the 
executive power in hands likely to use it more oppressively 
than I would, without any tendency to avert the evils. I 
conclude, at joresent, that if we have no remedy through the 
Judiciary, we should submit to a state of things we cannot 
resist and endeavor to guide the revolution. 

I heartily approve the President's veto message. It w^as 
his duty to resist the enactment of an unconstitutional law. 
When it passed in spite of him, I presume he will deem it 
his duty to obey it until the Supreme Court shall declare 
it void. That Court, I fear, is demoralized and will drift 
with the Revolution. 

Deeming it entirely uncertain w^hether I shall continue 
in public service or not, I propose to plant some cotton and 
try to make something to live upon and to give me em- 

I want guano and bone phosphate enough for 16 acres of 
cotton — and have no money. Do you sell these fertilizers 
to men on whom you can rely and wait till the crop is 
made ? If not, I will not ask for a credit you don't extend 
to others but will raise the money. Which fertilizer would 
you use ? Will it be best to buy it of you, where ? 


To John Berry. 

Marcli 8 1867. 
Yours without date, post-marked the Tth inst. was re- 
ceived this morning. I heartily concur in your views. 
The uniform management of the Road as hitherto requires 
radical changes. 

The inclosures will answer your inquiries as far as I 
am able. 


JSToKTH Carolina Histokioal Commission. 

Distribution of 
supplies to the 

P. S. I shall leave for Washington to-night or to- 
morrow. The action of the Virginia Senate about 

unanimous, — as well as all the information I receive, tends 
to indicate submission to the Sherman bill. 


To Colonel J. V. Bomford. 

Ealeigh, Mar. 8th 1867. 

I propose, as mentioned to you in our Conference to- 
day, to distribute the remaining 700 bu. of corn in the 
hands of O. G. Parsley & Co., as follows, to Cabarrus 350 
bu. to be sent to Concord, to be distributed under the di- 
rection of A. J. York and such person as joii may nomi- 
nate: and 350 bu. to Guilford, to be sent to Greensboro 
and distributed under the direction of Jesse H. Lindsay 
and your nominee. 


Distribution of 
supplies to the 

From W. H. Bagley to 0. G. Parsley & Co. 

It has been agTeed upon by Col. Bomford and Gov. 
Worth, that the remaining YOO bushels of corn shall be 
disposed of between the Counties of Guilford, Cabarrus 
and Putherford. I suppose Gaston is mentioned, in the 
orders of Q. M. Means, as the point of shipment for that 
of Putherford. Pifty (50) bu. only is asked for Ruther- 
ford ; the remaining to be divided between the Counties of 
Cabarrus and Guilford. 



W. H. Bagley to ^Y. A. Wright. 

March 20th 1867. 

Yours of the lOtli, in regard to the meeting of the Coun- coSf ofsufte. 
cil of State, has been received. 

The object of the Governor in assembling the Council 
was to submit for their consideration and advice the ex- 
traordinary situation of Federal Affairs, as touching this 
and the other Southern States. It is true, the leading 
object he had in view, was the prompt assembling of the 
General Assembly, at the time he issued the summons. 
But the time of the meeting of the Council — -the 26th inst 
— will be, most likely, after the issuing of Genl Sickles 
general order, assuming command of this district ; and the 
Governor would, no doubt, like much to have the views 
and opinions of his entire Council. With this statement, 
you can judge best yourself as to the propriety of your 
being absent from the meeting. 


From W. H. Bagley to Bev. Drury Lacy. 

March 21st 1867. 
Your letter of the 20th inst. to the Governor, enclosing Estimate of suffer- 

' ^ mg m the State. 

another from the Eev. Dr. Boardman, of Philadelphia, 
making inquiries as to the amount of suffering in this 
State, has been received. The Governor is now absent but 
I can give you the information desired with, perhaps, as 
much accuracy, as I have the files of reports made to him 
by the Chairmen of the Warden Courts, in different coun- 
ties, before me. The following list will give you all the 
information which these reports afford: — 

Ashe County Whites 30 Blacks 20 

Cabarrus " " 60 " 10 

Carteret " " 108 " 54 

Caswell " " 87 " 50 

918 ISToKTH Carolina Histoeical, Commission. 













































The above represent the number of the indigent in each 
of the counties named. From less direct sources we have 
information that there is destitution in Anson County, 
and other localities. The destitution has been relieved in 
the Counties of Stanly, Anson, Guilford, and Cabarrus, 
somewhat, in that 1000 bushels of corn have been sent to 
the two first named, and 300 bushels to the three last, 


To R. C. Lindsay. 

March 22 1867. 

titute!°^*^^*^^^' Some corn was placed at the disposal of myself and Col. 
Bomford by an association of charitable ladies in IST. Y., 
but the whole of it has been distributed. 350 bu. of it 
was ordered to be sent to Guilford — all under the care of 
Jesse H. Lindsay and an officer appointed by Col. Bum- 
ford. It was all ordered to Greensboro, for distribution to 
the needy in Guilford. If it has not already reached 


there, it will reach there very soon. If you make applica- 
tion to Mr. Lindsay he may be able to supply a little to the 
parties to whom you refer. 

The Freedman's Bureau is also extending aid to the 
very necessitous. The Chmn. of the several warden Courts 
in the State have been called u]3on by me under a resolu- 
tion of the Genl Assembly, to furnish me a list of their 
very indigent. The Chn of Guilford has furnished me 
with a long list, which I have had placed in the hands of 
the proper officer of that Bureau. If the parties to wdiom 
you refer have not been placed on the list and the Chmn. 
of your Warden Court shall report them to me as being- 
unprovided for and unable to provide necessary food, I 
will submit their names to the proj^er officer — but I think 
they wull be supplied, on your application direct to the 
officer of the Bureau in your County, who distributes this 
charity, to-wit, A. Dilsworth. You had better apply di- 
rectly to Mr. Dilsworth. 

High Point. 

To Colonel S. T. Wilder. 

Mar. 33 1867. 
I understand the police force formed in this State bv Relating to the 

-t " police force. 

the Federal army is not now recognized as an organization 
by the Federal authorities. The persons composing this 
organization w^ere liable to enrollment in the militia ; but 
under the late acts of Congress putting us under martial 
law and declaring the State militia disorganized, your 
question at present, w^hether the answer be the one way or 
the other, has no practical importance now. It was other- 
wise at the date of yr letter. 


920 ISToETH Carolijsta Historical Commissios^. 

To J. T. Morehead. 

March 23 1867. 
^.^xismg regis- Yours of tlie 6th inst. reached here after I had left for 

Washington. I find most of it relating to matters which 
subsequent legislation has made provision for. 

It is manifest that everybody entitled to vote ought to 
register and do his best by his vote and his influence to 
elect as good men as possible into the Convention. 
Plan of opposing When the Convention shall have acted, if the Constitu- 

tlie Reconstruction _ _ ' 

^cts. tion be intolerable, going further in the way of proscrip- 

tion than the legislation of Congress requires, there will be 
a chance to refuse the Constitution by a majority of the 
[voters ?] The only question (inter nos) being debated by 
the Southern States, is, whether it be expedient or not, for 
the States to apply to the Supreme Court of the U. S., at its 
session, next month, for a Writ of Injunction against the 
Prest and the military commandants, restraining them 
from executing this law on the ground of its unconstitu- 
tionality. Sharkey, R. J. Walker and Parsons think this 
course will be effectual and advisable. The legislature of 
Louisiana has directed this course. It is certain that the 
Governors of Ya. La. and Ala. will oppose any applica- 
tion to the Court. I am not informed as to the views of 
the Governors of S. C, Florida, Georgia and Texas — 
Mississippi will try the Court. 

I will submit the question to my Council next Tuesday.' 
I have not time to give you the arguments pro and con. 
I would gladly have the views of our legal friends on 
this question by next Tuesday. 

To TJiomas Rufjin. 

Mar. 23 1867. 

SrReconftru'J? It is deemed inexpedient that Congress know that any 

tion acts. q£ ^|^g States will make an effort to resist, by the action of 


the SuiDreme Court, tlie execution of the military re- 
construction bill of the Snd March, lest they continue their 
sitting or take further measures to embarrass or overthrow 
the Court. You will therefore speak of what follows only 
to Gov. Graham and other legal friends in whom you may 

Judge Sharkey and R. G. Walker are employed by the 
Gov. of Mississippi to apply in the name of that State and 
such others as may choose to join in it, to the Supreme 
Court of the U. S., which holds an adjourned session next 
month, for an Injunction against the Prest. and his mili- 
tary commandants, restraining them from the execution 
of the law on the ground of its unconstitutionality. 

I have heard the bill read. ' On next Tuesday I shall 
submit to our Council of State the questions — 

i. "Whether the Gov. alone, or with the advice of his 
Council, have the right to make the State a party to such 
a bill ? " 

2. Is it expedient to do so ? 

I have written Judge Curtis for his opinion to be sub- 
mitted to my Council — and would like to have yours and 
Gov. Graham's. 


To Mrs. R. C. Pritchard. 

Mar. 28 1867. 
I thank vou for calling my attention to the case of ex- Relief of the 

." . . . . destitute. 

treme destitution Avhich you so feelingly describe. 

jSTo money is placed under my control — nor clothing. I 
haA^e control over some corn sent from Phila. It is in 
Wilmington. I will have some sent to your care at War- 
renton to be given to Mr. Ball and family. He can get 
$50. from the State Treasury on account of the loss of his 
arm, upon the certificate of yr. Clerk of the County Court 
or your ShfT. Blank forms of this certificate required are 

922 ]SroETH Carolin-a Historical Commissiois^ 

ill the hands of your Shff. and Clerk. I have spoken to 
Mr. Eaton who is here to-day to assist Mr. Ball in getting 
the money without the trouble of coming here. 

To B. M. Stafford. 

March 28 1867. 

Yours of yesterday is before me. 

You Avill have seen by the orders of Genl Sickles that he 
does not j)ropose to interfere with the execution of the 
laws of the State. Until he shall forbid it, it is your 
duty to proceed in all your duties, as though martial law 
had not been proclaimed. 

I have i^ardoned Davis with the understanding that the 
Freedman's Bureau will remove him from the State. The 
pardon was yesterday sent to Col. Bumford with the view 
that he present it to you and take charge of the negro for 
transportation out of the State. 


To W. 1. SJiarley.^ 

March, 28 1867. 
Under opinions of judges Black and Ruffin the Council 
of State decline to make ]^[orth Carolina a party. 

Washington, D. C. 

i William A. Sharkey, former Chief Justice of Mississippi, Provi- 
sional Governor in 1865, and at this time an applicant for admission 
to a seat in the U. S. Senate. 


To L. E. Parsons. 

Ealeigh Mar. 28/67. 
I asked the opinions of Jndses Black and EuiSn as to Decisiou not to 

•*- ^ join m opposing 

making Xortli Carolina a party to Judge Sharkey's bill. ^^4^^^^^°'^™°" 
Each of them doubts whether the Supreme Court will sus- 
tain the bill. Each of them thinks it improbable that we 
can obtain any relief through the Supreme Court. Three 
members of my Council are eminent lawyers and opposed 
any effort to resist the laws in question, on the ground 
that they doubt both the power and the inclination of the 
Court to give us any relief and think an abortive attempt 
would imjDair our influence in the coming elections. The 
Council decided unanimously against any resort to the Su- 
preme Court. 


To Thomas Rufjin. 

Ealeigh, Mar. 29/61. 

I thank you for yr answer to my inquiry as to your political condi 
opinion on a legal question of momentous importance to 
the State. 

There is remarkable concurrence in the views taken by 
you and Judge Curtis on the main question submitted both 
as to the probable decision and the expediency of seeking 
redress through the Courts. I had arrived at the same 
conclusion. Notwithstanding the undress in which, for 
want of time, you had to apj^ear, I laid your letter unoffi- 
cially before my Council. After due deliberation the 
Council decided unanimously that it was inexj^edient for 
the State to join in the proceediug. I have not deemed it ' 
proper to let it go to the public that we have had the matter 
under consideration. Our action officially appears on our 
• Journal and there is nothino- in it which we desire to con- 

924 ]SroBTH Oakolina Histokical CoMMissioisr. 

ceal, onlj for tlie fact that Mississippi may abandon the 
scheme and as I was possessed of the facts with liberty 
only to make them known to my Council and discreet legal 
friends whose opinions I might desire to obtain, I have 
allowed the press to know only that the Council was called 
before the passage of the supplemental re-construction bill 
to consider the expediency of calling together the Genl. A. 

I am sorry I cannot possibly find time to give you many 
facts and conclusions, arrived at by my visit to Richmond 
and Washington, as also some account of the proceedings 
of the Holden Conventions yesterday. It consisted of a 
very numerous assemblage from many, if not most, of the 
Counties of the State, about half black and half white ; — 
the blacks the more» conservative element and their leader 
J. H. Harris, from all I can understand, the most intelli- 
gent, liberal and eloquent man in the body. The leaders. 
Settle, Dick, Holden, etc. urged and the body organized 
under the name of the Republican party against the views 
of such consistent men as Hedrick, Goodloe and a few 
others who urged the name of the IsTational Union party. 
It was probable the most radical which has assembled in 
the United States. It was enthusiastic of success — formed 
plans of thorough organization in every County in the 
State and will probably be liberally supplied with money 
for electioneering purposes from the ISTorth. They avow 
their design to elect to the Convention and to Congress 
men who will co-operate with the majority of Congress and 
thus insure our re-admission into the Union and the avoid- 
ing of confiscation. Many of them avow the most pro- 
scription purposes against what they call the leading rebels, 
among whom they class all who are not adherents of 

This is a most formidable combination. Each County, 
for itself, must adopt the best measures possible to avert 
the further calamities which are in store for us, I fear. 


Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 925 

To Andrew Johnson. 

Ealeigh, Mar 29 1867. 

You are probably apjDraised that immediately after the fition?nxorth^° 
publication of the act of the 2nd March inst., Govr. Hoi- Carolina. 
den and some of his friends got up the project of electing 
members to a State Convention by action of the people in 
primary meetings. After the passage of the supplemental 
bill which frustrated this purpose, the call for a meeting 
of delegates here from the whole State, including black as 
well as white, was continued. The persons active in get- 
ting it up claimed to be the par excellence Union men of 
the State. They met on the 27th and adjourned yesterday 
evening, the 28th. There was a large number in attend- 
ance from most of the Counties of the State, I think about 
half black and half white. Tliey adopted the name of 
the Republican party. They avowed their purpose of can- 
did co-operation with the Republican party of the JSTorth. 
All or nearly all of the whites, were followers of Mr, Hol- 
den, and advocated last summer the ratification of the 
constitutional amendment, popularly called the Howard 
amendment. In their debates and proceedings they evinced 
the purpose of excelling the ISTorthern Radicals in Radi- 
calism, though a very large majority of the whites and 
nearly all the leaders among them are disfranchised for 
participation in the rebellion under the late action of Con- 
gress. The hope of attaining political ascendency in the 
State and the fear of confiscation were probably the chief 
incentives which controlled their action. They took meas- 
ures 'for thorough organization in every County in the 
State, in order to carry out their designs at the elections — 
and they expect, as I understand, liberal supplies of money 
from the ]!^orth, to aid them in carrying out their purposes. 
The great body of the people of the State would like to 
vote for the best men among us who can take the teste 
oath and who indulge no malevolence towards their fellow 
citizens who participated in the late rebellion. I mean 

926 N'oRTH Carolina Historical Commission, 

real Union men and not latter day saints — bnt this great 
body of the people can adopt no systematic plan of co- 
operation — have no money — are paralyzed by their ac- 
cumulated calamities. The issue, under the circumstances, 
must be regarded as doubtful. 

The negroes, so far, are apparently more conservative 
than the white men who claim to be their special friend. 
In this organization, of course, there was no kind word for 
you ; but while you are doubtless mortified by the desertion 
of many sunshine friends it may be of some consolation to 
you to know that the great majority of the intelligent and 
patriotic people of this State admire the firmness with 
which you adhere to you station and duty and regard the 
record you have made as one of the most enviable which 
our history will record. 
Asking the pardon I mentioned to you when in Washington a subject about 

of certain persons. n i i c ^ n 

which 1 may have troubled you too oiten — but so nrm are 
my convictions that I trust you will pardon me for once 
more calling your attention to it. It relates to the omis- 
sion to pardon Gov. Graham, Jo. Turner, B. S. Gaither 
and Gov. Vance. Every one of these men were as utterly 
opposed to secession as you were and exerted themselves to 
their utmost power to avert disunion and war until war 
was begun, and they were compelled to elect between the 
evils which beset them. After they did elect to go with 
the South, each of them was elected to the Confederate 
Congress and co-operated in good faith with the South. 
This is the extent of their sin. Are they more in fault 
than Dortch, Venable, Arrington, Lander, McLean, E. R. 
Bridgers and Davis, ^ who were ardent secessionists and 
were also members of the Confederate Congress. I do not 
disapprove of these latter pardons. I think the granting 
of them does credit to you as a statesman. All of them 
are now loyal : — not more loyal than the four unpardoned 
gentlemen named. Tour friends in ^Rorth Carolina uni- 
versally complain of the discrimination. I am sure you 


would but do an act of magnanimous statesmanship in 
pardoning these men and that von would thereby warm the 
hearts of your friends. 

There are two other gentlemen, Gov. Clark, — and Owen 
Kenan whora I should be glad to see pardoned. They are 
most estimable men and their case no way distinguishable 
from that of the other four, save that they were secession- 
ists and favored the measures which led to the rebellion. 

As I have heretofore said to you, I favor universal am- 
nesty and therefore would not withhold my recommenda- 
tion of any body : — but if you deem it prudent to withhold 
your pardon from a few, will not the officers educated at 
West Point and who joined in the Rebellion, Genl. Cling- 
man, who was a senator in Congress at the breaking out of 
the war, and Judge Biggs, a district judge of the U. S., 
who resigned for a like position under the Confederate 
States, be a sufficient number of victims to reserve ? 

Govr. Vance, you will remember, was for a time held a 
prisoner in the old capitol prison at Washington. By your 
indulgence he was liberated on his parole not to leave the 
State. If you should decline to pardon him I hope you 
will relieve him from his parole. 

From W. H. Bagley to Worth & Daniel. 

April 2nd 1867. 
I am instructed by His Excellency, the Governor, to in- Relief of the 
form you, that in accordance with an agreement between 
himself and Col. Bomford, he desires that you will cause 
to be shipped, as early as practicable, of the corn in your 
care of the Philadelphia Southern Relief Association, 
1200 bushels to Salisbury, consigned to the LT. S. Quarter 
Master at that place — and 1000 bushels to Charlotte, con- 
signed to the TJ. S. Quarter Master at that place — and 800 
bushels to Raleigh, consigned to the U. S. Quarter Master 
at that place. 

928 j^OKTH Caeolhsta Historical Commission-. 

The 1000 bushels for Charlotte is for the County of 
Union — of the 1200 bushels for Salisbury, 700 bushels are 
for Stanly and 500 bushels for Anson. The remainder 
(800 bushels) for Ealeigh, are intended to be held subject 
to the wants of other localities as they may be made known 

Lieut. Means, A. Q. M. in your City will furnish you 
transportation on the Eail Eoads, and other assistance in 
the shipping, as directed by Col. Bumford. 

Any expense which may be necessary in shipping, dray- 
age, etc. will be met by this department on presentation 
of bill for the same. 


To Rev. Landy ^Yood. 

Apl 2 1867. 
Relief of the Yours of the 26th ult. with others of like character, is be- 

destitute. _ 

fore me, and deeply touch my feelings. All these charit- 
able associations, which are in correspondence with me, 
make me and Col. Bomford, chief of the Treedman's Bu- 
reau in this State, their agents for the distribution of their 
bounty, the object being, I suppose, that destitute negroes 
as well as whites shall receive their share. We appoint a 
joint commission in each County to which we send corn 
(nothing else but corn has been sent us) — to distribute it. 
A benevolent association of ladies of ISTew York sent us, 
a month ago 3000 bu. of corn. It reached Wilmington 
some 4 weeks ago. My information led me to believe that 
the Counties of Union and Stanly were more destitute 
than any others. The bulk of the donation was accord- 
ingly ordered to those Counties. 

The F's Bureau undertook to give free transportation 
on the R. R. To my great surprise I now find that through 
the fault of the ofiicer of the Bureau or of the R. R. that 
the corn was not started from Wilmington till a day or 
two ago. 


3000 bush, more of corn was purchased recently in AVil- 
mington bv a Phila. benevolent association and placed at 
our disposal. 1000 bush, of this latter lot is ordered to 
Charlotte for your County. 


From ^y. H. Bagley to Daniel Freeman. 

April 2 1867. 

I am instructed by the Governor to inform you that fg^^^f^te**' 
he and Col. Bomford have ordered 700 bushels of corn, 
from the Philadelphia Southern Relief Association, to 
be shipped for Salisbury, consigned to the U. S. Q. Master 
at that place, for the use of the destitute of Stanly County. 
The 1000 bushels heretofore ordered for your County has 
been shipped, after an inexcusable delay on the part of 
some one, and has doubtless reached Salisbury before this. 
The Governer begs that you will superintend the distribu- 
tion of the last lot as well as the first. 


From W. H. Bagley to L. L. Polk. 

April 2nd 1867. 

I am instructed by the Governor to inform you that he J^^i?/ ^^ "^^^ 

'^ ^ destitute. 

and Col. Bomford have ordered 500 bushels of corn from 
the Philadelphia Southern Relief Association, to be 
shipped for Salisbury, consig-ned to the IT. S. Q. Master 
at that place, for the use of the destitute of Anson County. 
The 300 bushels heretofore ordered for your County has 
been shipped, after an inexcusable delay on the part of 
someone, and has doubtless reached Charlotte before this. 
This lot has been ordered to Salisbury because we learn it 
is most convenient to your County. The Governor begs 

Vol. 2—18 

930 l^OETH Caeolhsta Historical Commission. 

that you will superintend the distribution of the last lot 
as well as the first. 

To George Y. Strong^ 

Apl 2 1867. 
Both Judge Curtis and Judge Ruffin were of opinion 
that relief was not likely to be obtained through the Su- 
preme Court, in which all my Council concurred. — Mr. 
Eaton had considered the question a good deal and was 
very decidedly against making the State a party to the 

Send me amt of yr expenses on trip to Washington. 


From IF. TI. Bagley to John ^VeUli. 

April Gill 1S67. 
Relief of the I am instructed bv His Excellencv, the Governor, to 

destitute. ' " 

acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 22nd ultimo, 
addressed to himself and Col. Bomford, advising them 
that you had designated Messrs Worth & Daniel, Wilming- 
ton, to provide 3000 bushels of corn at the instance of 
the citizens of Philadelphia, for distribution among the 
destitute and suffering of this State. 

Simultaneous with your letter came one from Messrs. 
Worth & Daniel, containing the same information, in- 
forming us that they had the corn subject to our orders. I 
have the pleasure, at the same time, to inform you that 
the corn is now on its way from Wilmington to the desti- 

1 George V. Strono-, of Wayne county, a noted lawyer. He was a 
member of the convention of 1861, and was Confederate District 
Attorney during the entire war. 


It lias been distributed as follows : — 

1000 busliels to Union County 
750 '' '' Stanly " 

500 " " Anson " 

Making 2200 bushels. The remaining 800 bushels have 
been shipped to this place, to be held to meet any further 
demand from other localities. Great destitution prevails 
in the above named counties, especially the first two 
named — in the first of which two they are begging hread, 
and many seem contented when they only get that. There 
is considerable suffering in other portions of the State — 
but it is not to be compared with that of the counties 
named, owing to an utter failure of the crops in those 

The Governor thanks you, in the name of our people, 
and, through you, the benevolent citizens of Philadelphia, 
for their patriotic remembrance in the hour of our peo- 
l^le's trial — and he hopes that those who know so well when 
and how to give, may always, under the blessings of 
Heaven, have an abundance out of which to give. 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 

From ^Y. H. Bagley to David ^Yort]l. 

Aiyril 8th 1867. 
The citizens of Philadelphia having contributed a con- Relief of the 


siderable amount of corn for the destitute of this State, 
Gov. Worth and Col. Bomford have directed 200 bu. of it 
to be sold for the benefit of the destitute of Ashe County, 
and the money to be sent to you — with which you are re- 
quested by them to buy corn, or other supplies, and dis- 
tribute among those of your County whom you know to 
he destitute. Please inform the Governor of the best mode 
to get the money to you. 
jSToeth Poek. 


isToKTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

Relief of the 

Relief ol' the 

Pmm W. H. Bagley to P. T. Horton. 

April 9th 1867. 
You have been appointed by the Governor to superintend 
tlie purchase of some corn for the destitute in Wilkes. Of 
the corn contributed by the citizens of Philadelphia for 
the destitute of this State, Gov. Worth and Col. Bomford 
have ordered 200 bushels to be sold for the benefit of 
Wilkes and the money will be sent to you and the County 
Court Clerk to buy other corn with, to be distributed by 
you and the Clerk among those whom you may know to 
be needy. The money will be sent by Maj. Johnston, U. 
S. Q. Master for this State — and you will do well to con- 
fer with the Clerk at once. 


From ^f. II. Bagley to J. C. Turrentine. 

April 9th 1867. 

In response to your letter to the Governor of yesterday 
150 bushels of corn have been ordered to be shipped to 
Hillsboro for the destitute of Orange — and you have been 
appointed by the Governor to act, on his part, in its dis- 
tribution, with Lt. Porter, Agt. of the Bureau, who has 
been named by Col. Bumford to act with you. 

The utter destitution of Union and Stanly Counties has 
made it a necessity that most of the contributions which 
have been received, should be sent to them. 


Relief of the 

From W. H. Bagley to C. M. Moss. 

April 9th 1867. 
Your letter to the Governor of the 7th inst. in regard 
to the suffering of your County has been received. The 
Govr. and Col. Bomford have ordered 150 bushels of com 


to be shipped at once for Lexington — and the Governor 
has appointed you to aid in its distribution, with the agent 
of the F. Bureau in Lexington, who has been appointed by 
CoL Bomford. 

From TT\ II. Bagleij to Mrs. Melvina ^YoJf. 

April 13th 1867. 

I am informed by the Governor that he has ordered 10 
bushels of corn to be shipped to your address at High 
Point. When it shall have arrived, please acknowledge 
its receipt. 


From ^y. H. Bagley to Mrs. R. C. Prit chard. 

Raeeigh, April 18th 1867. 
In response to your letter of the Governor of the 26th Relief of the 

/ "^ _ , destitute. 

ultimo, in regard to the necessities of ]\Ir. Kob. Ball of 
your neighborhood, I am instructed to inform you that 
the Governor has directed that twenty (20) bushels of the 
corn contributed to the destitute of this State by the Phila- 
delphia Southern Pelief Association, be shipped to your 
address, the greater part of which he desires that you 
will convey to ^Ir. Ball. The Chairman of the Warden 
Court of your County has informed the Governor that 
there is an old negro in your County entirely destitute — 
and it is desired that the remainder be turned over to the 
Chairman for the benefit of this old negro. The Governor 
wishes you to divide the twenty bushels between the two 
parties referred to their necessities and respective wants. 
The Chairman or the Warden will be notified of this and 
requested to call on you for the portion which you may 
allot to the negro. The corn will be shipped to Warren- 
ton in the course of a dav or two. 

934 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

The Governor regrets his inability to do more, but trusts 
this amount will afford at least temporary relief. 
Warren ton. 

To Clinton A. Cilley.^ 

Apl 18 1S67. 

Yours of the 14th inst. is just received. 

I know nothing of the matter to which you refer save 
what I learn from your letter. 

I view with absolute abhorrence the vindictive feeling 
too often exhibited by bad men on both sides of the late 
suicidal war and will be always ready personally and offi- 
cially to do any thing I may properly do to defeat the 
devilish machinations of these bad men. I honor you for 
your manly purposes. I know no means by which I can 
ascertain whether the information you received be reliable 
or not. 

To George V. Strong. 

Apl 19 1867. 

Inclosed find my check on J. G. Williams & Co. for 
sixty three dollars, your expenses on trip to Washington 
City. Please acknowledge receipt of same. 

I am more and more satisfied that our joining in the 
Mi.- bill would have had no tendency to relieve us from 
military despotism. 

The measures taken in the case of Wood, of yr. place, 
as I understand them, amount tb little less than contempt 
of the Executive authority of the State. It is bad enough 

1 Clinton A. Cilley was a native of New Hampshire, a colonel in 
the Federal army during the war, and afterwards a superintendent 
of the Freedmen's Bureau in Salisbury. He married and settled in 
the State, and at Governor Worth's request was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court. 

2 Mississippi. 


to have our authority condemned by the United States. 
I did not expect it from onr own people. 


From W. II. Bagleij to Be v. II. T. Hudson. 

April Will 1S67. 
I am instrncted bv the Governor to inform you that Relief of the 


he is in receipt of a large quantity of supplies, contributed 
by the State of Maryland, to the destitute and suffering of 
this State ; and looking to the impartial and just distri- 
bution of the same, he respectfully invites you to meet the 
pastors of other Churches of this City, in his office, to-day 
at 12 o'clock, M, to advise with him in regard thereto. 

Raleigh, X. C. 

From ^Y. II. Bagley to D. M. Bar ringer. 

April 19th IS 67. 

I am instructed by the Governor to request you to meet 
him and the pastors of the diiferent Churches of this City, 
at his office, at 12 o'clock M, to-day, to consult with ref- 
erence to the distribution of the supplies contributed by 
the State of Maryland to the destitute and suffering of 
this State. . 


To Z. B. Vance. 

Apl 20 1867. 

You may take the oaths before the Comr. of Affidavits — 
but you had better take them before your notary public 
or the clerk of one of your Courts who can verify his action 
by his official seal. 

I have pleasure in believing that I at least put the ball 
in motion which brought about your pardon. 


936 ISToETH Caeolixa Historical Commission. 


April 27 1867. 
Mail contracts. The mail line from here to Fayetteville is broken up 

bj the failure of the contractors for the carrying of the 
mails to perform their undertaking. Fayetteville and the 
surrounding country is thus cut off from mail facilities. 
Dr. Jobe goes to Wilmington on Monday and will probably 
carry Avith him the accumulated mail for Fayetteville and 
the surrounding country. He is disposed to do everything 
which can reasonable be expected from him to grant to 
our people all the mail facilities we can justly expect : — 
but he has no power, at present, to make any contract, 
binding on the government, as to the transmission of the 
mails on the C. F. river. He will recommend the carry- 
ing of the mail on the Host, twice a week, at such price 
as the government may deem adequate. Whether such 
contract will be so stringent that we cannot undertake it, 
in view of the low state of the river at certain seasons can- 
not now be known — and whether you could make arrange- 
ments to have the Gov. Worth to make one weekly trip at 
a stated time, so as to carry the mail tri-weekly, I do not 
know. If the price paid be adequate, I think it should 
be carried tri-weekly. I hope you will carry up the mail 
Dr. Jobe takes with him, whether we get any pay or not — 
and continue to carry it until some definite arrangement 
can be made. 

Dr. Jobe is a most estimable gentleman and I rec- 
ommend you and our Company to confer with him unre- 
servedly on the whole matter — and to aid, as far as may 
be done without serious detriment to our interests, in sup- 
plying the Cape Fear region with the mail. 


CoKE£SPo:N'DE]NrcE OF Joxatiia:^' Worth. 937 

To IF. F. Leal: 

Eai.eigh, Apl 29/61. 
Your several letters pressiue; on my attention the desti- Destitution in the 

J- ci <^ state. 

tution in yr. County liave been reed and referred to the 
commission I have been forced to raise to attend to the 
distribution of charitable donations, placed under my con- 
trol, because my imperative administrative duties made 
it quite imjDossible for me to carry out properly the bene- 
ficent designs of these donors. Of this Com. CoL D. M. 
Barringer is Chr who has probably ordered some of these 
supplies to your care. 

I still think no State organization to counter-act the 
malevolent designs of Holclen and his faction, can work 
well. Gentlemen in each County and neighborhood can 
best manage the matter, without organization. 


From S. S. JcicJi'soii. 

PiTTSBOEO, X. C. April 29th 1S67. 

Brother Jack has just shown me a letter, that he has 
Avritten you relative to my applying for the office of Reg- 
ister of Bankruptcy in my district. I am really conscious 
of having opposed the war from the beginning to the end: 
and nothing would disqualify me from taking the oath, 
except being ClerJc and Master and the danger of being 
somewhat discountenanced: — Before I went further with 
the matter, I wish to get your vieiv of the matter: — and 
if in your judgment it would not be improper, I would 
like for yon to address a letter to Hedrick and ask him to 
intercede and at an early day. I will have all the necessary 
testimonials in Washington City — 

938 ISToETH Gaeolixa Historical Commission. 

From B. 8. Hedrich. 

Wasi-iingto^t^ D. C. Apr. 30, 67. 

Dr Hawkins lias sent me a pass for my family to go 
and return over the Raleigli and Gaston R. R. If the 
Central R. R. should give a similar pass please send it to 
Henry C. Thompson, Chapel Hill. My family will be 
in Raleigh Thursday evening, but will not stop over as 
they wish to go on to Chapel Hill. 

In haste. 

From David G. Woiih. 
Wilmington, ]SL C. April 30th 1867. 
Mail facilities. Your letter per hands of Dr. Jobe was reed this morn- 

ing. We dont think we could safely contract to carry a 
tri-weekly mail as the "Govr. WorfJi" cannot run on regu- 
lar days, without at times great inconvenience. We would 
willingly carry a Semi-weekly mail by the ''Host" at a 
fair price. We now carry a large amt of mail for nothing, 
and have been doing so for two years past. Dr. Jobe went 
off on the Host today to confer with the Fayetteville peo- 
ple and will decide when he returns what to do. We pro- 
posed to him to carry the mail for a short time, for noth- 
ing if necessary to accommodate the people of Fayette- 
ville and surrounding country. He took the mail with him 
today. If we agree to take it for nothing, it is necessary 
for some one take it in charge, who can swallow the iron 
clad. We have no one on board who can do this except the 
freedmen. Capt. Skinner tried it today but it wouldn't 
go down — 

Have you ever sent commissions to Lindsay, Waugh, 
Robbins & McKethan, appointed by you as State Direc- 
tors for Western R. R. Co. 

We are all very well. 


To Henry T. Clarl: 

Ealeigh, Apl 30/61. 

I have liad no other report save vours expressing the 
opinion that Registers could not be found. You know, 
if you recommend none, men will be sent from the army. 
Surely you can find some IS'orthern men, who are not 
mean radicals, if you can't find natives. I beg you to try 
to find some men who will be more acceptable to your peo- 
]Ae than negroes or radical Yankees. Home Radical Con- 
fiscation Holden men are the most detestable of all men. 


To Z. F. Rush. 

April 30 1867. 

Yours of the 2Sth as also a previous one in relation to 
the Sherifi^alty have been reed. On the day of the receipt 
of your first I wrote to Genl. Sickles, desiring to know 
whether he would allow the Court to fill the vacancy — and 
if so, whether he would require the next incumbent to take 
the teste oath — And if he desired to fill the vacancy, 
wdiether he desired me to recommend any one — and if, in 
making such recommendation, I must look only to persons 
who could take the teste. I expressed my wishes that he 
should leave the whole matter with the Court. I have not 
yet received an answer. 

You ask my opinion Avhether the ofiice is vacant. It 
seems clear to me that the Court will declare it vacant. In 
my opinion you should have continued to act as Shft'. until 
the Court should declare the ofiice vacant — This an oifhand 

If I did not answer your former letter, I did not neglect 
to attend to it. It is impossible for me to answer half the 
letters I receive, but I endeavor to answer all where an 
answer seems necessarv. Until I have heard from Genl. 

940 l^OKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Sickles it did not occur to me that my answer would do 
any good. 


To H. J. Harris. 

Raleigh Apl 30 1867. 

cminty offices. After hearing of the vacancy of the Sheriffalty in Ran- 

dolph and vacancies of Clerkships in other Counties, I ad- 
dressed to Genl. Sickles an inquiry whether he claimed 
the right to fill such vacancies or would leave it to the 
Courts to fill them — Whether the appointees must take the 
Congressional teste oath — and whether, in the event of his 
claiming to fill such vacancies he desired from me any rec- 
ommendation. I recommended that he allow our Courts 
to execute our laws without any interference — and if he 
desired me to recommend that he allow me to ascertain the 
wishes of a majority of the justices. I have not reed his 

Trinity College. 

To H. H. Helper. 

May 2 1867. 

I most heartily concur in the views expressed in yours 
of the 30th ult and beg you to accept my thanks for your 
friendly and valuable suggestions and will, when you come 
down, frankly show you all I have done and the responses 
reed, from the gentlemen whose co-operation I have asked. 

I think I shall be compelled to leave here next Saturday 
morning on very important executive business and may 
not be able to get back before next Tuesday night. I am 
very anxious to see you and therefore mention this that 
you may try to time your visit so that I may see you. 

I am conscious in this matter of recommendation of 


Registers, and in all my conduct, to liave acted solely on 
the elevated motives covering my position, and equally 
conscious that an evil genius who unceasingly endeavors 
to malign me, will leave nothing undone, which gTeed and 
malevolence can effect, to frustrate my efforts to serve the 
State. I feel therefore greatly gratified at you at your 
professed co-operation with me in defeating these vicious 

To Thomas 8. Kenan. 

May 2 1867. 
The vilest machinations are on foot to try to alienate Plans of the Radi- 

■^ cals to control 

Genl. Sickles from me and get Registers appointed to suit Reconstruction. 

the malevolent purposes of bad men among us. I am 

satisfied — at least have good reason to hope — that I shall 

be sustained. To this end it is desirable to appoint in 

each County one or more U. S. soldiers, or officer of the 

F.s Bureau — or Northern man, where such a one can he 

found ivlio is a gentleman not indulging malevolence to- 

icards us and not afflicted with negrophohia. Minors will 

be allowed to act but should not be nominated, except as a 

dernier resort. 

You will refer the E. R. to me for their freight bill. 


To Lnlce Blachmer. 

May 2nd 1867. 

I am notified of machinations on foot to defeat the rati- cafs"to°comroi^'^^' 
fication of my nominess as registers. ' I desire only the Reconstruction, 
nomination of honest and competent men. The scheming 
villains who are trying to undermine Genl. Sickles' confi- 
dence in my recommendations, and get registers appointed 
to subserve partizan purposes, will be much disarmed if 

942 jSToeth Cakolina Histoeical Commission" 

a good many of my nominations be iSTortliern men, or U. 
S. soldiers, now in service, or honorably discharged — or 
officers of the Freedmen's Bureau. There are in some of 
the Counties some of these classes who are gentlemen, in- 
dulging no malevolence toivards our people — and not 
afflicted witli negrophohia. I would like to have some such 
men appointed. In your County I suggest H. H. Helper 
as one. 


To James L. Orr. 

May 3 1867. 

appoin"mefit^of ^ have had answers from a large number of Counties 

registers. recommending Registers. I have thought the managers 

at each election precinct, while registering, could make the 
most judicious selection of managers. We have some 1000 
election precincts in this State. If three judges of elec- 
tion and two clerks be required at each precinct, this will 
require some 5000 names. To find this number and as- 
certain from each of them whether he can take the teste 
oath, would require much inquiry and can be done with 
more facility by the Registers, while discharging their 
duties, than in any other way which has occurred to me. 
JuLSt as my agents had got under way a circular was 
issued by Genl Miles, chief of the Freedmen's Bureau in 
this State, to his subordinates in the several Counties, re- 
quiring them to report three fit men as registers for each 
County, of whom one must he a negro — and also managers 
of the elections at the several precincts. I havp not a 
copy before me. It required some proportion of military 
and freedman's bureau men. It does not purport to have 
been issued by the order or at the request of Genl. Sickles, 
but it is not presumable that Genl Miles would have is- 
sued such an order without the order or approval of Genl. 
Sickles, and on this assumption I do not know what con- 
struction to put on it. If it is designed to put Genl. S. 
in making; his selection between mv nominations and those 


of Genl. Miles, and if Genl. S. require some proportion of 
negroes on these boards, it is singular that he did not inti- 
mate to us such requirement. I sent Genl. S. a copy of 
the order of Genl. Miles, but asked for no explanation. 

I have deemed it my duty to send Genl. S. sundry in- 
quiries of lawyers and others as to the construction of his 
orders. He has not answered them. I sent him a copy 
of Circular, with my suggestion that the Registers, when 
nominated by him, be requested to recommend the man- 
agers of the elections. I have received no answer to any 
communication I have sent him since I left Charleston. 
Holden and his followers will do all that unscrupulous 
malevolence can do, to prejudice Genl S. against me. Is 
it possible they have effected their object ? It is unjust 
to Genl S., perhaps, to suppose he would allow any rep- 
resentation to operate to undermine his confidence in me, 
without giving me an opportunity of repelling it. 

From the intimate personal relations between you and 
Genl Sickles and the cordial candor you have exhibited to- 
wards me, I venture to ask you to apprise me, if you may 
properly do, if you know of any thing which has estranged 
Genl. S. from me. I am solicitous about this because to 
be of as much service to my people as I can during my 
continuance in office, and if the General shall become 
prejudiced against me it will impair my usefulness. 

I believe you know that Holden is the most malignant, 
mean, unscrupulous Radical the Devil has raised up to 
afflict our people and he pursues me with increasing malice. 

Has the Bureau in your State issued orders similar to 
Miles' ?• 

Columbia, S. C. 

944 jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission. 

From Henry T. Clarh. 

Tarboro, ]Sr. Caro. May 6th 1867. 
Appointment of Yoli misuiidei'stood me if you considered me as o-ivino; 

registers. •^ & o 

the opiniou that no one could be found in our County, who 
could take the oath prescribed for Register. I should have 
said that none of our own citizens, resident here during 
the War, could take it. And I repeat it, that as far as I 
linow, or can learn from enquiry, that not a single man re- 
siding in Edgecomb during the War who can read or write, 
that did not commit himself to the cause. jSTot even John 
ISTorfleet, who is now a Radical, and has the singular luck 
of being a favorite with both yourself and H olden, can 
take it or act under it. 

But we have citizens here now who have settled here 
since the peace (so-called), who are regarded as good citi- 
zens, too, who can take the oath — from such I propose to 
select persons that I can recommend to you or Genl. 
Sickles, as Register of Votes. We can appreciate a man 
who lived north, and could not sympathize with our strug- 
gle, and even fought against us. But a traitor to his own 
home cant be trusted or respected. A northern Radical 
is still our enemy, open, undisguised, unforgiving, acting 
under prejudices which were once natural, or connected 
Ivith his cause, in some instances, but in most cases, ties 
of fanaticism^ — born without reason and nurtured by its 
own passions. Blood is its natural food, and unless checked 
will come again to that issue. But Southern Radicals are 
meaner, worse, and utterly devoid of even a pretence of 
virtue — selfish, tyrannical and Ismaelitish, abandoned. 

]!*Tow Sir, if I could find a Southerner in our midst who 
could take thai oath, he could not get a support here for 
the meanest employment. They are the worst of Radicals, 
Polecat sneaks. 

But a northern man with conservative principles and 
views, I take by the hand as a fellow countryman and place 
in his hands the affairs of trust. 


Our people went in iiuauimously for their iudei3eiideiice ; 
they failed — they were conquered, and they now submit in 
sincerity and good faith to their situation — they will avail 
themselves of any means or opportunities, fairly and le- 
gall}' offered them to better their condition, and are dis- 
posed to give their aid and assistance where allowed. They 
are yielding with surprising facility equal rights to our 
colored population, but they cant go social equality yet, 
and detest the hyprocrisy of those who are encouraging it 
for their selfish views. 

Lt. Allison came do^^Ti and consulted me with regard to 
persons he was instructed to recommend to the Head of 
Bureau (Raleigh) for Register of Voters. He was re- 
quired to name three for each election precinct, one to be 
a colored man. He had selected Bennett for the Rocky 
Mt. precinct, and McCabe for this precinct, with a col- 
ored man in each. He hesitated between three colored 
men in one town, Simonton, David Harris and Thomas 
I^ewton, and finally selected Harris, a bro of James Har- 
ris — the Speaker of yr city. The Deportment and Senti- 
ments of all three of these colored men seems very fair and 
proper. In fact we have been very fortunate in our county. 
The two races have got along remarkably well. The col- 
ored are generally kept at work. There have been few or 
no collisions of any kind and apparently they mutually 
trust each other. If Radicalism has ffot amona: us, it has 
not yet shown its head. 

The Radical Convention (Ral. 27 March) attracted no The Radical con- 
attention here. John IsTorfleet and Col. Knapp were vol- 
unteers and self-constituted delegates from Edgecombe, 
and their aid and support of that conv and cause is kept 
out of our view. John ISTorfleet is smart, cool, very pru- 
dent, and silent but feels intensely, and will always be 
ready when an opportunity offers — a dangerous man in a 
bad cause. Col. Knapp is an Ex-Col of a Nigger Regi- 
ment and an Ex-Methodist Preacher — boasts more of his 
sense in the pulpit as a political parson than in the field 
Vol. 2—19 

946 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

of Battle — a real Yankee in his politics, his morals and 
his feelings, a great speculator. He is ambitious, conceits 
himself a great oratoi', and now is an aspirant for Gov- 

These were the men who committed Edgecomb to the 
Radical care on S7 March last — and one of them stands 
in this community endorsed by yourself as well as Holden. 
We are used to swallow bitter pills, but not from our 

I have written this letter to you on the frankness of an 
old friend, and not intended for your public files, which 
I hope you will observe. 

I have v/ritten a second letter recommending persons to 
be aj)pointed Register, which is for public use, to aid you 
in discharge of a public duty. 

[P. S.] — In the recommendation I only used the initial 
letter of the names of Bennett and Allison, because I know 
only the name as they sigTi it. I will send you the full 
name as soon as I can learn them. 

To J. H. Osborne. 

Raleigh May 6th 1867. 

Immediately on receipt of your letter of the 14th ult. 
I asked Genl. Sickles for his decision on the case. I have 
reed no answer save the general one in the form of a new 
"Ordinance," declining to put any interpretation upon his 
"Ordinance," but declaring the Courts must interpret. 

I am therefore, unable to advise you, as my interpre- 
tation of the order would not have any efficiency. 



To D. F. CaUivell. 

Raleigh^ May 6th 1867. 
Genl. Sickles assured me lie would uot regard the con- Concerning the 

o punishment tor 

fining of a criminal to labor on roads etc. by ball and chain cnme. 
as falling within the prohibition of his order. He would 
regard the confinement as a means of securing the labor 
and not as a punishment. This was an oral assurance. I 
sent him a copy of our late acts and called his attention 
especially to our late act for working our criminals on the 
roads. I have reed no reply since the general one to the 
public in which he declines to give any interpretation to 
his "ordinances," but refers parties to our Courts for their 
interpretation. He says he will answer inquiries from 
our appellate Courts— which Courts during the continu- 
ance of the present government of the State (if it be as 
short as we hope for) not like to have any cases to decide, 
involving the solution of the obscure jjoints in his "ordi- 

The negro Davis has escaped from the military and is 
probably in Ohio by this time — so you will not be troubled 
further with him. 

I should have written you sooner and more at length 
now, if incessant pressure of other duties would allow. 


To N. KeJsey. 

May 7 1867. 

E'ot being able to answer your inquiries satisfactorily — 
and being pressed with a heavy correspondence I have de- 
layed answering yours of the 19th ult, in the hope of an- 
swering more definitely. 

I have good reason to hope — and to believe that the 
clique to which you refer will not accomplish their object. 

I early addressed Genl Sickles to ascertain what meas- 
ures would be adopted to for a definite construction of the 

Ii48 jSJ' Cakolijsta Historical CoMMissioisr. 

disfranchising features of the late re-construction acts — 
and am informed that the Atto. Genl. of the U. S. is pre- 
paring an opinion, which will appear shortly and by which 
all the military commandants will be gTiided. 

Genl Sickles requested me to recommend fit men for 
Registers. I took measures to carry out his request. In 
the interim', the Chief of the Freedman's Bureau has is- 
sued his circular to his subordinates, requesting them to 
recommend registers. Whether this is done with the ap- 
proval of Genl. Sickles or not, I am ignorant. I am pro- 
ceeding to collect the names — am ready to recommend for 
about half the State and hope to be able to report for the 
w^hole State within the next two weeks. 


To Major Worth. 

May 7 1867. 

I am informed by Ralph Gorrell, Esq that Genl. Sickles 
has issued an order to' you, authorising you to take into 
your possession all the effects and assets of the Bank of 
Lexington and deliver over to a receiver, when one shall be 
appointed — and that the General desires my recommenda- 
tion to be transmitted through you, before he will appoint 
such receiver. 

I think the most fit man to be appointed receiver, is F. 
C. Robbins, Clerk and Master in Equity for Davidson 

At the request of Mr. Gorrell I address this communi- 
cation to you. 



To his brother. 

May 8 1867. 

I accept with many thanks the likeness of our beloved 
mother. It, together with one I had before, will be pre- 
served and cherished. When I do any thing commanding 
the plaudits of good men, the thought that my good mother 
is no longer here to enjoy it, casts a shade (5n my own 

You may well imagine, that under the absolute despot- 
ism, now established here under an act of Congress, en- 
forced by military authority, under the ridiculous pre- 
tence of restoring Republican government, I have a diffi- 
cult part to perform, to preserve any semblance of digiiity 
as Governor of the State. You will have learned that I 
have issued no proclamation and avoided any commentary 
on a state of things about which I could not conceal my 
disgust, if I were to say any thing, at the same time con- 
scious that the expression of any manly sentiment on my 
part, would deprive my people of the little influence I 
now have to mitigate the severity of military despotism, I 
would probably accomplish no good — and might do mis- 
chief. Hence I shall say or write little. 

To J. J. Jacl'son. 

Raleigh, May 8th 1867. 
By way of encouraging domestic manufacture and giv- 
ing a slight token of kindness to my children I have bought 
enough cloth of the Rock Island Mfg. Co., to make a suit 
of clothes for myself, my son, and each of my sons-in-law, 
which will be forwarded to them by the first convenient 


iSToRTH Carolijsta Histoeical Commission. 

Feeling towards 
the Radicals. 

To Henry T. Clarh. 

May 9 1867. 

I thank you for nomination of Registers for Edgecombe, 
which I regard as very judicions. 

I cordially assent to all your reasoning as to fit men 
to fill offices in ISTorth Carolina. You do not detest more 
than I do, a proscriptive Southern Radical, and I regard 
yr. remark that Mr. ISTorileet seemed to enjoy the singular 
good fortune of being a favorite of both Holden and my- 
self as pretty severe. I believe I have had a passing in- 
troduction to him — but have no acquaintance with him. 
I knew that in 1865 he voted for Holden, as did many 
good men from the idea that such vote would please the 
President and tend to bring about real pacification. When 
it became my duty last year to appoint directors for the 
R. Rs. I resolved to continue in their places the few Hol- 
den men, fit for their positions, who had voted for him 
for expediency, but who did not participate in his malev- 
olence towards the great body of our people. I made 
S]3ecial inquiry as to Mr. ISTorfleet — of more than one — 
the only one I can remember, was Mr. Fremont, who as- 
sured me Mr. ISTorfleet was not a real Radical. Mr. Fre- 
mont and all others who approached me, knew I would 
not appoint to any position a real radical — one wdio hated 
and would persecute those who belonged to the Secession 
party. I was assured Mr. ISTorfleet did not belong to this 
class. His attendance on the late Holden Convention sat- 
isfies me my friends were mistaken. 

Tar B ORG. 

Appointment of 

To George Hoivard. 

Raleigh, May 11 IS 67. 
I have good reason to believe that my nominations of 
Registers, made at the request of Genl. Sickles, will be 
adopted instead of those made by Genl. Miles, at the in- 


stance, as I believe, of W. W. Hoklen. I have liad an- 
swers, nominating men in most of the Connties. Mr. 
Hines, of AYilsou, is the only one who reports that he can- 
not find snitable men who can take the test oath. If I 
fail to recommend, officers of the U. S. army, or ultra radi- 
cals recommended by Genl Miles will probably be ap- 
pointed. If no snitable man, wdio is a resident of the 
Connty can be fonnd, I am authorised to nominate men 
from some other Connty. I wish yon would co-operate 
with Mr. Hines and recommend at an early day three 
men. If there be no Xorthern man, settled in Wilson who 
is net a radical, would it not be well to nominate some 
fair minded Quakers from some other Counties rather 
than have a negro and two ultra radicals ? 

I sj)ecially asked Genl. Sickles, in case of being unable 
to find registers in any County, not wdlling to take the 
teste oath, w^hether Quakers, from some other Counties, 
would not be acceptable to him. He said they would. I 
suppose worthy members of this specific people,^ would be 
less odious and more likely to act justly, than foreign radi- 


To A. M. TomJinson. 

Ealeigh May 15 1867. 

Yours of the 10th inst. w^as received yesterday even- ^|gjf f °*' ^"^^ 
ing's mail. 

rinding it impossible to attend to the proper dispensa- 
tion of the donations committed to my charge for the use 
of the indigent of this State,'' I obtained the consent of D. 
M. Barringer and the ministers of the four jDrincipal 
churches in this city, to take the labor off my hands. All 
that has been committed to my charge, they have control 
over. I will turn over your letter to them. 

In obedience to a resolution of the Genl. Assembly last 

952 JSToETH Caeolhsta Historical Commission. 

winter, I sent a circular to the Chairman of the AYarden 
Court of every County in the State, asking for informa- 
tion as to the extent of destitution which the County could 
not relieve. A number reported that they needed no aid. 
Some 20 counties asked for more or less help; and to 
these has been sent what was committed to my charge. 
Much the larger number (including Randolph) made no 
report. It was presumed that the Counties making no 
■report needed no assistance. Hence Randolph, as you 
say, "has been overlooked". ISTothing can be more em- 
barrassing than the distribution of a bounty, inadequate 
to the wants of all, throughout the State. There has been 
neither carelessness nor improper discrimination in the 
distribution of this bounty — but for want of proper in- 
formation, I do not doubt that the more unfortunate have 
got too much and the more modest and needy have often 
been "overlooked." If Randolph has been overlooked it 
must be attributed to the failure of the authorities to re- 
port its n^eeds. If any body supposes that the {^illegible'] 
of a majority of its people \illegihle'\ and the malevolence 
which they have shown towards me have in this matter 
had the slightest influence, such person does not under- 
stand me. My sole object has been to distribute the dona- 
tions confided to my discretion where there was the most 
urgent want. I have referred your letter to the gentlemen 
above indicated with my endorsement that your repre- 
sentations are entitled to implicit confidence. 
Bush Hill. 

From M. McRae. 
Shoe Heel Robeson Co., May 16th 1867. 

shiciair^^°^ ^^™^^ ^ haxe concluded not merely on my own account or per- 
sonal knowledge and observation of wrongs but from the 
complaint and suggestions of other good and influential 
citizens to bring to your notice grieviances and annoyances 


under which we are suffering. — hojDing that by your medi- 
ation we may obtain redress at the hands of the powers , 
that be, or in other words we wish to appeal through you 
to Gen. Sickles and ask him for sake of peace, harmony 
and humanity to do something for a people who are dis- 
posed to be as loyal and law abiding as any people from 
Maine to Texas. But we are now disturbed by a pestilent 
felloiv whom if you do not know personally you perhaps 
know from reputation by the name of James Sinclair — 
Col. Sinclair — or the fighting Parson. He has now got 
to be one of the blackest radicals in the country and for 
some time now he has been causing the negroes to assemble 
in large crowds to hear his speeches which are quite in- 
cendiary in their character tending to alienate the blacks 
and the whites. 

We have been getting along very well in this section up 
to this time both whites and blacks but now in consequence 
of his interference and constant harangues the blacks 
and whites both are more or less excited — he is a man of 
the very lowest character and perfectly destitute of all 
principle. I heard him in a speech the other day say that 
his portion was now that of the negroes and that it was 
to his interest to make the best of it he could — he also 
advises the negro to vote the Radical ticket and that by 
so doing they will secure confiscation and a division of 
the lands or something like that — and I understand in 
more ignorant crowds he tells them not to list the taxes 
and as one of the list-takers, I find considerable apathy 
among the colored people and but very few of them have 
listed owing to a great extent to his teaching. 

He had at Shoe Heel on last Saturday where I heard 
him s]3eak otlier free negroes who made quite incendiary 
speeches to a very large assembly of blacks one of whom 
in speaking of the rights of the negro said that the minds 
of many whites both ^orth and South had been perplexed 
as to wdiat they would do with the negro but before ten 
years he said the question would be what would the negro 

954 jSTokth CAKOLi:srA Histokical Commissiox. 

do with the Southern white man — he further said that 
the negro should stand up for his rights at all hazard that 
the negro should not leave the country and the whites could 
not do without them that a gentleman near Wilmington 
had made the experiment of foreign emigrants to the ex- 
clusion of the negro and that soon his premises were re- 
duced to ashes — as much as to say the negro was entitled 
to the labor, and would have it. The Southern' people were 
very much ridiculed and denounced as cowards. This is 
but a brief synopsis of what was said and in fact it was 
almost intolerable to bear and if something is not done 
to prevent such and stop such men from traveling over 
the country calling the laboring class from their labor 
and thereby retarding what little progress we have been 
making the country will soon be in a more horrible con- 
dition than it is now, we can't make crops or anything else 
if these miserable vagabonds who have nothing to do 
themselves are permitted to disturb and/ harrass the in- 
dustrious hard working man — one of the speakers said 
he would not advise them to steal something to eat but 
if they were needy they ought to get it (that is steal it). 

ISTow Gov. if it is in your power to do anything in this 
matter I hope you will go to work especially in regard to 
the poor miserable devil — Sinclair. Please let me hear 
from you. 

I am truly yours with high consideration 

[P. S.] — Address me at Shoe Heel Eobeson County, 
K C. 

To B. S. Gaither. 

May 16 1867. 

Concerning Your letters as to registers for Burke embarrases me. 

registers. You speak of two U. S. soldiers as ''the best under the 

circumstances" but do not give their names. The action 
of the Freedmen's Bureau, I presume, is officious, and 


I have reason to hope my nomiuatious will be adopted. 
Make the best uomiuations you can conformably to my 
suggestion in my order O'f the 20th Apl. My instructions 
do not require a negro in the board. Select your men with 
the sole view of their fitness and qualification, and in con- 
formity with the directions of my circular, a copy of 
which was sent to Genl. Sickles immediately after its is- 
sue. The most villainous machinations are on foot to 
defeat my nominations. These machinations will fail if 
my agents nominate, as they generally have, unexception- 
able men. 

I have definite recommendations from Yancej' and Cur- 
rituck — but cannot report for want of reports from a few 
Counties much nearer the seat of government. 

I hope you will report jDromptly, distinctly recommend- 
ing registers — or declaring your inability to do so. Xo 
agent has reported his inability to find men whom he could 

Surely you can find three honorable men — natives or 
foreigners — who can take the oath and who would im- 
partially perform their duty. If such cannot be found in 
the County, it is better to recommend somebody out of it, 
rather than make no recommendation — and thereby leave 
the matter to malevolent partizans. 


To C. A. CiUey. 

May 16 1867. 

Yours of the 10th inst. is received. 

A mystery hangs over the circular of Genl. Miles. Im- 
mediately upon its issue I sent a copy of it to Genl. Sickles, 
without inquiry or comment. He has made no remarks on 
it to me. Whether it was issued at his instance or with his 
knowledge I am ignorant — but I have pretty strong rea- 
son to believe it was done without his concurrence — or as a 

956 JSToKTH Cakolt^^a Historical Commissiois^. 

shield against radical abuse, — and that my recommenda- 
tions will be generally adopted. 

Genl. Sickles has not indicated to me his wish that any 
negroes should be appointed registers — but his silence 
since the issue of Genl. Miles' circular is a mystery. 


tion for a special 
term of court. 

Bureau of R. F. & A. L. 
IvijN'SToiv^ Lenoir Co., ]^. C. 

May 16th 1867. 
Ma J. Gen. ^t. a. Miles 

AssT. CoMR. Bu. E. F. & A. L. 
Raleigh IST. C. 
Concerning a peti- I have the houor to state that a petition has been for- 

tion for a soecia.l J- 

warded from this County to His Excellency Gov. Worth, 
praying for an order to hold an extra session of the Supe- 
rior Court in this County. This petition was based upon 
the fact, that the county now being overrun with criminals 
of every grade, who bid defiance to all law, and in fact con- 
trol the interests and destiny of the County. Our jail is 
flooded with them, while many of the worst are still at 
large. Murder, arson, burglary, highway robbery and lar- 
ceny seems to be the rule and owing to the impoverished 
condition of the people, and the wide spread influence of 
these scoundrels the law is impotent to protect the property 
or even the lives of the citizens. That petition would have 
my signature most cordially, as I know their great need, 
but I have thought that I could better subserve the ends 
of justice, by addressing you, and with that in view, I re- 
spectfully petition your co-operation with His Excellency 
in trying to protect the people. 

I would respectfully state, that the jail is insecure and 
insufficient and I have every reason to believe, that a des- 
perate attempt is being concocted to liberate those who are 
there confined, by desperadoes not yet arrested. 

CoEKESPOXDExcE OF Jois^atha:^: Worth. 957 

It is believed and I am well aware that there are three 
gangs of "RegTilators" in this and the adjoining counties 
viz: one of whites, one of blacks, and the third (and by 
far the worst) is made up of both w-hites and blacks. 

There being no jail in Jones Co. the prisoners from that 
county are sent here, and that county is overrun with 

I would resj)ectfully state, General, that if something is 
not done speedily, earnestly and effectually to suppress 
these high handed outrages and bring the offenders to 
speedy trial, where unrelenting justice may be dealt out, 
the county in this section at least is ruined. 

The people have become intimidated by this high handed 
lawlessness, and dare not speak of a crime, even where 
they know the perpetrators. To do so, would be at the 
risk of a robbery, an arson or their lives. 

These matters are vividly manifest to me, and for that 
reason I urgently, but very respectfully petition in behalf 
of the citizens of this County your co-operation with His 
Excellency the Governor. 
I have the honor to remain 
Very Respectfully 

Your Obt. Servant 

(Signed) H, H. Foster 

Brvt. Maj. U. S. Vols. 
Asst. Supt. Bu. R. F. & A. L. 
True Copy. 

(Signed) Jacob F. Chuk 

Brvt. Lieut. Colonel 
A. A. A. General 

To P. Durham. 

May 18 1867. 

Yours of the 15th inst. is reed. 

You state that the patient, Kindnask, (as I read it) 
was reg-ularly sent to the L. Asylum as a State patient. I 

958 ]*^OETH Caeolhsta Histokical Commission. 

suppose you mean as an indigent patient, chargeable to the 

If this be the case the justices of your Court were bound, 
as I understand the law, to impose a tax for his support, 
and their omission to do so is made convictable by special 

I think there is no obscurity in the law as to the Luna- 
tick Asylum. The Court cannot legally refuse to impose 
a tax to pay for the support of a patient, legally sent to 
the Asylum, as a County patient, even if he himself were 
a man of wealth. The law has left it to the committing 
Magistrates, with no appellate tribunal, to decide who is 
a fit subject to be sent to this institution at the charge of 
the County. This is my individual opinion. I have no 
more authority to construe the statutes touching the Asy- 
lum, than I have as to any other Statute. What I have 
written must be taken as the opinion of a quondam lawyer. 

To General Nelson A. Miles. 

May 18 1867. 
Arrest of D.G. I recd last night from D. G. McRae, from Goldsboro, a 

McRae. ° 

letter informing me that he was under military arrest, 
being in custody and on his way to Ft. Macon ''for some- 
thing which had not been made known to me" (him). He 
says he is informed you issued the order of arrest, and 
requests me to ascertain from you the specific charge 
against him and to forward it to a lawyer whom he desig- 
nates and whom, I infer, he has retained to defend him. 

If the information he seeks be such as you may be able 
and willing to furnish me, I will forward, as requested by 
Mr. McEae, who has always borne the name of a law- 
abiding citizen. 



To J. G. Spencer. 

May 18 1861. 

Finding it qnite im]30ssible to attend to the cliaraties festitute^^^ 
committed to my charge for the relief of our people, I got 
the consent of Hon. D. ]\I. Barringer and the four clergy- 
men of the chief denominations of this city, to relieve me 
from this duty. I learn that a supply has been sent for 
Montgomery. I mentioned Locky Simmons as one man 
suitable to distribute it — and think they nominated ]\Ir. 
Jordan, because he was the late member of Assembly from 
that County, as the other. I will refer your letter for 
more specific answer. 


To Thomas Settle.^ 

Executive Dept. 
Ealeigh, May 20 1867. 
You will have heard that Henderson Cooper, (of color) Case of Henderson 
convicted as accessory to a rape on the body of Susan Jane 
Daniels in Greenville — sentenced to be hanged — escaped — 
re-captured and sentence re-afiirmed — was taken into cus- 
tody by order of Genl. Sickles and a military tribunal or- 
ganised to inquire into the fairness of his trial, etc. 
I am furnished by Genl. Sickles with a copy of Col. 

' Thos. Settle, of Rockingham, prior to the war was a Democrat and 
later a Whig-. He was a member of the legislature from 1854 to 1859, 
and at the latter session was Speaker of the House. He was for a 
short time a captain in the Confederate service, but resigned to be- 
come Solicitor of the 4th District He was a member of the conven- 
tion and legislature of 1865, and was Speaker of the Senate in the 
latter body. In 1868 he was elected as a Republican a Justice of the 
Supreme Court. In 1871 he became Minister to Peru but soon re- 
signed. He was President of the Republican National Convention of 
1872; he was then appointed to the State Supreme Court but re- 
signed in 1876 to run for governor, and was defeated by Z. B. Vance. 
President Hayes, in 1877, made him U. S. Judge for the Northern 
District of Florida. 

960 ISToitTii Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

Bomf Orel's report (a copy of which I inclose) but am not 
furnished with any of the evidence taken by said comniis- 
sion, with reference to Genl. Sickles, in the following 
words "Respectfully referred to his Excellency J. Worth, 
Gov. of X. C. for his consideration and remarks — - 
By command of Genl. D, E. Sickles." 
I will be obliged to you for such information as you can 
give me touching on the fairness of the trial, and your con- 
victions as to the guilt or innocence of the prisoner. 

To A. 8. McNeill. 

Ealeigh, May 21/61. 
Appointment of I thank you for your letter relating to claim of Jno. 

McN^eill's estate vs the County of Harnett and recommend- 
ing registers for your County. 

I cannot at this moment lay iny hands on the papers 
enabling me to state with precision the amount of interest 
due on this claim, but you can reach it with exact accuracy 
in the judgi; of your Supr. Court and my petition for a 
mandamus. I trust the Court will pay the interest and 
2-| per cent commission which was due to Jno. MclSTeill 
more than seven years ago, under their orders. 

You are right in not nominating any negroes. I have 
no idea of being the instrument of carrying out so absurd 
a proposition. I decline to nominate negroes, not because 
they are negroes, but because they are incompetent to dis- 
charge the duties. 

I have reason to believe this movement of the freedmen's 
bureau had its origin with a base party among us and that 
it will not be countenanced by Genl Sickles. 

CorrilSpondexce of JoxATHAiq^ Worth, 961 

To Dr. Samuel A. Williams. 

May 21 1867. 
You will hav8 heard that Henderson [Cooper] of color, Case of Henderson 

, Cooper. 

convicted of rape at Spring Term 1865, of Granville Supr. 
Court, was taken some weeks ago, by order of Genl. 
Sickles, from the civil authorities and a military commis- 
sion appointed to inquire into the fairness of the trial by 
which he was convicted. The report of that commission 
is submitted to me by Genl. Sickles for my remarks. This 
report, which gives me all the information I have had by 
report or otherwise, as to the evidence adduced on the 
trial, carries with it internal evidence, that the commis- 
sion, from ignorance or prejudice, have not made a report 
entitled to respect. On inquiry of an intelligent gentle- 
man from your neighborhood, yesterday, he informed me 
that after the condemnation the criminal made voluntary 
confessions to you as to his participation in the crime. I 
respectfully ask of you, at your earliest convenience, a 
statement of writing of any confession or statement made 
to you by the prisoner — under what inducements such con- 
fessions w^ere made — and any other facts within your 
knowdedge tending to establish the guilt or innocence of 
this prisoner. 

Do you know at what distance from Oxford the prose- 
cutrix resided when the said military commission sat in 
Oxford and whether any effort was made to have her be- 
fore the commission and her testimony taken ? 


To M. McBae. 

May 22 1867. 
I can do nothing to relieve you from that evil spirit — in regard to 

,1 jj T ,• Tc T "^1 T T • . James Sinclair. 

tlie tigliting parson. 11 1 could succeed m procuring a 
military order restraining the evil spirit from mischief, it 
would raise a clamor throughout the land. The only prac- 
Vol. 2—20 


KoETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

Appointment of 

ticable remedy I can suggest, is the getting of honest ne- 
groes to reply to him — and if lie use incendiary language 
for his hearers to report it direct — and not through the 
Govr. — to Genl Sickles. The former I regard as the bet- 
ter remedy. 
Shoe Heel. 

To General Daniel E. Sicilies. 

May 22 1867. 

I am prepared to recommend Registers for about 70 of 
the 89 counties of this State, whom 1 believe are of such 
exemplary character that they will give satisfaction to the 
great body of our people, white and black — and hope 
shortly to be prepared to recommend for the remainder of 
the counties. I therefore asked joii whether you desired 
me to report before I was prepared to report for all the 
counties. Having reed no answer, I now report the ma- 
jority. As you may desire to make inquiries of others as 
to the fitness of my nominees, and it may be some two or 
three weeks before I can make up my report for all of the 
counties, I will make a partial report whenever you may 
request it. 

The delay as to some of the counties springs from the 
difficulty and uncertainty of the mails. In many counties 
after the issue of Genl. Miles' Circular my agents inferred 
that your request to me to nominate Registers had been re- 
voked, and took no action till re-instructed to do so. 

I have the honor to be 

Chaeleston, S. G^ 

Case of Tolar, 
McRae, etc. 

To Jesse Warden. 

May 22 1867. 

In a correspondence I am having with Genl. Sickles, 
touching the seizure of Capt. Tolar, D. G. McRae and 


Mark Phillips, it is desirable for me to have a copy of au 
Indictment which I am informed was found at the late 
term of yr. Snpr. Court against Capt. Tolar, — and vour 
certificate as to -whether it was found after a presentment 
bv the grand jury — or upon the application of a prose- 
cutor and also on what day such bill was found. 

To B. Strange. 

May 22 1SG7. 

Although materially indisposed, I went to-day in person Arrest of McRae, 
to see Genl. Miles, He says he has no authority to re- 
lease Mr. McEae. I have written to Genl. Sickles remon- 
strating against arrests upon ex parte statements and 
without any preliminary hearing — representing the good 
character of McRae and asking him to order his release 
on his parol — and calling his attention to the fact that 
a Military Commission was ordered for the trial of these 
parties he fore it ivas possible that the Court, having juris- 
diction, could act. This is far from the first instance 
where Genl. Avery has exhibited alacrity in preferring un- 
just charges against our Courts — but it is a little the most 
bald case. 

I learn from Genl. Miles that Genl. Avery has drawn up 
his specifications. If I am furnished a copy, which I re- 
quested, I will forward it to you — And will from time to 
time, keep you posted as to the whole matter, so far as I 

[P. S.] — I am at my residence. I will send you a copy 
of my letter to Genl. Sickles tomorrow, if I can remem- 
ber it in the multitude of my cares. 


From ^Y. F. Leal: 
RocKixGHAM,, Richmond Co. May 23/67. 
I do not know that the "military authorities" will see f o^^H'°" ""^ ^''^ 

"■' Union League. 

964 J^OETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

proper to interfere to remedy the evil of which we com- 
plain, yet nevertheless I feel it due to myself, as well as 
to others who have solicited me, to make known through 
you and to those in command of the existence of an evil 
in our midst, which if compatible in their views of pro- 
priety, ought at once to be checked. 

I allude to the secret societies, now forming by the free 
blacks in every section of this County. 

There are now in our midst a couple of Freedmen, one 
of whom would have passed as a white man, did he not 
tell his audience that he was a freed man) who are con- 
stantly engaged in administering secret oaths to the ''freed- 
men" and forming secret societies. 

To so great an extent is this done that it has lately 
created no little alarm among the people and particularly 
among the female portion of the whites, and the more so 
for the reason, that the law^-abiding white men do not pre- 
tend to wear fire arms, to protect themselves against any 
sudden outbreak of the Blacks whereas the "freed ne- 
groes", at least ^, are ivell armed with pistols, Buie knives, 

An order from Gen. Sickles would at once put a stop 
to it, wdiich we think wuth due deference should be done. 

To J. R. Bulla.' 

May 2J^ 1867. 
Concerning vacan- On the reference of your memorial to me touching your 

cies in county «• ; i i t 

oftices. difficulty as to supposed vacancy of Shfr. in Randolph, 1 

addressed to Genl. Sickles a reply, a copy of which is 
herewith inclosed. He has returned my letter with the 
following endorsement. "Respectfully returned. It is 
the desire of the commanding Genl. whenever he can do 
so, with just reliance upon the discreet and importial exer- 
cise of the power, to remit to provisional authorities such 
power of appointment, as by writing laws, they may exer- 

iThe County Attorney of Randolph. 


cise, subject to the condition imposed bv See. 6 of '"the act 
to provide for tlie more efficient government of the Confed- 
erate States," passed Mar. 2/67, that no person is eligible 
to office who wonld be disqualified under the provisions of 
the 3rd article of the constitutional amendment. It is 
necessary therefore that all persons, so appointed, should 
in addition to such oath or oaths of office as mav be re- 
quired bj North Carolina, take and subscribe the oath of 
office — proscribed in Sec. 1 of the Act supplementary to 
the act last mentioned, passed Mar. 23/67. A dujjlicate 
copy of said oath of office, duly subscribed and attested, 
to be forwarded to the head-quarters through the com- 
manding officer of the military post within which the ap- 
jDointment is made. These papers to be returned with ac- 
tion noted." 

I shall endorse on these papers and return them as fol- 
lows. "A copy of the written letter to you, of the 10th 
inst. and a copy of your endorsement thereon, are this 
24 May, sent to the County Att. of Randolph, with my 
request that he furnish me with a copy of the proceedings 
of the Court, touching the matter, at May Term, 1867." 

I desire that you furnish me such copy of record with- 
out delay, with any remarks you may deem it expedient 
to submit. 


To B. C. Holmes. 

Raleigh, May 2Jf/67. 
I found it altogether incompatible with mv official Relief of the 

" -■■ ' destitute. 

duties, to attend to the judicious distribution and the cor- 
respondence, as to the donations of Maryland and be- ■ 
nevolent jSTorthern associations, for the relief of the South- 
ern people, and obtained the consent of Col. D. M. Bar- 
ringer and the chief clergymen of this city to attend to 
the same for me. Ts^earlv all which has been confided to 

966 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

me has been distributed to points where the greatest des- 
titution was believed to exist. I have referred your let- 
ter to the above mentioned commission, who will send you 
some aid, or explain, if- they do not. I thank you for the 
expression of your approval of my efforts to make the 
condition of our people as tolerable as possible. God 
knows I have done my best for the welfare of ]^orth Car- 
olina — and next to the approval of my own conscience, I 
would be gratified with the approbation of the people who 
have selected me as their Chief Magistrate at this trying 
period of our history. 

To E. liiibh. 

Ealeigh, May 21^/67. 

destuu°e^^^ Soiiie weeks ago donations for the relief of our starving- 

people were sent to Col. Bomford and myself, from benevo- 
lent societies in jSTew York and Phila. The amount, 
though eminently creditable to the sources, was merely 
nominal, in reference to the destitution. We sent it at 
once to a few counties where a local drought last summer, 
made staiwation inevitable without aid from abroad. Since 
then $500. in money from California and a large quan- 
tity of bacon and corn was sent to me by Maryland. Find- 
ing it quite impossible, consistent with official duties, to 
attend to the proper distribution of these donations and 
the extensive correspondence growing out of it, I obtained 
the consent of D. M. Barringer and the four chief clergy- 
men of this city, to relieve me from this labor. I under- 
stand from them that nearly all has been distributed to 
the points where greatest destitution existed, according 
to the best information they could obtain. I have sent 
your letter to the commission who will reply further 

I am not informed whether other supplies will be sent 


to mj care. I bad not heard luitil the receipt of jour let- 
ter, that extraordinary destitution existed in Craven. On 
the contrary I had supposed, in comparison with most of 
the State, that there was a good crop last year, and that 
the great body of the people were able to aid the isolated 
cases of distress existing in every community. Your rep- 
resentation surprises me and concerns me — and if pos- 
sible, some aid shall be sent to you. 
]N Ew Bern. 

I'o Horace B. CliappelJ. 

Raleigh, May 2^/61 . 

Before the receipt of yours of yesterday's date, I had 
made my recommendations for Register of AVake. Genl. 
Sickles may not act immediately on my recommendations — 
or may disapprove some of them. If you send me a rec- 
ommendation as tt5 your fitness from persons of known 
respectability, I will forward it to Genl Sickles. 

Xew Lic+pit, Wake Co. 

From Zebidon B. Vance. 

Cpiaklotte, May 25th, IS 67 
You perhaps have seen a call on Gov. Wise and myself in regard to an 

-^ _ -^ '^ invitation to 

in the Sentinel, from the negroes of Edgecombe and ISTasb Qg^rQ^I^'^® 
to address them on the issues of the day. I am very averse 
to apjDearing in politics now, but regret to see any oppor- 
tunity which the negroes give us neglected, as they evi- 
dently don't design giving us many chances at them — at 
least the mean whites who control them intend so to con- 
trive it. 

What shall I do ? My inclination is to write them a 
letter and decline. I could say nearly all I wish in the 

Consult friends and write me. 

968 JSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To General Nelson A. Miles. 

May 25 1867. 
Court of Oyer and I appointed Juclffe Warreii last week, as soon as I was 

Terminer for _ ° ' 

Lenoir. informed that several of the malefactors, who have been 

disquieting the County of Lenoir and adjacent counties, 
were cajJtured and in the jail of Lenoir, to hold a Court 
of Oyer and Terminer in that County, for the trial of 
the prisoners, and I offered a reward for the apprehension 
of two against whom I was informed there was satisfac- 
tory evidence, as I will for any others when their names 
are furnished to me, with satisfactory evidence of their 
guilty co-operation with these bands of regulators. 

I also asked Col. Bomford to furnish a military guard 
for the jail, who referred my request to the officer com- 
manding in Lenoir. I have had no response to this re- 
quest from the commandant of that Post, but have heard 
unofficially that a portion of the prisoners, by order from 
some military ofiicer of the L^nited States, had been sent to 
Ft. Macon for safe custody. 

I am intensely anxious that none of the prisoners es- 
cape. Lender existing law, disbanding the militia of the 
State, I have no power to place an armed giiard around 
the jail and have done all I could for their safe custody 
in asking the military authority of the IT. S. to furnish 
a guard. 

If Major Foster can furnish me with the names of any 
witnesses by whom proof can be made against any one 
of the malefactors, I shall be much obliged. The fact, 
I think, is notorious that for months past, bands of des- 
peradoes have been committing crime in Lenoir and ad- 
jacent Counties. The failure to ^Dunish them, so far as 
I can learn, is not attributable to the civil authorities, but 
to the failure of parties injured and others, to furnish 
the specific information to the civil officers which would 
authorise the authorities to act. 



To WilUam CJarl'. 

EaleictH, May 25 1867. 

I received some weeks ago your long and kind letter. 
My official duties require of me so much writing . . . 
\_Here follow several lines ivliicli are 'illegible. 

. . . Her whole life had been one sweet and cheerful, 
though never enjoying perfect health. So wise and con- 
siderate was she of the feelings of every body, however 
humble that she had as strong a hold on my affections as 
child can have on a father — And my thoughts never re- 
turn to her (and to this time she is seldom absent from 
my thoughts) without melancholy anguish. 

You continually desire to know my views on the present 
l^lan of Xational afi'airs. 

AYhen the war ended the South felt thorouohlv con- Feeling in the 

'^ "- South. 

quered — and ready to submit to the terms demanded by 
her conquerors. If the narrow malevolence which now 
under the guise of patriotism, demands the confiscation 
of our lands, and the exile or death of the great body of 
our people had then manifested itself, there would have 
been no attempt at resistance, but so many as survived 
would have hated and taught their children to hate, a fac- 
tion who nurtured hatred and vengeance after the van- 
guished asked for quarter. 

After two years of deliberation the Xorth says to us, 
we will receive you into fellowship again, wlienever you 
will make certain amendments of the fundamental law, 
whereby your most enlightened and most respected citi- 
zens shall he excluded from any further agency in the 
government under which they are to live — and whereby 
every male negro of the age of 21 shall be declared com- 
petent and fit to manage governmental affairs : — and to 
insure your action in conformity to our wishes, we give 
you notice that your lands shall be confiscated if you dis- 
regard our requirements: and for fear that even this 
threat may not induce you to adopt a Constitution which " 

970 ISToKTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

we think will insure our continued party ascendency, we 
disband vour militia and quarter among you enough 
troops, to compel you to vote as we want you to vote. 
When your new Constitution is formed it must contain 
the provisions we dictate, but it must bear the semblance 
of being a constitution adopted freely by you. 

I do not doubt that all the Southern States will con- 
form to the demands of the ISTorth. Total ruin seems to 
be the denunciation if we refuse to adopt what seems to 
us an absurd constitution. To avoid the bayonet and 
secure bread to preserve life, we will adopt it — , but it 
ought to be manifest to every jSTorthern man who regards 
us as still retaining the feelings of human nature, that 
we do so, with positive abhorrence towards a people ac- 
complishing its party purposes under the hypocritical pre- 
tense of preserving Republican government. Our people 
all have sagacity enough to look through the flimsy veil 
by which the party in power seek to cover their designs — 
towit — the perpetuation of their party ascendency, under 
the popular name of '^'Loyalty" — "Human Rights" — ''"Tm- 
partial Suffrage" and other class trash — when it is mani- 
fest that those who work the wires look wuth a single eye, 
to party ascendency. 

The only party, in my day, whose whole aims were 
noble and patriotic, w^as the Whig party, while Henry 
Clay, one of Nature's noblemen, was its teacher ; and in- 
spired it with his manly views. 

The great body of the American people, now believe, 
that the late war arose from antagonism between Freedom 
and Slavery. ISTothing can be more palpably false. Party 
Spirit produced the war. The tariff was the first pretext, 
and Sectional and party ascendency — and thefi Slavery. 
Ambitious Southerners and ambitious jSTortherners, each 
wishing to rule, draw off from their real designs, the 
views of the gullible multitude of their respective sections. 

President Johnson, as well as Lincoln, were patriotic 
and national in their views. Their scheme of restoring 


the Union, looked to the restoration of cordiality between 
the alienated sections. The present leaders of the demo- 
crat party, who no donbt represent the sentiments of the 
great Xorth, look to keeping the Union together, by keep- 
ing their heel npon their vanqnished foes, and the sword 
continnally snspended over them, and compelling the 
adoption of measures under the hypocritical pretext of 
popular approbation by a people thus coerced. 

The purposes of Providence are often accomplished by 
means which to the weakness of human reason, seem 
illy fitted to accomplish the end. To me the measures 
of the dominant party seem only suited to despair and 
perpetuate hate between the sections — and I cannot per- 
ceive how material good is to spring from the nurture of 
sectional hate : — and my only hope is that Providence is 
working out some ffreat o-ood bv means which seem to me 
calculated only to nurse the most devilish feelings of the 
human heart. 

With military satraps placed over us, invested with 
absolute control over us, and with ignoble spies placed in 
ever}" neighborhood who know they can make themselves 
acceptable to the ISTorth and retain their places, only by 
maligning all our actions, you need not expect from our 
press or otherwise the expression of feeling which our 
jjeople naturally indulge. All manlv expression of senti- 
ment is crushed. The temptation is almost irresistable 
to seek for favor by fawnirg — and not a few yield to 
the temptation. Silence is the resource of manly honesty. 

The feeling among the great body of our people— and 
especially among the late owners of slaves, is one of kind- 
ness and pity for this confiding impovident man. I^ot 
one man in ten would restore them to slavery. If we were 
let alone every facility would be allowed them, by in- 
dustry and good conduct, to improve their condition : but 
to have our land traversed by Wilson, Kelly and other 
jSTorthern partizans, seeking to segregate the negro from 
the whites, and sow the seeds of antagonism of the races 

972 NoETH CakolijN'a Historical Commissio]n". 

in order (not disguised) to insure the ascendency of the 
Republican party, in these States, intensifies tlie hostility 
of our people towards the dominant power. This feeling- 
is necessarily suppressed. Few are willing to be made 
martyrs, when they see no good likely to result from self 

For your jDersonal satisfaction I have made this frank 
exposition of the state of feeling here. It is not for the 
public eye. 

All my life my sentiments as to national affairs have 
been in cordial unison with the teachings of Genl Wash- 
ington in his farewell address : but I have no affection for 
such a Union and such a Constitution as is maintained 
and established by brute force. 

We are enjoying good health and no event has occurred 
lately among our family circle, of any importance. 

Economy, Iintdiana. 

To Thomas C. Fuller. 

May 26 1S67. 

Arrest of Toiar, etc. Yours of the 22 i]ist., covering copy of Indictment 
against Capt. Tolar is received. In my efforts to induce 
Genl. Sickles to desist from his interference with the Supr 
Court of Cumberland in the case of your client and Mr. 
Mclvae, I much needed this copy. The General's action 
is based on the representation of General Avery, an offi- 
cer of the Freedman's Bureau, whose duty as I infer from 
his action in this and other cases, is always performed 
with the single idea, that a Southern white man never 
tells the Iruth, and that a negro never lies. I have had 
?n interview with him. He puts his recommendations 
chiefly on the action of the coroner's jury. If the evidence 
before that jury and their verdict were furnished me, it 
might be of mueh advantage to me. xVvery represents 


the verdict as not coiifoTmiiig to the evidence and hence 
argnes that jnstice cannot be had before a Cumberland 

All the inHnence I can exercise to defeat this scheme 
of trying these men by a military commission will be 
exerted, — and I will thank you for any facts which you 
may think would be of service to me. 

I had written for a copy of the Indictment. Say to 
the Clerk that the copy sent by you serves my purpose. 


To Luke BlacJnner. 

May 27, 1867. 

A letter was received from you some week or two ago Military arrests, 
relating to the arrest of Messrs. March and Hampton. By 
some unaccountable means it has been mislaid, without 
having been answered : I suppose it is now unimport 
wdiether I answer it at all. 

Mr. Thomas brought the application addressed to Genl. 
Sickles to me for my endorsement. The application for 
endorsement was made in writing by Mr. Gorrell and I 
believe by the other counsel associated with him. I read 
the petition : I responded that I could perceive no reason 
upon the facts stated in the petition, for the interposition 
of the military authorities : that while the counsel that 
filed the petition were both personally and professionally 
gentlemen of high standing, I did not concur in the al- 
legation that our Courts could not give adequate relief. 

I have a copy of this letter at my office. I write from 
my residence (being unwell today) and give the substance 
from memory. 

Whether my letter was presented to the General or not 
I do not know. As I perceive from a note in the Old 
North State to-day, that you and Mr. McCorkle were al- 
lowed to see the papers, allow me to inquire, w^as my let- 
ter filed ? Yon can have a coj)y of it, if you wish it. 


974 ]S[oETH Caeoli:s-a Historical Commissio:^. 

To D. F. Caldwell. 

May 28 1867. 

In the report of Genl. Avery to Col. Bomford, touch- 
ing the case of Robert Davis, occur the following pas- 
sages — 

"After his arrest he was told by the Jailor, Mr. Reese, 
that he would certainly be convicted and that his only 
chance for obtaining mercy, was to tell the whole matter. 
A Mr. Marrow and Mr. S. B. Glenn, accompanied by the 
jailor, visited Davis in the prison, and after some con- 
versation with him, induced him to confess that he had 
entered the house of Mr. Marrow and taken the property 
from two other houses. 

Mr. Glenn, one of the parties to whom the confession 
was made, told Mr. Brown, a prominent merchant in 
Greensboro, at the time the confession was made, that he 
told the boy Davis he had whipped him once for stealing, 
and that unless he .now told the whole truth he would whip 
him again, and that Davis thereon confessed the crime as 
charged and two other similar cases." 

You will see that the drift of this report was intended 
to impeach the fairness of the conviction. 

I have reason to believe that Genl. Avery, upon whose 
reports the negro Cooper, convicted of rape in Granville, 
was withdrawn from the civil authorities — and several 
persons in Fayetteville seized and carried to Tt Macon 
for trial before a military commission, before a Court 
having cognizance of the crime hwputed to them could act, 
has contributed more than any other officer stationed in 
]Sr. C, to make the unjust impression that our Courts 
will not act impartially where a negro is concerned. I 
wish to know whether the facts reporting a crime against 
Reese in I. County are truly stated. Will appreciate it. 

Geeeistsboeo, InT. C. 


To General Daniel E. SicMes. 

Ealeigh May 28/67. 

lu the several cases of petitions bv parties to von for pf rj/o^^"^ ^°'-" 
jDardon for offences of which there had been a conviction 
in onr Conrts, which jou have referred to me, I have 
invariably taken proper steps to ascertain the facts. 

I do not know whether yon desire me to report to yon 
the resnlt of snch inqniry and my action thereon. If so, 
I will attend to it at once. 

In the case of the petition of J. J. Gibbs, of Charlotte, 
whose petition represented that he was persecnted because 
he had been a U. S. soldier, I inclosed a copy of his peti- 
tion to Ex-Gov. Vance, residing in Charlotte and asked 
him to refer it to some intelligent U. S. officer. Inclosed 
find report of Capt. Lazelle. 


To General Daniel E. Sidles. 

May 29 1861. 

i\_llow me to call your attention to my letter of the 26th 
Apl, inquiring whether I conld have possession of the Gov- 
ernor's mansion and grounds, now occupied by your mili- 
tary authorities, in order to repair them, as required by 
an act of the last Genl Assembly — and also inquiring^ 
whether rent would be allowed this State for their occu- 
pation since I entered on the discharge of my duties, by 
order of the President — or for any other times. I have 
not been informed whether my letter of the 26th ult 
reached your hands. 


970 ]^[oRTH Carolina Historical Co^rMISSIO^^ 

From Braxton Craven. 

Trinity College June 6, 1867. 

doiph'^coun^y" Will vou be at High Point on Wednesday evening- on 

the mail train ? I hope yon will. 

Movements are on hand bevound my comprehensions. 
They are moving heaven and earth in this Comity. Froyer 
is certain to be put ont of office, for daring to recommend 
any thing but Red Strings. It will be disastrons to this 
Connty for Reuben Trogden will bs put in, it is said, but 
I do not know anything that can be done. 

I see nothing now, but for all true men to stand shoul- 
der to shoulder, watch and wait. The efforts will be to 
prevent registration to a tremendous extent. 

Come up, many friends wish to see you. All have not 
bowed the knee to Baal. 

To D. F. Caldivell. 

June 8 1867. 

My accumulated duties limit me to a very brief reply 
to your patriotic and manly letters. 

I have in no-wise committed myself on the great pend- 
ing questions, beyond the point that all who can should 
register. As to giving the semblance of volition, by an 
act of mine where I am allowed semblance of volition, to 
a change of our Constitution, really under the sword, but 
ostensibly voluntary on our part, I most heartily heartily 
concur with you: but I deem it unwise and impolitic, at 
this time, to say aiiT^thing to the public. 

The article in the Sentinel appeared without my knowl- 
edge. I have submitted your [illegMe.'] 

Greek SBORO. 


To Colonel ir. (/. Moore. 

June mil 1867. 

There is a matter, apparently unimportant, which to 
some extent injuriously affects the President, to which I 
desire in unofficial shape, to call jour attention. I do so, 
because I regard you as a sincere friend of the President — 
from elevated considerations — and I have formed a strong- 
attachment to you personally from the convictions that . 
you are an honest man — a rare case now-a-days. 

Gov. Holden abused the confidence of the President as HoWen's conduct 
to recommending persons for j^ardons, in this. — All his pardoris°^^ 
actions were shaped to bring about his election by the 
people as Governor. He never failed to recommend for 
pardon any one, — whatever his antecedents, who gave him 
satisfactory assurance of support. He recommended for 
susiDension or rejection, every one, regardless of his po- 
litical antecedents, who would not assure him of support. 
Let me give vou an illustration. The following Gentlemen 
had been members of the Confederate Congress and were 
open and avowed Secessionists — Lander, Craige, Bridgers, 
Arrington. Yenable. On the other hand the following 
men — Gov. Graham, Vance, Jo. Turner, Gaither, and 
others of like stripe, who had never endorsed Secession, 
but would not become spaniels and lick the hand which 
had chastised them, were represented as unworthy of par- 
dons. The class of men last mentioned could not be par- 
doned, because they w^ould not support Holden. It was 
soon understood that the purport to pardon was support 
of Holden. 

This brings me to my point— On my last visit to Wash- 
ington the pardon clerk, at my request, furnished me with 
a list of persons, from this State, who had petitioned for 
pardons, on account of being worth $20,000. or holding 
some petty office, whose pardon Gov. Holden had rec- 
ommended to be suspended or rejected. Every person on 
this list was politically obscure; but were known to Mr. 

Vol. 2—21 

978 JNoKTH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

Holden to be men, who under no circumstances would vote 
to make him Governor. Many of them are estimable 
men. When they know that Dortch, Bridgers, McLean, 
Venable, Arrington and other conspicuous members of 
the Confederate Congress who had done their best to bring- 
about and sustain the rebellion, are pardoned, while they, 
many of whom resisted the Revolution as long as the 
United States could protect them, ai'e not pardoned — not 
properly appreciating the vast field of duty to which the 
President has to look, conceive that they are wronged. 
Much as / abhorred Secession you must not infer that I 
object to any pardon which has been granted. What I 
desire to impress is that Justice and policy alike require 
that all these petitioners, who have never been conspicu- 
ous as politicians, ought to be pardoned. A list of them 
was made out by the pardon clerk and I endorsed it, rec- 
ommending that the pardons issue. I do not doubt that 
it has been overlooked simply on account of the pressure 
of more important business. The object of this letter is 
to ask you to have that list hunted up and the pardons 
forwarded. I ask it more in justice to the President than 
for the sake of the parties. I believe the President to be 
"the noblest work of God — an honest man" and desire to 
contribute my mite to protect him from unjust criticism. 

These men know their pardons were not granted with 
others in like position, on account of the personal hostility 
of Holden. They can't be made to understand why they 
are now withheld. 

Washington, D. C. 

To F. B. Satterthivaite. 

June 12 1867 
Concerning" vacan- I have received the petition of yourself and others for 

cies in county , 

offices. tlie apjDointment of Mr, Stackey as Clerk of your Court to 

fill vacancy occasioned by the recent death of the former 


clerk — and have forwarded it to Genl. Sickles with this 
endorsement — 

"The petitioners are gentlemen distinguished for in- 
telligence, and in every way worthy men. 

I think that a fair interpretation of the re-constrnction 
act, as well as public j)olicy, will leave the filling of this 
vacancy with the County Court. If the commanding Gen- 
eral deems it his right and duty to fill this vacancy, I 
recommend that the prayer of the petitioners be granted. 

I do not interpret the act of Congress as declaring the 
civil authorities of the State a provisional government, 
simply to record the edicts of the Military Commandant — 
but to administer the government of the State as to civil 
matters, according to the laws of the State. I do not con- 
strue this act as conferring on him the power to remove 
and appoint civil officers at will, and have made an em- 
phatic remonstrance to the Prest. against the late meas- 
ures of Genl. Sickles which seem to look to the total ab- 
sorption of the civil by the military power. I have occa- 
soin to believe my action will be favorably considered not 
only by the Executive Dept. of the Govt, of the U. S. — 
but by the Republican wing of its Judiciary. 


To J. M. Parrott. 

June 12 1867. 
I inclose an anonymous letter. It states some facts with 
such precision as to entitle it to more than the considera- 
tion usually due to irresponsible letters. Most earnestly 
do I desire to do something to arrest the horrible state 
of affairs described by the writer — but what can I do ? 
What can any authority, civil or military — do if the local 
community are so supine or so terrified, that they will 
not or dare not ferret out the perpetrators of those deeds 
of horror ! I inclose to vou this letter, assumino- vou mav 


know the writer — or that you may be able to suggest some 
means by which I may personally or officially be useful 
in bringing the criminals to Justice or giving security to 
your people. These generalities only annoy me. Govern- 
ment and laws, ever so well administered, can do little 
to protect a people, who will do nothing to ferret out and 
bring to the attention of the authorities the names of the 
perpetrators of crimes. I feel almost indignant at ap- 
peals to me which furnish me no facts on which I can 
base any action. 

I will go any leng-th to capture and punish these crim- 
inals, if furnished with proper information. The local 
community — and not the authorities — are responsible for 
the impunity of these miurderers. 


To J. E. MendenhaU. 

June 12 1867. 

As the son of my early and steadfast friend so long 
as he lived, you were entitled to an earlier answer to 
yours of the 14th ult., which, notwithstanding the pressure 
on my time, would have been made, but for the fact that 
I learned from Mr. Jackson that no question would be 
submitted for my decision. 

I still adhere most firmly to the principle, on which I 
and your worthy father while he lived, always acted — to- 
wit- — to perform, no odds what sacrifice, whatever we 
undertook to do, wholly irrespective of the question whether 
performance could be enforced by law or not. In the 
present case, no effort will be made to induce you to pay 
interest for which you are not responsible on the face of 
your note: but if your contract (however injudicious) re- 
quired you to give a note bearing interest, it would have 
been beneficial to you — pecuniarily — on the principle that 
honesty is always the best policy — to pay it. 


With the sincerest wishes for your prosperity and that 
you may always maintain the enviable reputation of your 
father — as an honest man — I am 


To B. S. Hedricl: 

June 12 1S67. 
I think you know the political antecedents of Jo. Turner Asking a pardon 

, for Josiah Turner 

jr. If there be in the U. S. a more constant, stern, honest 
advocate for sustaining the Constitution and the Union, 
so long as the government of the TJ. S. could protect him, 
than Jo. Turner, I do not know him. He committed the 
error, as I think, when he could not resist the current of 
revolution, of volunteering as a soldier in the Confederate 
service. When he was afterwards elected to Congress in 
this Congressional District, over a secession competitor and 
re-elected as a Holdenite, and advocated and pressed every 
measure tending to peace on the basis of reunion all his 
sins should have been forgiven: — and certainly there can 
exist no good reason why the president should with-liold 
his pardon, after pardoning McLean, Dortch, Venable, 
Arringion, Lander, etc. You know he is a man of un- 
common moral courage — and was the chief actor in bring- 
ing me out to defeat Holden. He is a first-rate man as a 
Director on a R. R. He never has any favorite whom he 
would not attack if he deemed it due to honesty — and has 
the talent and general caj^acity fitting him for the position. 
I appointed him a Director on the X. C. R. R. last year 
and would like to re-appoint him this year. In a few 
days I must act. — The general course of the military com- 
mandant of this district lately — as well as other informa- 
tion leads me to believe that he means to assume the ap- 
pointment of Directors, for our Rail Roads. In this I 
hope I am mistaken — but I feel confident if I appoint an 
unpardoned rebel, it will be made the occasion of outcry 

982 llToETH Carolijsta Histokicai. Commission. 

by Holden and his followers — and, I fear, the pretext, for 
the assumption of military control over the Public Works 
of the State. 

I am in this embarrassing position. If I fail to nomi- 
■ nate Mr, Turner, every body will say that I have acted 
ungratefully, if not meanly, towards him (as nobody pre- 
tends to doubt his competency and fitness for the position. 
If I nominate him, it may lead to the interposition of Genl. 
Sickles, on the plausible pretext that I have appointed an 
unj)ardoned rebel. 

If you can get the ear of the President, please explain 
my dilemma, and ask him to relieve me by pardoning Tur- 
ner. I feel very anxious about this. — If any thing be 
done it should be immiediately. Turner knows nothing of 
this ajDplication. He feels wounded at the withholding 
of his pardon and would not propose my interposition to 
press it — but deem my action as offensive. 

I ask his pardon as a personal favor, which I deem en- 
tirely compatible with the public interest and which I 
believe would be gratifying to every friend of the Presi- 
dent in JSTorth Carolina. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To H. H. Helper.^ 

Kaleigh^ June 13/67. 
Concerning the J ^q j^ot kuow whether vour duties are confined solely 

appointment of j ^ 

registers. ^q laying dowii rules of Registration, or whether you are 

consulted or not, as to the fitness of persons nominated to 
the Comg. Genl as registers. I send a letter touching the 
Pegisters in Hyde. 

The late orders of Genl Sickles, sending to a military 
prison without preliminary hearing, one of the most or- 
derly men in the State, Duncan McEae of Payetteville, 

lA brother of Hinton R. Helper, the author of The Impending 


without auv complaint having been preferred against him 
before any civil magistrate or Conrt, upon a charge which 
no decent man I have seen or heard of believes to be well 
founded — The abolition of the Courts in several Counties 
upon representations made ex-parte — and believed to bo 
entirely groundless : his removal of the municipal authori- 
ties of Fayetteville without any charge preferred against 
him or opportunity to confront their accusers and offer 
evidence ; and general orders iSTo. 32 and 34, have pro- 
duced dismay and dissatisfaction among the most en- 
lightened and virtuous of our people. 

I deeply regTet that the commanding general has deemed 
it his duty to make these orders. I have good reason to 
believe that Judges Chase and Brooks regard such of tlie 
orders of the General as assume jurisdiction over matters 
purely civil as transcending his powers and such is the 
opinion of all the legal gentlemen from whom I have heard. 

I shall be glad to hear from you. What you write shall 
be deemed personal and confidential, if you so request. 

Chaelestok"^ S. C. 

To Master John B. ToJar} 

June IJf 1867. 

Your letter exhibiting the solicitude becoming a dutiful 
son for a father oppressed as your father is, was duly re- 

I have been using all the influence I could exert with 
the. military authorities to induce them to allow the pris- 
oners to be tried in the civil Courts. The mind of Genl. 
Sickles has been so poisoned by informers whose names are 

1 A son of Tolar of Fayetteville, arrested, tried, and condemned by 
military commission for the killing of A. Beebe, a negro guilty of an 
attempt at rape. 

984 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

^ unknown to me, that my efforts thus far have been unavail- 

ing. They will be continued — but I have faint hopes of 

With the deepest sympathy for you and yours — 

To Thomas Ruffin. 

June U 1867. 

I showed your letter of the 3rd explaining the cause of 
your failure to join in the cortage in honor of the Presi- 
dent — to him — and also to Gov. Seward. Each of them 
admired its tone and sentiments. The Prest. who seems 
sad and taciturn, remarked that it was an admirable let- 
ter — and that it ought to be preserved. I think its pub- 
lication might do good ? Will you allow me to have it 
published ? 

With sincere hope that your health may be improved 
and that you may be allowed to live to see something of 
civil liberty restored to our unhappy people, 


From B. S. Hedricl'. 
Wasiiington,, T). C. June 15, 1867. 
Concerning the The President has promised to issue Turner's pardon 

pardon of Turner. ^ ^ 

tomorrow, and send immediately to you. Col. Moore 
asked me to say to you that he had received your letter, 
and had not answered only because he wished to be able 
to say when he did answer that what you desired had been 

I leave here for Paleigh to-morrow morning, and ex- 
pect to be there Monday evening, by the time this reaches 

CoEEESPO]srDEi«rcE OF Jonathan Worth, 985 

you. Soon after I get to Ealeigli, I will go and see Kemp 
Battle, and let him know of my arrival. 

William H. Bagley to JosiaJi Turner, Jr. 

June 21st 1867. 

Enclosed please find Express receipt for package, con- Pardon of Turner, 
taiuing your warrant of pardon from the President, this 
day sent as per receipt. 

The GovernoT is now absent, and it is proper, perhaps, 
to add that the immediate issuance of the pardon is due to 
the efforts of Col. W. G. Moore, the President's Private 
Secretary, who had made prompt efforts in the matter 
at the request of Gov. Worth. 


To Colonel J. Y. Bomford. 

Raleigh June 22 1867. 

I was notified by Genl. Sickles, by telegram of the 1st 
inst. that '"orders had been sent that day to Connnanding 
Ofiicer at Raleigh to restore premises" (Executive man- 
sion) ''to the executive." 

If }'ou have reed these orders please inform me when 
the premises will be restored to me. 


To B. S. Redrick. 

June 21/. 1867. 
On the 3rd Deer, last I recommended for pardon under 
the $20,000. exception, J. S. Means, of Mecklenburg 
County. He o'ot a Mr. Wallace of Phila. whom he deemed 


his friend, to present the petition. He writes me that 
Wallace got the pardon, but refuses to surrender it to 
him except upon the payment of a large fee. He claimed 
at first $350. — but has gradually lowered his demand to 

It is a case of mean fraud on Means. Can you not get 
a duplicate and send me ? 

Washington, D. C. 

To J. Turner, Jr. 

June 25 1867. 

RLiroadDh-lctors. I ^^^ HO Opportunity to get at Parsley's views. I found 
much difficulty in getting Dr. Eamsey and Mr. Winston 
to concur in my recommendations, to-wit 

1. Means 

2. Coffin 

3. Alf Hargrave — not J. W. Thomas 

4. Jesse H. Lindsay 

5. Giles Mebane 

6. Yourself 

7. Tucker 

8. Parsley 

We adjourned to 2nd July without making appoint- 
ments for K. C. R. P. 

Both my associates seemed to prefer re-appointing 
Boyden and Roberts and Dr. Moore. I suppose all of 
these would vote as they did last year, w^ould they not ? 

How would Mebane vote ? How Lindsay ? Thomas 
stinks so strongly in the nostrils of all honest men, that I 
deemed it out of the question to nominate him. I am 
absolutely harrassed by the diversity of my duties — and 
can say no more now. 



To B. G. Worth. 

June 28 th 1867. 

A most extraordiuary pressure of business for some 
days past has made it impossible for me to keep up with 
my correspondence. 

I think, upon the facts stated in your letter that Stephen 
Coffin is properly indictable for cheating you by false 
pretences — but whether the Courts of jS^ew York or In- 
diana have jurisdiction, I cannot say, and I have not 
examined the Statute of Indiana. I su]3pose the cheating 
was by a letter w^'itten from Indiana, and that the false 
representation was not made in JST. Y. by Coffin in person. 
Upon the legal question whether the Criminal Courts of 
]Sr. Y. w^ould have jurisdiction, the offence being com- 
mitted in jST. Y. by a letter written from la., I incline to 
the affirmative, but cannot be free from doubt, and have 
not time to search for the authorities. You had better 
submit the question to a learned lawyer and if the indict- 
ment will lie, try to get your debt secured by the parties 
rather than be indicted. I think you will find more diffi- 
culty in getting your debt secured afier a bill found, than 
before. It seems to me from Barney's letter to you that 
he and l^ixon are indictable as well as Stephen. 

The absurd re-construction acts and the more absurd 
execution of them by the military commandants, tends to 
deeper the alienations between the sections. My position 
w^as never more embarrassing. The reconstruction on the. 
basis of the acts of Congress, to-wit the enfranchisement 
of the negro, and disfranchisement of the men of intelli- 
gence and property, will be the building of a house on 
the sand — the negro and mean white men ready to bend 
the cringing knee to favor will rule the State — and the 
ISTorth in thus ruining us, ruins the w^hole nation. Ben 
Wade's election is the natural sequent of universal suf- 
frage. The cupidity of the propertyless, the majority in 
all Counties, will demand and enforce distribution of 
property. The !N^orth is digging a grave for the nation. 

988 NoKTH Cakolum-a Historical Commission. 

The prospects of a crop of corn and cotton is very bad 
owing to the improbability of good cnlture. There have 
not been three days in the past five weeks when the 
ground was not too wet to plongh. 

ISTew York City, 

To Tyre York. 

June 29 1867. 

I have no power, nor has Genl. Sickles power, according 
to the opinion of the Att. Genl. and the President and 
Cabinet, to order the Genl Assembly not to meet. The 
General Assembly having thought proper to fix the day 
of its next meeting, and must meet according to its ad- 
journment unless the actions of the Congress now expected 
to meet in July shall interfere by new legislation. 

In a great hurry. 

Trap Hilt.. 

To Mills L. Eure. 

June 29 1867. 
Sickles' jury order. I regard it as clear that Sickles' jury order contemplates 
the jDutting on the list from which jurors are to be drawn 
every citizen (black or white) who shall have paid taxes 
the current year; whether convicts for infamous crimes or 
not able to count twenty, and to draw the jury from this 
list. From a personal conversation with the General I 
understand his position to be that every citizen from 
whom the government exacts a tax, whether on property 
or the poll, must be held entitled to all the privileges of 
the most favored citizens. It will probably be expedient 
that the Court take no action until it be seen whether the 
opinion of the Atto. Genl shall be sustained and what 
action the Congress shall take in the premises. 

I venture this suggestion, but you can see as deep into 
the darkness ahead as I can. 


Genl. Sickles refuses to put any construction on his 
edicts. He holds that the authorities must construe them 
as they have to construe acts of the Assembly. 


To R. B. Paschal. 

July 1 1867. 

Yours of the ISth ult is received. 

The Genl. Assembly having adjourned to a day certain, ["JonSl oe'SIrai 
I have no power nor has Genl. Sickles the power, under -Assembly. 
the oj)inion of the Atto. Genl sanctioned by the President 
and his Cabinet, to prevent the meeting. 

I know nothing you can do of any value, except to pass 
a Penitentiary bill. 

It may be that the Congress, which it is believed will 
meet this week, may put such construction on the recon- 
struction acts or pass other acts for our govermnent as 
ma}^ prevent your assembling. 


To John Williams. 

July 1 1S67. 
Yours of the 24 ult. is before me. 
Xorth Carolina is most anxious for emigration of in- Desire for immi- 

^ gration. 

dustrious men from any where save Africa. They would 
be greeted and every thing done to make their settlement 
among us agreeable — but our people are so discouraged 
and depressed by the legislation of Congress, whereby we 
are required as the less of the evils in store for us, to make 
a new Constitution in effect placing the entire govern- 
ment of the State under the control of the most ignorant 
and degraded of our people and disfranchising nearly all 
those whose experience and intelligence fit them to take 
part in governmental affairs, that little interest is felt in 

990 ]!^OETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

niiiioi" matters. We have uo reason to expect that any 
action of this State touching the subject to which you 
call my attention would be treated by New York with the 
slightest respect. 
CarSina°^ ^°^*^ There are no people in the United States more anxious 
than the jDeople of jS^orth Carolina to submit to the laws 
and constitution of the U. S., and to restore the fraternal 
relations with the other States which existed before the 
late war — but it is difficult to conceive of any measures 
better calculated to distress and discourage our people, 
and to keep alive and engender alienation than the meas- 
ures of the Congress which seem to be in consonance with 
the will of the people in the dominant States. With con- 
tinual threats of confiscating the little we have left and 
the overthrow of all semblance of civil government — and 
with our land swarming with emissaries black and white, 
seeking for party ascendency to consolidate the negro vote 
for the radicals — thereby producing alienation between 
the races; — and likely sooner or later to result in the 
extermination of the one race by the other— it is impos- 
sible that our people can take in interest in minor sub- 
jects of legislation. Very many of our people are en- 
tirely despondent, and I fear cannot be induced to register 
and vote. 

ISTew Yoek City. 

From, Josiah Turner, Jr. 

Company Shops, I^T. C, July 1, 1867. 

It is a matter of much concern to me that I see AVinston 
and Dr. Ramsay before final action — which I hope you 
will be able to bring about. I shall be down on Wednes- 

[P. S.] — Boyden is not here and Morehead said he 
had gone to the West to remain until September. 


To Nathaniel Boyden. 

Ealeigh, July 3 1867. 
Ill not recomnieiidina: vour re-appointment as a Direc- Explanation of ws 

^ " -^ -^ not having been re- 

tor on the 'N. C. R. E., it is due to von to say that I have appointed a Raii- 

' ,j J road Director 

been inflnenced solely by the fact that the Journals of the 
board show that you have attended the meetings of the 
board only 4 out of 12 sittings. For the same reason I 
have not re-nominated Mr. Strange. I presume your at- 
tendance on the Courts or other duties you deemed more 
urgent, have caused this. 

I desire it distinctly understood that nothing has oc- 
curred to inijDair my confidence in your eminent fitness 
for the position, but solely because I desire to appoint as 
directors men who can attend to the duties of the appoint- 


To R. Strange. 

RaeeigH;, July 3rd 1867. 
It havine' been represented to the Board of Internal Im- Explaining his 

" • ^ failure to be re-ap- 

provemeiit that you and Mr. Boyden (owing, as I pre- gjj.ector'^ ^'^"^°'^*^ 
sume, to your extensive practise of the law) had attended 
few of the meetings of the board, the board ordered the 
clerk to furnish us a certified copy of the attendance of 
each member. This certificate from June 1866 to July 
186Y both inclusive, sets forth 10 sittings of the board, 
only four of which you attended. We have deemed it our 
duty to appoint stockholders, (in place of you and Mr. 
Boyden) whose business and large stock, we hope, will 
induce them to attend the meetings. 

992 ^OETH Carolina Histokical Commission, 

From B. S. Hedricl:^ 

Washjngton, D. C. July 3, 1867. 
Plans of Recon- Both liouses met today. The program seems to be to 

struction. _ t/ i o 

appoint a joint committee of the two houses to prepare a 
supplemental reconstruction bill and put it through at 
once. It is of the utmost importance to bring all j)roper 
influences to bear on that Committee. If Judge Barnes, 
or anj other citizen of IST. C, desires to have any influence 
on what is to be done, iioiu is the time to be here. The 
first draft of the new bill will probably go in Monday 
next. Please say what I have written above to Gov. Worth 
and such other gentlemen as you may meet. There may 
be a few men willing to come on to talk to Senators. 

My son Johny will I think reach your city Saturday 
evening, and will call to see you. 

From B. G. Worth. 

:^Ew York Juhj 3/67. 

I am in receipt of your late favor and have been sorry 
I troubled you with this Coffin matter. I was using every 
effort to get it settled on the best basis that can be, by 
gently intimating where they wall stand before a Court 
of Justice, where it must go if they decline to secure the 
bulk of it. Every day adds to the conviction with me 
that as a nation we have seen our best days, and that the 
Ben Wade doctrine will sweep over the Country and the 
universally franchised will utterly refuse to be taxed to 
pay the ISTational debt. The JSTational Banks will consume 
into smoke and we shall have anarchy and general ruin. 
How to prepare for it or guard against it is too much for 
the wisdom of the wisest. My only hope is that Grant 
will prove himself a man and not allow either of the Cor- 

1 This letter was probably written to W. H. Bagley. 


rupt Parties of the Country to manipulate him, but be 
the candidate of the best people of all sections and govern 
as he could do and as no other ixian in my opinion in the 
rejDublic — can, by controlling all parties. Did I say Re- 
public ? I take that back. We are not a Eepublic now. I 
have heard of your ill success in your fishing excursions. 
I am very sorry to hear that Dr. Koberts is in feeble 
health. AVe are well and constant employment keeps us 
up and in great measure from despondenc3^ 

I must go to !R. C. this month. I may possibly come 
by and stop one day in Kaleigh. I am concerned about 
J. A. AVorth's affairs and would like to know how to advise 
him. I want to make such arrangements as will guaranty 
business for our Boats. We must make them pay. I am 
clearly of the opinion that J. A. Worth ought to sell to 
us to whom he is indebted his home place and what will 
secure us and enable us to secure him a home and then 
go into Bankruptcy at once. They will not count with 
him here and of course he can not pay and ought to shake 
it off while he can. It may be that the subject was talked 
over between you while on your late visit. If not and 
you can get the time write me to care of Worth & Daniel 
that I may use your opinion wuth your ovm in advising 
with him. If you talked with him then throw this by 
and give it no thought. I begin to feel like we have not 
lost all and are perfectly sound and will come out all 
right, but we have had a siege. I am not entirely satisfied 
with my copartners but might do much worse and can 
see my interest at present to continue rather than attempt 
to change. 

From John Goodrich. 

ExFiELD, 'N. C. July Jfth 1867. 
Governor : It seems to me that the Blach Republicans Political sugges- 


are losing ground. I would like to know if you do not 
Vol. 2—22 

994 jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission. 

think so. There appears to be some sensation of uneasi- 
ness among the Radicals. All we white folks down here 
have concluded we don't want any convention nor recon- 
struction either. We are willing to hold on a little longer 
and see if the most infernal of all parties will not commit 
suicide. It seems to me sir that a plan might be devised 
to overturn the Black Republican Rump. Let me suggest 
a plan. '^'Suppose a party be formed, and adopt this 
motto ''White Bepuhlican Union Party." Sir can you not 
contemplate what w-ould be the result. I think that the 
Blade Republicans would at once become ashamed of their 
position, and that there would be such a backsliding as 
the w"orld never witnessed before. I think too Sir, that 
in less than two years and a half the negroes, and them 
alone, w^ould compose what is now known as the Black 
Republican Party: would not every white foreigTier com- 
ing into this country hereafter join the ivliite man party? 
I think so. Sir a white republican union party ought to 
be organized at once. The desired effect would soon be 
seen, and it Avould be tremendous. This I offer as a sug- 
gestion, and desire to see it put on foot. Ton perceive 
that all turns on the terms White and Union. These 
terms would give us all the advantage. As to the negro 
vote, if indeed they should vote, we must influence it. If 
we can keep the enemy off a little longer, his cause will 

[P. S.] — The White Republican union party should 
be organized first in the ISTorth. Will you suggest it to 
some proper person of your acquaintance there. 

From D. G. McBae to Seaton Gales. 

Fort Macon July 6th 1867. 
Concerning his I havc private information as well as public by the 

approaching trial. . . „ • i • x 

Sentinel that the military commission lor my trial is to 
convene in your city on the lOtli of this month. 


These military courts move slowly and I fear unless 
some of my friends intercede with the proper officer who 
will have me in charge, that I may be subjected to con- 
finement in some dirty place, as the ''Bull pen" is repre- 
sented to be. 

Xow would it be imposing too much on your kindness, 
to ask you, to get Gov. Worth to join you and Col. Banford 
on this subject. 

I have been very kindly cared for thus far, and as I 
expect to establish my entire innocence of the charge im- 
puted to me, it ^vould be grateful to myself as well as my 
friends to know, that I have not been thrust into any dirty 
cell, among vermin, cut-throats, and thieves. 

Please if you can, see Gov. Worth immediately and fix 
matters. For particular and special reasons, I do not 
want to fall into the further power of Genl. Avery. He 
and I had a private misunderstanding in his first visit 
to Fayetteville, I parted with a threat from him, that I 
should suffer — that night, the affidavit of the base wretch 
was obtained, which caused my arrest, and verily the 
threat of Avery has come to pass — I have suffered — for 
an old man of sixty years. 

To B. P. Did'. 

Raleigh July 7 1867. 
To carrv out the resolutions passed here on the ith. Plans of the xorth 

, '' _ ' Carolina Radicals. 

calling for an Act of CongTess to abolish civil government 
in the State a committee consisting of Calvin Cowles and 
several other persons white and black, left to-day for 
Washington. They oppose leaving any discretion in the 
military commandants. They demand an act peremptorily 
dismissing all the civil officers of the State. 

They allege as one of their chief reasons for this action, 
that Gov. Graham and nivself and others are machinating 

996 NoETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

to defeat the call of a Convention, and that R. R. direc- 
tors have been appointed in reference to their political 

I have not attempted to influence the vote of any citi- 
zen for or against the call of a Convention and have no 
intention to do so. I have not heard of any scheme 
adopted, or in contemplation by any body, to induce the 
people to vote against a Convention, — and I do not know 
and have not heard that one single man appointed a Direc- 
tor on the E,. E.s. proposes to vote against Convention. 
ISTot a Director has been appointed wdth any reference 
whatever to his views as to the re-construction acts. I 
have cooperated with Genl Sickles to carry out in good 
faith the re-construction acts, as has every other civil offi- 
cer, so far as I know. And I believe 9-10 of those en- 
titled to register will vote for Convention. 
■ • I would regard it as a very great calamity — alike mis- 
chievous to the State and the nation, if all vestige of civil 
government were suddenly obliterated. 

I wish you to go to Washing-ton at once to co-operate 
with Hedrick, Goodloe and others to prevent the great 
calamity which seems to be in store for us. If you go, 
your expenses will be paid. 

You may use this letter as you please. 

I had not decided on this measure until mail hour is 
so near that I have been compelled to write very briefly. 


^ To B. S. Hedrick. 

Raleigh^ July 8th 1867. 
Plans of North I understand Calvin Cowles and others are gone to 

Washington to ask for the abolition of civil authorities of 
this State, on the ground that I and Gov. Graham and 
others are using our influence to defeat the call of a Con- 
vention and that 1 have had this in view in the appoint- 

Carolina Radicals. 


ment of E. It. directors. I have not used and do not in- 
tend to nse any influence to induce tlie people to vote for 
or against Convention. jSTo schemes to defeat the call of 
a Convention are on foot. I have co-operated in good 
faith with Genl. Sickles in carrying out the re-construction 
acts, as I believe have alPoiir people. There is not color 
of truth as to aiDpointment of R. R. Directors. An im- 
mense majority v-ill vote for Convention. 

WASHT:xGToy^ D. C. 

To B. S. HedricJc. 

July 8th 1867. 
A desperate effort is beino- made by Mr. Holden and Plans of North 

-■- s ^ Carolina Radicals. 

his followers to have the existing civil Government set 
aside and pure military government established. A reso- 
lution to this effect was proposed at a large Convocation 
of negToes assembled here on the 4th in which Holden and 
a few whites of his stripe officiated. If this scheme of 
malevolence, on the part of Holden shall be successful, the 
cup of our misfortunes will be full. Can it be possible, 
that in a State, where, even upon the testimony of Genl. 
Sickles, perfect order prevails — where the civil authori- 
ties have not only offered no resistance to Congressional 
plans of re-construction — that where every civil officer 
as well as every citizen has obeyed every order which has 
been issued by the military commandant, that Congress 
shall deem it expedient, upon the representation of such 
a political Assemblage to blot out all semblance of self 
government. If so, no one can be so blind as not to see 
that its effect would be the reverse of attracting our peo- 
ple to the ISTational Government. This assemblage was 
got up under color of celebrating the great ISTational Anni- 
versary, but no one doubts that through the agency of 
the secret, political leagues among the negroes, tolerated * 
if not encouraged by the dominant power of the ISTational 

998 XoKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Government, working politicians got up the meeting for 
the purpose of passing the resolutions they did pass. A 
committee of six, three white and three black, headed by 
Calvin Cowles of Wilkes, were appointed to go to Wash- 
ington and press this resolution upon the favorable con- 
sideration of CongTess. If they have not already started 
they will probably leave to-day. If Holden succeeds in 
this scheme, which seems not unlikely, his malevolence 
will be gratified, but civil liberty in this State will have 
received a shock which will be most disastrous. 

I hojDe you and Mr. Goodloe, to whom I wish you to 
show this letter, will entitle yourselves to the furthei; 
gratification of JMorth Carolina, by employing the most 
efii'cient means in your power, to defeat this scheme. 

If this measure be adopted I fear we shall be unable 
to get our people to register or take any further part in 

Washington^ D. C. 

To J. M. Coffm. 

July 8th IS 67. 
Recommending ]\|y friend Jo. Turner is most urgent upon me, to ask 

Josiah Tivrner. '■ . t_ j. ^ 

you the favor to vote for him for Prest. of the IST. C. R. R. 

If I were called upon to cast a vote, I would vote for 
him as against any other person whom I have heard as 
competing for the office, under the belief that he would 
be the best and most efficient officer, but I have nominated 
no one as a Director, under any pledge as to his vote for 
President, nor have I made, nor do I deem it proper to 
make any request of any director. 

I wish each Director to consider himself untrammeled 
by any interference on my part. I have appointed a set 
of Directors who are qualified and willing, as I hope, to 
• manage the road in the best manner, and no Director must 
shelter himself, for any of his acts, under cover of any 
request from me. 


I have become more and more averse to selling the drug 
store on a credit, — however good the secnritj. I deem it 
safer to go into a co-partnership with Pondston on the 
terms I suggested in your presence. If he will do his part 
properly, it will he a better management for him and me, 
than a sale on a credit, if he could have given the security. 
Dr. Eoberts seems cheered up and much better. I fear it 
is only temporary. 


To General D. E. SicMes. 

July 9th 1867. 
I learned last nieht that much pains is beino- taken to Defendins his atti- 

° J. o tude on Recon- 

make the impression, that I have been using my influence stmction. 
to induce the people of this State to vote against Conven- 
tion. It is due to myself and the people of the State to 
say that I have not attempted to use any such influence 
to control the votes of the people on any question on which 
they will be called upon to vote under the reconstruction 
Acts. I have had it in contemplation to publish an ad- 
dress to the people urging all to register who may be al- 
lowed to do so and to exercise the franchise as they may 
deem best for the general welfare. 

I have deemed it my duty to co-operate with you in 
carrying out these acts fairly and honestly. 

I am also informed that the impression is sought to be 
made that Gov. Graham and others are endeavoring to 
concoct measures to defeat the call of a Convention. There 
is no color of foundation for this, as to me, nor as to 
others, so far as I know or have heard I have not heard 
of an}' movement on the part of those who approved of 
the President's plan of reconstruction, and who disap- 
proved of the Congressional plan, to throw any obstacles 
in the way of carrying oiit the latter plan, and I am sure 
no attempt has been made or is in contemplation to get 
up any such concerted movement. 

1000 ]S[oETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

I deem it ]3robable that the foregoing and probably other 
misrepresentations intended to alienate the confidence you 
have hitherto exhibited towards me, have been made to 
you, which I trust will not be allowed to operate to my 
prejudice, until I shall have had an opportunity to be 


To B. 8. Hedrick. 

July 9th 1867. 
piansofNorth J Jearn from a reliable source that Mr. C. J. Cowles, 

Carolina Radicals. " 

who has gone to your city to get the Congress to displace 
the civil officers of the State, urges two chief reasons — 
first, that I, Gov. Craham, Judge Manly and other prom- 
inent men are using our influence to induce the people 
to vote against Convention — second — that we have been 
concocting some concerted plan to carry out our design. 

I approved the President's views as to restoration and 
disapproved the Congressional plan as is well known; but 
I felt it my duty, after the re-construction acts passed, to 
recognise them as laws and faithfully and fairly to aid in 
their execution. I felt myself officially bound to recognise 
them as constitutional, until they .should be repealed or 
decided to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of 
the IT. S. — and such decision I have not expected would 
be made before the acts would be carried into execution. 

I decided that I would co-operate honestly with the mili- 
tary authority in making proper registers and in all other 
particulars as 1 understood these laws — and that I would 
use no influence in any thing, save to induce the people 
to register. I have not used and do not contemplate using, 
any influence as to the voting of the people after regis- 
tration. And I know of no intention on the part of any 
body to get up any plan to defeat the call of a Conven- 
tion, and have no idea that any such plan exists. 


WLetliei' under the act now contemplated, leaving regis- 
tration to the discretion of the Registers, I shall deem it 
my dnt}^ to recommend the people to apply for registration 
I reserve for consideration nntil I shall see the form the 
act may assume. 

You are at liberty to use this letter as you please, — ^by 
which I do not mean that you have it published. I do 
not deem it expedient, at present, to get the matter into 
the press. 

In 1861 I voted against the call of what I regarded as 
an unconstitutional Convention. I have not deemed it 
necessary to come to any decision, whether, if I were al- 
lowed a vote, which I am not, I would vote for or against 
the proposed Convention. I may have expressed in pri- 
vate conversation that I could not see how I could vote 
for the proposed Convention, consistently with my oath 
to support the Constitution of the U. S., but I have never 
expressed such sentiment as a fixed conclusion and never 
with the intention to influence any body or with permis- 
sion to promulgate such conversation. 

I am as anxious as any man in America, to see har- 
monious Union restored and the Constitution of the U. 
S. obeyed and reverenced by the whole people. 

Washistgton^ D. C. 

To Lewis J. Qidn. 

July 9 1867. 
Yours of May 1/67 was received with highly compli- 
mentary introduction from F. P. Satterthwaite and T. 

If it were in my power, under existing laws, to do any- 
thing in furtherance of your suggestions, or if the present 
political prospects warranted any well founded hope of 
im23rovement in the early future, I should exert myself 

1002 N^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

in the direction indicated. In tlis present state of affairs 
I can have no hope for the successful issue of any move- 
ment, on the part of IST. Car,, looking to immigration. 
IS^Ew York City. 

From P. T. Henry. 

CoLERAiN^ Bertie County. 

Permit me to ask you if in your opinion the Legislature 
will be permitted to assemble next month (Augt.) and if 
so what length of time it is likely to. be in Session ? 

I ask this information of you Gov., because from your 
opinion I should make up my mind as to whether I shall 
attend the Session. 

I am having but little to say or do with politics, but 
have no hesitation in saying that I belong heart and soul 
only to the white man's party — God and my own race 
first — Please present the compliments of my wife and self 
to your family. Hatie says she is very anxious to see your 
little crand daua'hter Mary Worth. 

From B. S. HedricJc. 

Washington^ D. C. July 11, 67. 
North Carolina Yours of the 9th received. Everything here is still in 

Radical opinion. -^ ~ 

a chaotic state. Por several days I have been too ill to 
exert myself much, but I am doing what I can to give 
correct information. The several delegations from ]^. 0. 
are here today, and a number of them have called at my 
room. Calvin J. Cowles of Wilkes is in a great fever 
over a mob which he is informed occurred at Wilkes- 
borough on the fourth of July. According to the account 
which he showed me the "rebs" under the lead of Col. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1003 

Armiiekl or Armstrong, a Mr. Carmicliael, Peden and 
some half dozen other "fighting* rebs" broke up the "union 
celebration" of the 4th, and shot, wounded, and completely 
routed the whole meeting. Cowles thinks that if he had 
been there he would have been hilled. I suppose he will 
lay the whole matter before Congress, and ask for aid to 
suppress the "rebs." I told him that I thought that the 
union men were too tame, to submit to a rout from a dozen 
or so "rebs". I would like really to know what the truth 
of the matter is. It seems that the disturbers insisted 
that Col. Armfield should have a chance to speak at the 
meeting, which being refused, he and his followers broke 
up the "Celebration." 

Mr. Cawthorne, (colored) of Warren is also here. He 
takes a hopeful view of things in his section. Thinks the 
"rebs" accept in good faith the reconstruction act. C. L. 
Harris is also here, but I have not seen him. Take it all 
in all these men here are the most mixed up set I have 
seen. If Congress would only take the trouble to sift 
them, they would amount to nothing. But unfortunately 
I fear this will not be done. The men who ought to be 
here to meet the members of Congress are not here. Why 
is it that men like Judge Merrimon, Gilliam, Warren, Bat- 
tle, Pearson, Fowle, Buxton are not here ? At least some 
of them ? 

I hope I shall be better tomorrow. 

To General D. E. Sickles. 

Jidy 11 1861. 
By some accident or inadvcrtance, as I suppose, j^our 
order to Col. Bomford to surrender to me the executive 
mansion and premises, has not reached him, as he informs 
me, so that he does not feel at liberty to put me in pos- 

1004 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

As I received from you a telegram that such order had 
issued, I hope a duplicate will be sent to the Colonel. 

The liberal and just sentiments expressed by you, (as 
set forth in a telegram of yesterday) in a letter to Senator 
Trumbull, enlighten our people. 

Charleston^ S. C. 

To P. T. Henry. 

July 11th 1867. 
Regarding the Yours, without date, inquiring whether the Genl. A. 

General Assembly, will meet 3rd Moiiclay of August, is just reed. I have 
no reliable information whether Genl. Sickles will forbid 
the assembling or not. I presume power will be conferred 
on him by the Congress to control all the civil affairs of 
the State. I have written him to know whether he has 
come to any decision, as it is important that members 
know, as early as possible, whether they will be allowed 
to assemble and legislate. 

I think the Genl. A. ought to meet and pass a Peni- 
tentiary bill. I know of nothing else of any importance 
on which it is iioiu expedient that the Legislature act. 

I fear the black and white negro will become the con- 
trolling power of the State, under re-construction acts of 
Congress. This is the manifest design of the Congress : — 
and if our white men will not register and vote, the domi- 
nation of negro party is enevitable. 

* ****** 

CoLERAiN^ Bertie Co. 

To Post Master, Pigeon River, N. C. 

July 11 1867. 

Appointment of ^ have recd a letter, signed '^Many Citizens," making 

inquiry as to appointment of Registers for your County, 
and desiring that my answer be directed to you. 

I recommended as ' registers for Haywood, James 
Owensby, Thomas 'N. Long and Jas. L. Ducket. 



I uuderstand that Geul. Miles, Chief of the Freedmeu's 
Bureau in this State, forwarded recommendations of one 
or more boards for each County, one member of each board 
being a negro. 

I am not informed which recommendation Genl Sickles 
adopted. I reed from him to-dar a telegram that regis- 
tration in this State is postponed to a time hereafter to 
be made known. I infer that it is postponed until the 
new legislation of this Congress now sitting shall be known. 

To P. H. 'Winston. 

July 12 1867. 

An act passed the last Genl. A. intended to provide that issue of bonds 
whenever the Prest. of the AY. jST. C. E. E. should certify 
that a given amount of money had been subscribed by re- 
sponsible individuals or corporations, that the Pub. Tr. 
should issue bonds of the State for double such amount. 
A certificate is filed that $460,000. has been so subscribed 
and bonds to the amount of $800,000. are demanded. 
. The responsibility of the issue of this amount of our 
bonds at this time, is a very grave one. I was not willing 
to sanction the order v^-ithout your approval. The legis- 
lation of the last session involves an examination of pre- 
vious acts, and I have not been able to give the matter 
the scrutiny which it should receive and am by no means 
sure that it is onr duty to issue the bonds. I have no doubt 
the subscription of $400,000. is coupled with a contract 
to do work not worth more than $400,000. (for which the 
contractors are to have $1,200,000, in stock and State 

I most earnestly urge that you come here very soon to 
assist me in scrutinizing this matter and to assume your 
share of the grave responsibility of the Board of Intl Im- 

KiTTEEEL^s Springs. 

1006 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

From B. S. Hednck. 

Washington, D. C. July 12, 67. 

So far I think liolden's delegation amounts to nothing. 
It looks now as if the Senate bill passed yesterday will 
go through Congress. It is in a hnrry to get away. 

I feel a little more hopeful than I did yesterday, but 
while all the leading men seem in favor of taking ofE the 
disfranchising parts of the reconstruction acts, no one 
will move it. The only thing at all looking like modera- 
tion is the requiring Gen. Grant's approval of removals. 

To W. H. Seward. 

July 22 1867. 
Asking aid in Qf our fuucls to support common schools the war anni- 

securing imniigTa- J^ J- 

^^°^- hilated all save $600,000. in the stock of the Wilmington 

and Weldon and Wilming-ton and Manchester R, Rs. and 
some $1,000,000. in our ante-bellum bonds. These roads 
are well equipped and in good order and doing much busi- 
ness but so crijDpled with debt that they make no dividends. 
If our political trouble were composed on a rational basis 
these stocks would revive. 

We have had an annual income of about $10,000. aris- 
ing from tax on retailers. This will probably be reduced 
to a nominal sum, by reason of late edicts of Genl. Sickles. 

The Literary board, of which board the Gov. is ex- 
officio Chm., owns about 1,500,000 acres of Swamp lands 
which they are authorised to sell and invest for the sup- 
port of common schools. 

We believe these lands to be exceedingly valuable, and 
with the hope of finding purchasers have published a 
pamphlet describing them. I inclose a copy. We would- 
like to get some of them in the hands of suitable persons 
in England and Ireland, — and our consuls and other resi- 

CoREESPo:sDE:NrcE OF Jonathan Worth. 1007 

dent officers in Germany. I do not know the names of 
these officers. Will it be asking too mnch of you, if we 
send 3^ou a package of them, to have them directed and 
forwarded abroad, to such persons as you may think 
would be willing and disposed to aid us ? 

The sale of these lands is our only resource for reviving 
Common Schools, which, dependent as w^e are, we are 
most anxious to do. We have public school houses ac- 
cessible to every child in the State, unoccupied and going 
to decay. 

I am most reluctant to ask this favor of you and shall 
not feel the less obliged for past favors if I shall have 
asked an unreasonable favor of you in this instance. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To James L. Orr. 

July 22nd 1861. 
In conference with Genl. Sickles at Charleston, I un- Concerning resig 

nation of Judge 

derstood him to say he should not interfere with but would ^lemmon. 
leave with the Governors all the appointments to office 
which the Constitution and Laws of our respective States 
authorise the Governor to fill. I do not remember that 
he has published any thing of this sort in his orders. A 
case is about to occur in this State. A part of the official 
oath of our Judges is in these words : "In case any letter 
or orders come to me contrary to law, I will proceed to 
enforce the law, such letters or orders notwithstanding." 
He thinks he cannot obey the orders of Genl. Sickles in 
conflict with the laws of the State, consistently with this 
portion of the official oath : and tenders his resignation 
rather than incur the probable consequences disregarding 
these orders. 

Wliether our other Judges will take the same view and 
resign, I am not informed. Under the present Acts of 

1008 jSToktii Carolina Historical Commission. 

Congress the new appointee must take the Congressional 
teste oath. I fear if the filling of the vacancy or vacancies 
be conceded to me, that I cannot find a man in the State 
fit to fill the position, who can fill the station respectably. 

The judge to whom I refer, Merrimon, always distin- 
guished for his Union proclivities and universally re- 
spected for his unsullied honor and judicial fairness and^ 
ability, holds that no other authority, save that under 
which he holds his commission, can relieve him from the 
requirements of his oath. 

The object, however, of this letter is to inquire whether 
you understood Genl. Sickles as confiding to us the filling 
of vacancies in office, where the Constitution and Laws of 
our respective States authorise the Governor to fill such 

If Genl. Sickles shall be coming up to Columbia at any 
early day and it shall be agreeable to him and to you, T 
should gladly meet you in further conference. I am 
utterly bewildered and would most gladly have a further 
conference with him and you. 

Columbia^ S. C. 

To John Baxter. 

July 25th 1861. 
* * * * * ' ^ * 

tions^^n^North* Terrible as is our political situation it seems to me it 

Carolina. -g g^-jj ^^qj-^^ \^ Te. The radicals of this State — we have 

a good many — are even as vindictive as Stephens or Butler 
or Logan, and as prescriptive as Bro\\Tilow — with the ne- 
groes everywhere organised and secret political leagues — 
and our people so intimidated or paralysed that very many 
who are allowed to vote. Mall not register — Holden and 
his followers constantly demanding the total abolition of 
the Civil government, and every officer of the State hold- 
ing his position at the will of the military commandant. 


All is gloom and we see little ground to hope for a better 
state of things at any early day — but much reason to fear 
that the Revolution has in store for us still greater ills 
than those we now suffer. 
Knoxville^ Tenn. 

To A. C. Haley. 

July 26 1867. 
I inclose pamphlet touchino- our swamp lands. I have Describing swamp 

-■- / '^ . -■- lands for sale. 

taken much pains to free the title of the State from all 
cloud, as to the lands we propose to sell. Much of this 
land was granted about the year 1795, in large swamps, 
to parties contemplating speculation, who failed to ac- 
complish their views, and the lands were subsequently sold 
for taxes and. bid in for the State. ' I have collected and 
am having duly recorded the deeds showing the re- 
acquisition of these lands by the State. We do not pro- 
pose to sell any where the slightest cloud rests on the State 
title^ — and the Literary Board, a corporation owning stocks 
and property of large value, will warrant the title of any 
land they may sell. 

We would like to sell in a body the large swamp, con- 
taining about 90,000 acres, a part of which has been 
cleared and is owned by Mr. Franck. See his certificate. 
It is believed to be of immense value. We would like it 
at $2. per acre payable in the ante-bellum bonds of the 
State: and give satisfactory evidence of our title and the 
warranty of the Board. 

Washington, D. C 

Vol. 2—23 


I^OETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Concerning the 
proposed resigna- 
tion of President 


To William A. Graham. 

Ealeigii, July 21 1867. 

J am informed that you have been furnished by Govr. 
Swain with a copy of his letter to me of the 23rd inst. 

The portion of it, if any, requiring action, is in these 
words "It only remains to intimate that seeing little reason 
to hope, from the present indications of public sentiment, 
for the early success which crowned former exertions, I 
am ready to give place to any one who can assume my 
position under more favorable auspices, at the earliest 
period at which the board may be pleased to designate a 

On first reading this I regarded it as the expression of 
a wish on his part to resign, and resolved to make a 
strenuous appeal to the whole body of trustees to meet and 
decide what is best to be done. On a more careful con- 
sideration, I cannot construe it to amount to any thing 
but an expression of his willingness to resign, if the Trus- 
tees think they can fill his place with some one more likely 
to better the prospects of the institution. I presume there 
has never been a time when he would not have been "wil- 
ling to resign, upon the request of the Trustees, it must 
be, not to fill a vacancy, but to consider the question 
whether they ought to request Gov. Swain to resign under 
the belief that they could supply a superior likely to man- 
age the University, under more favorable ausj)ices. 

I feel embarrassed as to the action I ought to take, 
since I cannot construe this letter as expressing any wish 
of Gov. Swain to resign. 

Three of the prominent members of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Bragg, Moore and Bryan are out of the city and I 
do not know when they will return. 

I will be much obliged to you for your advice as to the 
action proper to be taken by me. I know no two men in 
the State who have exhibited more constant and intelligent 


zeal as trustees, than yourself and Judge Euffin and should 
he obliged by any suggestion either of you may feel willing 
to make. 

I have inclined to the opinion for some time past, that 
Gov. Swain, chiefly on account of his deafness, ought to 
resign, but if he should do so, I think he ought to express 
his wish to retire, and not merely to say what he would 
always have said — ''I will resigTi if the Trustees request 


To A. 8. Merrimon. 

August 1 1867. 
I wrote to Genl. Sickles, inclosing vour resignation on concerning his 

resignation from 

the 23rd ult. He has not answered. I send to-day a the Bench, 
telegram inquiring whether he has reed my letter. The 
delay is very annoying. I have not accepted your resig- 
nation. If he takes no action (very improbable) I sup- 
pose it would be your duty to continue to discharge your 
official duties until the resignation shall be accepted. If 
he consult me as to a successor he is giving me too little 

To IT". P. Bi/nuni. 

August 1 1S67. 
Fearing that the resignation of Judge Merrimon, which concerning juda 

" o o .' Merrimon s resig 

he puts on the gTound that he cannot obey Genl. S's or- nation. 
ders (where they conflict with the laws of the State) con- 
sistently with his official oath, might lead to consequences 
disastrous to the best interests of the State, I have not 
accepted it, but inclosed a copy of it to Genl Sickles on 
23 July, calling his attention to the oath our judges take. 
I suggested that he designate a day when he would meet 
all our judges here, with the view, by a free conference, 

1012 ]S[oETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

of inducing Judge M. to withdraw his resignation and to 
avoid further difficulty to be apprehended from other res- 
ignations. I also desired to know, in case he declined to 
act on my suggestions, whether he desired any action on 
my part, as to the filling of the vacancy. Having reed, 
no answer I send him a telegram to-day to know whether 
he reed my letter. 

I regretted judge M's resignation but I concur with 
him as to the import of his oath; and in that view can- 
not perceive how he could have acted otherwise, as a con- 
scientious man, with the apparent certainty that he would 
be deposed and punished, if he continued to act with 
fidelity to his official oath. ISTor do I see how any suitable 
successor can be foand who will not only take the same 
oath, but the "iron clad" superadded. 

Awful fix. 


To J. T. Morehead. 

August 1 1867. 
Judge Merrimon's In soiiic of our iiumerous interviews, I am under the 

resignation. ' 

impression that you told me you could take the oath of of- 
fice, popularly kno^vn, as the iron-clad. 

Judge Merrimon has tendered his resignation, for the 
reason that he thinks he cannot obey the orders of Genl. 
Sickles, consistently with his official oath. 

I have not accej)ted the resignation, setting forth the 
reason of the judge for resigning to be his conviction that 
he could not obey the orders of Genl. S. consistently with 
his official oath. I sent a copy of his resignation to Genl. 
S. on the 23rd ult, to which I have received no reply. I 
invited him to a conference with Judge M. and our other 
judges, in the hope of avoiding total disorganization. 

It is possible that the Genl. may ask me, with or with- 
out the advice of my council, to suggest a successor. The 

Correspondence oe Jonathan Worth. _ 1011 

Circuit to which he is assigned begins 12th Aug. If you 
think you can take the oath, and my advice is invited, I 
desire to nominate you. 

Please let me hear from you at your earliest con- 


To W. T. Fairdoth. 

Aug. 2 1867. 

If you prosecuted Lewis Cogdell, please give me infor- 
mation touching the facts of the case, with any obser- 
vations likely to aid me in acting discreetly in the mat- 
ter, explained hy the enclosed reference. 

It seems most extraordinary to me that a Sheriff 
should ask the interposition of the military authority 
upon his statement of the facts proved on a trial, which, 
in his opinion, did not warrant conviction. 

If the trial was in a County Court will you please 
forward the inclosed copy to the County Atto. with this 
letter with my request to be informed about the matter. 

I desire an answer as early as jpractlcahle. 


To William. Kelso. 

Aug. ^ 1861. 

I have received your letter with inclosures. 

Our State has by nature and by the character of its peo- Business condi- 
ple, offers most attractive invitation to the immigration of Carolina, 
men skilled as you represent yourself to be : but the ven- 
geance with which we are continually threatened by the 
Korth, — the establishment of military rule over us un- 
der pretext that we are lawless, when we Icnoiu that crime 
is less frequent than in Massachusetts — and Justice ad- 
ministered with at least equal ability and impartiality — 

1014 ISToKTH Cakolina Histokical Commission. 

paralyse and dejDress us to such extent that we have no 
heart for enterprises. Capital cannot be raised here for 
any new enterprise. 

I am interested in two cotton factories in Randolph 
County for spinning cotton yarn and weaving sheeting. 
They are about 1-^ miles apart and belong to the same 
company. The water power is excellent — The factory 
buildings superior brick structures. They were built and 
put in operation some twenty years ago — Originally . cost 
some $85,000. Were purchased by present proprietors — 
some 14 men— before the war for $31,000. and $9,000. 
more paid in as working capital. The enormous taxes 
exacted by the U. S., and continually declining price of cot- 
ton since the close of the war, have made our operations 
unprofitable. Every member of the company is a man 
of substantial means. The present manager, Geo. Make- 
]3eace, formerly of Mass., informs me he wishes to retire 
from the management. A meeting of the company will 
be held some 6 weeks hence. If you think, by the in- 
troduction of the manufacture of other articles or other- 
wise we might mutually profit each other, it is possible 
an arrangement might be made giving to you and your 
brothers the management of these establishments. There 
is probably no more healthy or less expensive place in 
this State. 

Cambkidgepoet, Mass. 

To J. M. Parrott. 

Ealeigh, Aug. Jf/67. 
I find I shall be out of corn shortly. Please send me 
100 bushels in the ear at w^hatever may be the market 
Sinhfformatfon. ^ ^®^*®^ Written by Mr. Cox, Shff., of your County to 
a military ofiicer stationed at Kinston, sent up through 
the regular gradations to Genl. Sickles, has been referred 


to me, ill which Shff. Cox undertakes to set forth the evi- 
dence on which a negro in his custody was convicted and 
sentenced to six months imprisonment for stealing two 
Ivuives from the merchant whose store was robbed and 
burned in Kinston some time ago. The Sheriff gives it 
as his opinion that the conviction was not warranted by 
the evidence and asks the military to discharge the con- 
vict. The convict's name, I think, is Lewis CogdelL The 
letter is referred to me, with the suggestion by Genk S's 
Provost Marshal-GenL, that the case "appears to be one 
deserving executive clemency". I have declined pardon- 
ing until I can know more about the case. The action of 
the Sheriff, virtually condemning the action of the Court 
and jury, and appealing to the military to relieve the 
alleged oppression of the negro, wuthout making any pre- 
vious appeal to me for the relief of the oppressed con- 
vict, seems to me most extraordinary". Do you know 
w^hether the conviction was before the County or Supr. 
Court. If in the Supr. Court — before what judge was 
the trial ? If in the Co. Court give me the name of vour 
County Atto. I wull be obliged to you for any informa- 
tion you can give me touching this matter, and will not 
use the naiue without your permission. If your Shff. 
deemed the verdict wrong, or the sentence of the Court 
too severe, he should have applied to the Court to recom- 
niend the convict for pardon by me ; or have asked the 
jury to so recommend, before making an appeal to the 
military for relief, unless the sheriff lacks confidence in 
the intelligence and fairness of the jury and Court which 
tried the case and in me. I presume he was not ignorant 
that Genl. Sickles had not interferred with the pardoning 
power vested in the Govr. by our State Constitution. I 
cannot conceive why he should have applied to the mili- 
tary to pardon the convict, before making any trial to ob- 
tain a pardon from the Governor. The affair is a most 
extraordinary one. 

1016 JSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To William B. HarJcness. 

August 5 1867. 
Giving informa- Yours of the 29tli lilt, is before me. 

tion in regard to 

Restate. I send you three documents of recent date. I am will- 

ing to be responsible for the facts stated in them. If I 
had tried to select and condense, would be willing they 
should appear over by signature. I have not such time. 
If you think it proper to make such statement, I will give 
it my signature. 

We have a State University and several other colleges. 
The University is in a most eligible location — spacious, 
durable and suitable buildings, with very extensive li- 
braries, philosophical apparatus, a very extensive Geologi- 
cal and Mineralogical Cabinet etc. The buildings, 
books, etc. were not disturbed by the war, but the large 
endowment, consisting of Bank stocks, is all lost. It is 
a first class institution — had upwards of 400 receiving in- 
struction in it before the war — The number now is about 
100. We had a system of common schools — a school house 
in reach of every child in the State. ISTearly all the fund 
sustaining the system was lost by the war. Its present 
stocks, in Rail Roads and ante-bellum State bonds, all 
of which will revive if the ]^orth shall allow the re-estab- 
lishment of a rational system of State government, 
amount to about $1,000,000. It is hoped that these 
schools can be re-established by the sale of the swamp 
lands described in the pamphlet I send you. 

The almanack inclosed will furnish you the names of 
our State officers. 

The infinite variety of duties involved on the "so-called 
Gov" of the State, or Territory of ISTorth Carolina, makes it 
impossible to comply as fully with your request, as I 
would most willingly do so under other circumstances. I 
have sent your letter to a competent gentlemen and asked 
him, if possible, to prepare the article for you, but as he, 
like most of us, is compelled to work for his daily bread, 


I fear he may not have leisure to prepare the paper, and 
I therefore send yon the material. 

The gentleman to whom I refer is C. H. Wiley, late 
State Supt. of onr Common School System. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

To Louis Q'lvin. 

August 5 1867. 

Your communication, dated May last, with references North caroima 
which command my highest regard, was duly received. 

The political condition and prospect of the State and 
the uncertainty of the tenure by which civil officers of 
the State hold their positions, paralyse all effort and leave 
little ground to hope for the success of the enterprise you 
suggest, even if I had power under existing laws to fur- 
ther your views, which I have not. 

If a state of things should unexpectedly occur by which 
I shall see a reasonable chance of employing your ser- 
vices in a way likely to benefit you and the State, I shall 
not forget your application. We have no hope now save 
the slight one drawn from the saying that "the darkest 
hour is just before day". 

I send you pamphlet, touching our Swamp lands. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

To D. Burnley. 

August 7 1867. 

I hope you did not construe my intimation as to the 
propriety of returning your thanks to Mr. Hedrick as ad- 
mitting of the implication that I desired any thing of 
this kind for my efforts to serve you. What I did, I did 
in discharge of a public duty and I hold you under no 
special obligations to me. It was otherwise as to Mr. 


1018 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To TJiomas S. Ashe."^ 

Aug. 7 1867. 

resmiation"™"'^'^ ^^ ^^^ shall be Unable to induce Merrinion to withdraw 
bis resignation, can we fill the vacancy with a more suit- 
able name than of Alex. Little ? Would he accept ? If 
you think the answer would be negative, can you suggest 
a more acceptable name ? I beg you to be prepared to 
answer. I would prefer the merest tyro in the law to one 
not to the manor born. 

I am not prepared to make a nomination. 


To W. A. Wright. 

Aug. 7 1867. 
Judge Merrimon's In the evciit WO shall be constrained to fill the vacancy 

resignation. '' 

on the bench, occasioned by the resignation of Judge 
Merrimon, I desire to fill -it by a jSTorth Carolinian even 
though he be a tyro in the law. Be prepared, if you can, 
to suggest a name. Could Danl B. Baker take the oath ? 
Would he accept ? Is he a suitable man ? Would Alex. 
Little suit you better if he would accept? Can you sug- 
gest any other more acceptable name ? 

To W. P. Bynum. 

Aug. 8 1867. 
University affairs. J hope you may be able to get some bro. la^^^er to at- 
tend to your business and that you may be able to attend 

1 Thomas S. Ashe, of Anson county, had been a member of the 
legislature in 1842 and 1854. In 1864 he was elected to the Confed- 
erate Senate but never took his seat. In 1868 he ran against W. W. 
Holden for the governorship and was defeated. He was elected to 
Congress in 1872 and in 1874. In 1878 he became an Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 


the meeting of the Trustees of the University. I regard 
the action of the meeting as involving the life or death 
of the institution. 

A commission such as you suggest was appointed at 
the annual meeting in June 1866, consisting of, I think. 
W. A. Grraham, D. Ferehee and Judge Battle. They met 
at the University some time afterwards, held consulta- 
tions with the faculty and perhaps others, and submitted 
a lengthy report, exhibiting evidences of having bestowed 
much consideration on the subject and making sundry rec- 
ommendations. We have not been able since to get to- 
gether a respectable number of the Trustees. At the last 
annual Commencement there were less than 1-2 doz. trus- 
tees present — and I greatly fear that the great majority 
of them will not be present. 

If a complete reorganization of the faculty be necessary, 
or at least the election of a new head, as you think, in 
which many concur, that election ought to be made at 
any early day. Who would be the fittest successor of 
Govr. Swain ? What feasible plans of remedying the 
financial embarrassment of the institution can you sug- 
gest ? If you cannot attend the proposed meeting are you 
prepared to make any suggestions on these questions ? 


From B. S. Hedridc. 

Washington, D. C. Aug. 9, 1867. 

I learn from my wife today that she will not leave 
Beaufort until Monday morning next, (12th) which will 
I suppose bring her to Goldsborough about noon of that 

[P. S.] If you get a pass in time for that train it 
will answer. 

1020 North Cakolina Historical Commission. 

To Marh E. Lawrence. 

August 13 1867. 

I have no reason to hope that any application to any 
Dept. of the U. S. Government for indemity for the burn- 
ing of yonr jail would be of any avail now. If such in- 
demnity may ever be hoped for, it will be after we have 
representatives in Congress who may not deem such burn- 
ing to have been all right. 


To James M. 8pruni. 

August 13 1867. 

Yours of the lOth inst. has been received. 

All the correspondence of this office with clerks and 
Registers, to enable us to establish the validity of the title 
of the State to lands claimed by the Literary Board, has 
been conducted by Genl. Gwynn, agent of the Lit. Board, 
over my signature, but I have not time to read and have 
not read one letter in 20 to which I have affixed my sig- 
nature. I have no knowledge of the circumstances to 
which you call my attention. Genl. Gwynn is now in 
Hyde. On his return I will call his attention to yr 


From B. Higgins. 
Fisher Hill, Guilford County. 

August 13, 1867. 
I take the liberty to enclose to you the writer's ideas 
which I wrote last winter but never had published. The 
subject of Railroads and Minerals I have been engaged in 
for over 20 years, for 12 years I have been in the State and 
my observations and experience have suggested the ideas 


herewith presented and seeing the subject of a penitenti- 
ary thro Genl. Sickles's orders soon to be considered in 
council I am desirous to have you read this from no mo- 
tive but public good. 


I propose to enquire of the reader and the public Carolina a^ncSi 
whether there is any enterprise that can be offered to the fnfhe'statl"'""*'" 
people of ISTorth Carolina that would be self-sustaining 
under the patronage of the State Government and if so 
in what way could it be accomplished. The inertia of 
business of all kinds in the absence of Capital or Banks 
is discouraging to every class of people. Crops for two 
years past or more have been insufficient to feed the peo- 
ple. The soils of the Middle and Western Counties are 
generally im]30verished, and need fertilizers, Farmers are 
in want of tools or good instruments to cultivate the soil. 
Merchants are selling at cost, and can realize but little 
money, and there is no prospect now before the people 
to sustain hope, except that Seed-time and harvest shall 
not fail, and "^faith without works is dead". But what 
shall we do ?. While everything in nature is moving, as 
an example for the peoj^le to work, there are no Towers or 
Temples to be built to excite the people to work. We have 
to amend our Constitution which is a small job and which 
can be done by a few Prime Movers, the modulus having 
been fixed by a function and a base. The State was orig- 
inally a State and is yet a State. Therefore in that ques- 
tion there is no money, nor will it incite the people to 
work. We must look then to our ISTatural advantages and 
present condition for something to stimulate and en- 
courage the people. On the East we are bounded on the 
Atlantic Coast for 300 miles with good harbours, bays, 
and navigable rivers, open to the Commerce of other ISTa- 
tions, both winter and summer our Rivers West of Raleigh 
in any County to the Georgia and Sampson line afford 
extensive water power and railroads extend across the 

1022 JNToRTii Carolina Historical Commission. 

State, East and West, also jSTortli and South, connecting 
harbours on the coast with trunk lines of Roads from other 
States. Our spring waters are clear, cool, and to be 
* found on every plantation in the Middle and Western 
Counties — our River water is soft and clear for manu- 
facturing woollen goods. The climate for health is not 
excelled by any other place on the Globe. The Eastern 
Counties produce cotton, corn, rice, and rosin. The Mid- 
dle and Western Counties produce wheat, corn, oats, rye, 
barley, and flax, tobacco, and some cotton. Sheep can be 
raised easily and wool produced in large quantities. Our 
Eorests abound with Pine, Cyprus and Oaks, and hard and 
soft woods of all kinds. The finest of grapes grow spon- 
taneously and the most delicate kinds may be cultivated to 
any extent. In Minerals ISTorth Carolina is not surpassed 
by any State on the Eastern Slope of the Alleghenys. In 
nearly all the Counties AVest from Franklin, Wake, John- 
son, Cumberland, and Richmond to Cherokee — Gold, Sil- 
ver, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Copper, and the associated Metals 
and Minerals are in profuse quantities, also Mineral 
Coals, Salts, Mineral Springs, Slates, Alum, Limes. 
Clays, Marbles, Stealites, Plumbago, etc., some of which 
deserve special notice as valuable motors to industry. Of 
these will be selected ores of Iron, Copper, and their as- 
sociates Coals, Lime, Marble, etc. 
Iron ores. 

Extensive deposits and veins of these ores, of the most 
valuable and desirable kinds, for the manufacture of Iron 
and Steel are to be found in several Counties of this 
State. The Magnetic oxides the Specular and Red Hem- 
atites are to be found in Guilford, Randolph and Chat- 
ham Counties, and the Carbonates in Guilford, David- 
son, Madison and others Counties — all of which are the 
preferable kinds for Steel and the best quality for bars, 
Iron wires, and all other uses in Machinery, Smith's work 
Cutlery Tools, etc. equal to S weeds or Russian Sable or 
ISTorway Iron which commands in every known market 


the highest prices. There are also Brown and Red Hem- 
atites, and Black bands ores in Chatham coal fields, and in 
Counties adjoining Chatham Co., also in the Counties 
of Guilford, Davidson, Forsythe, Stokes and Surry, and 
in nearly all the Counties on the sources of and West 
of the Catawba River. This latter class some of w^hich 
will answer for Steel and is valuable for Bar Iron and 
Soft castings for many uses, when cast metal needs bor- 
ing and turning. 

The Magnetic oxide vields a white cast metal for 
chilled or hardened purposes; viz, Car wheels, Plough 
Moulds, and points, or for maleable Iron. Specular ore 
yields a peculiar tenacious Iron for working with Cutlery 
tools, wire, etc. and the facilities for working these ores 
into charcoal, Pig Metal and Blooms (or drops) is all 
that could be wished for, at the place where the 
various ores are diggable, as Timber is abundant, and 
in some places Lime for a flux — at others Lime only is 
wanting. Some are in near proximity to Railroads — and 
at others Railroad facilities are needed. Mineral Coals 
are to be found in Chatham County, and also in Rocking- 
ham, Stokes and Porsythe Counties on the headwaters of 
Dan River on the JSTorth Line of this State. These coals 
are desirable and necessary for Rolling and Manufactur- 
ing purposes — hence the necessity for extending the Deep 
River and Chatham Coal Pields Railroad through the 
Counties of Randolph, Guilford, Porsythe, Stokes, to 
near Pilot Knob Mountain in Surry. 'Nea.r the East 
Bend of the Yadkin River, all of which Counties are 
highly favored with Iron, Copper and other ores, also 
Beds of Limestone, Marble and Coal, besides extensive 
water power for Mills or manufacturing purposes — Which 
Railroad would be indispensible for the manufacturing of 
Iron and Smelting of Copper ores in the vicinity of the 
Chatham Coal field, and would also give the facility for 
transporting Lime and Marble to nearly all the counties 
in the State, an article so much needed by the Parming 

1024 NoETPi Carolina Historical Commission. 

class of people at the cheapest possible rate of cost. The 
ISTorth C. C. R. R. and the Western Extension, would 
afford a facility for the transit of Blooms and Pigs of 
Iron, and ores of Copper from the counties West and 
JSTorthwest of Guilford to Chatham — ^^Vhich is no doubt 
the most favorable section for Rolling Mills, Forges, Cop- 
per Smelting Works, Powder Works, and Steel Works, for 
obtaining mineral coal cheap and with a cheap transit of 
the metal produced to the ports of Wilmington, ISTew 
Berne or Morehead City. The consumption of Iron in 
this State is probably greater than the reader is aware of 
— and upon Examination it will show that very large 
sums of money are paid annually for this article, which 
contributes to the wealth and industry of other people 
of other States. Suppose that we estimate the ordinary 
Earm use, including waggons. Buggies and Household im- 
plements. Tools and Smith use, 60 Tons as an average 
consumption for each County, and we find an aggregate 
of 5000 Tons are consumed or used by Railroads, in or- 
dinary repairs not including Rails each 12th months 
1000 Tons more and by Machinists, and Mining Cos. 
500 Tons. There would be an annual purchase of 6500 
tons which at 5 cents per pound foots up Six hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, in adition thereto of Steel, 
Copper, Lead and Powder — one hundred thousand dollars 
■ — which is thought to be a low estimate in our present 
condition and which must be largely increased in view 
of establishing such facilities as will accomplish a home 
supply by home manufacture for all purposes, viz ; Rails, 
Castings, Car wheels, car axles for Railroads, Pump En- 
gine Tools, etc., for Mining purposes. Bar Iron Tyres 
for waggons. Ploughs, Picks, Hoes, Shovels, Axes, Mill 
Machinery of all kinds for Earm and Mechanical use and 
a thousand fittings and things which everybody is familiar 
with, as are used and now purchased and paid for, which 
takes the peoples' money and goes out of the State to en- 
rich the people of other States and support their industry, 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1025 

with an impoverishing effect on the people of Xorth Caro- 
lina. Our home market should be supplied by home man- 
ufacture, and all surplus sold to markets I^orth and 
South of this State, and any surplus of Charcoal Pig could 
be sold in Northern Markets for money at a large per- 
centage over cost. 

Second. Copper ores and their associated metals. — 
The smelting of Copper ores can be made very profitable, 
and give great inducement to an increased population, by 
Emigration from those Countries where Mining and 
Smelting have been extensively carried on for several 
hundred years, which would not have been done if they 
did not yield a very large profit. Copper ores of all vari- 
ties are obtainable in this State. Viz, Suphurte, Red 
and Black oxides, Silicions oxides, Carbonates or Mala- 
chite, Phosphates and Chlorides. Sulphurates and Cop- 
j)erpyrities exceed all others in quantity, and are there- 
fore of great importance, yielding from 3 to 60 per cent 
of Copper Metal. Xext the oxides and carbonates which 
are much richer in Metal and are to be found in greater 
abundance in this State, than in other localities. The 
Sulphurats are desirable in smelting the carbonates and 
oxides. In Germany ores yielding 2 per cent with some 
silver are found to be profitable. Ores are purchased by 
smelters in Germany, Prussia, France, and England, and 
also at Xorthern AYorks dug on the continent of America 
and transported thither to smelt — where fortunes have 
been made. Twenty years ago mining and smelting in 
this country received but little if any attention. But 
for fifteen years past the enterprise seems to have taken 
root and is flourishing in the United States. Several 
Smelt works have been put into operation which have met 
with great success, supplying our o\\ti shops with metal 
and greatly enlarging and expanding our own manufac- 
turies. As before stated IsTorth Carolina has large de- 
posits of the various Copper ores which will yield from 5 
to 60 per cent of Copper Metal, associated with which is 
Vol. 2—24 

1026 JSToKTH Carolina Histokical Commissiok". 

Lead, Zinc^ Silver and Gold, in the separation of which Sul- 
phur and acids should also be obtained. 

That class or grade of Copper ore and also of Galena 
which yields from 5 to 20 per cent are to be found in in- 
exhaustable quantities — and should be smelted as near to 
the place where dug as possible in order to save ex- 
pense of transportation to markets in the IsTorthern States. 
A home market for this grade of ore is all important to 
the miner, because his cost of mining and expense of 
transportation to a ISTorthern Market will absorb nearly 
all and in some instances all he can sell his ores for, and 
this will and always has retarded mining (in this State) 
of ores yielding below 15 per cent, and those low per cent 
ores are generally the first ones dug in getting a mine 
properly opened. If however the miner could sell his low 
per cent ores with his ores of a higher per cent, at the 
nearest Railroad Depot, and get the N^orthern Market 
price, he w^ould always succeed from the first ore dug and 
be sustained in continuing his operations. Which result 
of the Smelter is a reverse of that to the miner, as the 
Smelter is always sure of profit. The products of smelting 
always find a ready sale for cash to the trade. 

A Smelting Works located near, or at, the Chatham 
County Coalfield, in this State, would be as favorable as 
could be desired, for smelting all classes and grades of 
ores referred to, because with railroad facilities to trans- 
port the ores to the Chatham Coalfields, the profits would 
be amply remunerative to the smelter if he paid the 
Northern Market Price for ores at any depot on any 
railroad in the central or Western part of the State. Ma- 
terials for erecting Furnaces, fuel and flues could there 
be obtained at a small cost, compared with the cost at 
many ISTorthern establishments. 

The Miner would then have all the advantages of sav- 
ing the sum now paid for transporting the ores to a mar- 
ket out of this State, which would stimulate him to be 
more energetic, and to enlarge his productions. It would 

CoERESPOisrDEjsrcE OF Joist x!ltpia]n" AVoktii. 1027 

encourage new operators to come to the field with capital to 
aid in developing the Minerals of this State, which would 
benefit the Farmer and the Mechanic. 

The precious metals of Gold and Silver would also be 
mined to a much larger extent, than ever before known, 
the extent of which is greater in this State, than the most 
credulous persons have ever estimated and is believed to 
be as encouraging for a regular pursuit as in California, 
and the Western Territories, Russia or Africa, or any 
part of South America. 

The home consumption of Copper, Lead, and Zinc,, Iron 
and Steel is unlimited, yet "a considerable sum is paid 
annually for Paints and Metals used by our Railroad 
Companies, and Mechanics, which in the aggregate will 
foot larger as one of the sources which take money from 
us, and should if possible be saved to the people of this 
State, and a large surplus, drawn from abroad, by the 
sale of the excess of the Copper Metal, Lead, Zinc, etc. 
produced by smelting our o^\ti native ores at home 
Mineral Coals. 

J^orth Carolina is highly favored by ISTature with these 
Coals for Manufacturing purposes of a good quality and 
free from impurities, and Sulphur, so they are or may 
be useable for Rolling Iron, Smelting and rolling Copper, 
and other Metals, and for chemical uses generally. It 
would be desirable if there were facilities for reaching 
them by rail for Mechanic's use — domestic use — and 
Small Blast use. But unfortunately the Public Spirited 
Movers in i^Torth Carolina of Railroads have opened 
thorough fares, which have proved to be of more benefit 
to other States than our own and have never yet opened a 
single Railroad to her Coalfields, Iron ore Beds, Marble 
quarries, or Lime Stone. Which Roads have caused a 
large State debt and afl^ord facilities to Merchants and 
others, drain and draw from the people of this State their 
money leaving their pockets empty. 

These Roads should have been of a secondary consid- 

1028 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

eration and a Eailroad from the navigable waters of the 
Cape Fear River, via Coalfields, through Chatham Guil- 
ford, Forsythe to Surry County should have been the 
first Railroad Built in this State. Why, Because the 
25ublic generally would have been benefitted at home. The 
Coal, Iron, Lime, Marble, Copper, and other natural 
treasures would have found a market 10 years ago. But 
was not done and perhaps not thought of and if thought 
of was considered of a secondary importance. It is very 
evident, however, that the people of this State by an ex- 
penditure of not over 5 Millions of Dollars might have 
saved at home 10 Millions of dollars in the manufacture 
of Rails, car wheels, and Iron for common uses and Mar- 
kets South, built all her Railroads and been free from 
a public debt. But "The first shall be last and the last 
first." Then why not profit by experience and now develop 
these natural advantages which will benefit all the people, 
a home sustaining policy of home patronage, home educa- 
tion, home manufacturing, and make and sell all we can 
to outsiders — follow the example of other States and live 
by suiDporting honest industry of all classes. 

The Coals,, and the Minerals, Lime, Marble, etc. must be 
brought together and used for they are in daily demand, 
and sum up a large item in the trades of the present day. 
Lime and Marble. 

Lime is an article of the greatest importance to the 
Farmers and Planters in this State. It is the most effec- 
tive and best fertilizer that can be obtained — its caustic 
alkaline qualities fit it to a soil like ours which is filled with 
Siles, or sand, and disintegrated rocks, which leave so many 
pebbles, and crude substances, which forbid vegetable mat- 
ter from forming a mould, without the use of Lime to 
neutralize them — hence woody and stalky substances grow 
rapidly, and grain, grapes and fine roots, meagerly. Our 
soils must therefore be fitted for crops, before farmers can 
expect to raise a remunerative supply. At present the 
cost of the article of Lime is too high, and nine-tenths now 


used for Building and Farm uses is brought from the 
ISTortheni States. The transportation adds too much to its 
cost to enable the Farmer to use it as a fertilizer. Phos- 
phates of Lime, Guano, and other fertilizers are pur- 
chased in jSTorthern Markets, which in the aggregate sends 
annually a large sum of money out of the State. 

To estimate the quantity of lime needed by farmers an- 
nually, we will suppose that we have a superficial area of 
about 50 thousand square miles, and each mile sqr 640 
acres gives 33 Millions of acres, half of which is covered 
by timbers and rivers. We find 16 Millions of acres in 
Farms and plantations and probably not more than one- 
fourth of which is annually cultivated, to wit, 4 Millions 
of acres, and 3 Millions of which needs fertilizing with 
Lime. Suppose we divide the 3 Millions into 5 parcels 
and fertilize one-fifth each year — as the manureing ef- 
fects of lime aided by the absorbents of bean straw, grass 
and other vegatable matter, will endure for 5 years. We 
find six hundred thousand acres needing anually 5 bar- 
rells of Lime to be used (in a slaked condition) equals 
T4 Bushels to each acre. The aggregate of which is 30 
hundred thousand Bbls, or 150 million Bushels, which can 
be obtained from our quarries and sold to the Farmer, at 
an average cost of 15 cents per bushel. We will suppose 
each farmer to have 50 acres of land to fertilize and he 
begins with 10 acres each year and at the end of 5 years 
he begins again on the first 10 acres and so on repeats 
and continues. Each will require to have 50 Bbls. of 
Lime annually at the cost of $37.50. jSText we will es- 
timate the advantage of this expenditure. We suj^pose 
that before he uses Lime his land produces 5 Bushels of 
Wheat, Corn 10 Bushels. Rye 4 Bushels, Oats 7 to 10 
Bushels, and no clover, or grass of any kind. But as one 
year is required for the Lime to neutralize the soil, we will 
estimate no special gain until the second year's harvest, 
when he is sure to get from 3 to a five fold production, 
and clover, hay, and grasses in abundance for his use. 

1030 JS^oRTH Caeolika Historical Commission. 

If he seens and subsoils each alternate year after the 
application of Lime, and as he continues to use Lime he 
will continue to nap this advantage. The soil will then 
receive common manures, Leaves, and Compost of all 
kinds. I will guarantee the result in proluction to be as 
good as I have estimated if the Lime and appropriate hus- 
bandry is used. The profit will be apparent to any one 
who tries it. 

If the soils on the Easterji slopes of the Allegheny were 
as full of Lime as the Western slopes are. Farmers would 
raise equal crops with Western. 

The Limestones of the Western slopes are of a soft gray 
texture, a transient formation. While on the Eastern we 
have Carbonate of Lime (White Marble) crystallized and 
hard, which needs to be calcined (or burned) to render 
it friable. Limestones of this class is abundant in the 
Counties of Forsythe, Stokes, and Yadkin. It occurs near 
Germanto^vn in Stokes County ranging southwardly and 
crossing the East Bend of the Yadkin River. The coal 
beds on the headwaters of the Dan River underlie it and 
the Iron ores are above, and in near proximity to it. 

Those beds contain the pure white marble free from 
any stains of Iron, and as white as Egyptian Marble suit- 
able for Tomb Stones, Monuments, or for ornamental pur- 
poses for buildings. The surface of the beds near German- 
town are colored to the depth of a few feet with black 
mica, but this is suitable for walls of buildings. The 
pure white Carbonate makes pure strong Lime. There is 
limestone also in some of the counties west of the Yadkin. 

With such beds of Marble in our possession, why pur- 
chase Tomb Stone from the quarries of Marble in Con- 
necticut or any ISTorthern State. The dead will slumber 
as softly under our own stones, as they can be made as 
cheap here as there, and save transportation. There is 
only wanting the facility and the inducement. 

Why then should not the people of Xorth Carolina 
bring up the agricultural interests of the State, to a Stand- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1031 

ard with the Western States. It can be done if her people 
will husband their interests — a. will to do it and unity 
of action — and energy combined — and new features, com- 
plexion and life, will overcome the dispondency of mis- 
fortune now resting upon her. At the first blow and 
steps taken in earnest, Emigration will come from Eng- 
land and Germany to dig, and work our minerals, to en- 
gage in agricidture and horticulture, to manufacture wines 
and luxuries, now so heavily taxed when produced in Eu- 
rope, that many fortunes may be made before the duties are 
reduced. Capital will also come without solicitations from 
abroad to purchase our lands. Mines, Grains & products 
of all kinds. Manufacturing will increase. Shops will be 
opened and home supplied with all she needs, and our 
peoj)le wull be sellers of Surplus instead of Buyers. 

Enough has been said perhaps to enable the reader to 
draw his own conclusions of the beneficial results to the 
people of this State, of such an enterprise. But will sug- 
gest a few ideas how it could be done — As a preliminary 
Step let the State Legislature pass a law establishing a 
Mining Bureau, with 5 Managers the Governor and State 
Treasurer to be two of the members, a State Agent, a 
Metalurgist, and Superintendent, the last three to be ap- 
pointed or reappointed Biennially by the Governor and 
Council of the State, or to be continued for 5 years on 
salaries. If they Prove to be well qualified and of Skill- 
ful Capacity, to be Paid a liberal Compensation for their 

The Agent should be a person of good business habits, 
and reliable in every particular. The Metalurgist should 
be a German or Prussian who is known to be skillful in 
every branch of Smelting and Working Metals under the 
most modern or improved Methods. 

The Supt. Should have Experience in Mining of ores, 
a good judge of Metals and of Experience in Building 
and Working Pailroads. 

The Board of Managers should have power to Employ, 

1032 K'oKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

discharge and direct all assistants, Employes, or servants, 
to purchase Sites, Materials, Build tracks, Koads and 
whatever pertains to perfecting and working the different 
branches of the object for which the Mining Board is 
established — a grant of full powers guarded from abuses 
by j)eculation or fraud, etc. 

They should be authorized to take full and absolute 
charge of the Chatham and Coallields Railroad, and Em- 
powered to Build the same from its present terminus 
through the Counties of Chatham Randolph Guilford 
and Forsyth, to Surry — near Pilot Knowb — upon the 
most favorable location for the object or convenience of 
the public, as a Road to transpt Pig Iron, Blooms, Mar- 
ble, Lime, Coal, Ores, Metals, etc, and have full manage- 
ment of the same. To be Called The State Railroad. 

They should be authorized to Erect and work a Rolling 
Mill in Chatham Coalfields of a capacity to make one 
thousands Tons per month of Rails, Axles, or any Class 
of Merchantable Iron and furnaces for Paddling and 

They should be authorized and Empowered to Erect a 
Smelting Works for CopjDer and lead ores in the same 
locality of a Capacity to smelt 5 thousand tons of such 
ores per annum, and to purchase such ores at jSTorthern 
Market prices on the line of any Railroad in this State. 

They should be authorized to Build a Steel Works of 
a Capacity to Make 200 tons of Steel per annum to make 
Caststeel for Mines and Mechanics. 

They should be authorized to Erect 2 or 3 Powder Mills 
at separate distances to make Blasting Powder for Mines, 
To make ITitre, Acid, Sulphur, etc. 

And whatever article is made or produced for sale ex- 
cept lime should be sold at ISTorthern Wholesale rates, or 
Prices. They should make all Rails needed for the Rail- 
road, also axles car wheels, cars, etc., and to supj)ly other 
Roads in this State, Iron for farmers or Smelters and ma- 
chinists use. 


They should have power to open and work Coal Mines 
Marble quarries for Tombstones, Monuments, etc., and 
to make Lime and to deliver on the Road to be Built or 
at a junction of the X. C. R. R. at 15 cents per bushel 
for farmers use as fertilizers of slaked lime or 25 cents 
for the n.nslaked, and Marble slabs at low rates per foot. 
The Princi23le office should be in Raleigh and under 
the Sui^ervision of the State Treasurer, and branch of- 
fices at the diiferent localities, which Branch offices should 
make monthly reports to the Principle offilces which should 
report to the Legislature annually — of all Expenditures. 
cost, of the work Roads, ores purchased, Metals produced, 
on hand sold, and a full and complete abstract of the Con- 
dition of the Affairs of the Bureau. 

The entire property Created or accumulated should be 
the property of the State. 

The Motor or funds used by the Bureau should be an 
issue of a Treasury ISTote if practicable in sums of 1, 2, 
3, 5, 10, and 20 dollars of good paper and in as good style 
as Greenbacks, redeemable one year after date at the 
pleasure of the State. But made receivable for Taxes, on 
Railroads and By individuals, and have par value in the 
State, and all person forbid dej^reciating or discounting 
them for profit under a penalty — to be issued from time 
to time by the State Treasury to meet the wants of the 
Bureau monthly. They should be received for all metals 
etc. sold to the people of the State By the Bureau and 
be used in the purchase of ores, Metals, Coals, etc, etc., 
And the issue should at no time exceed 5 million of dol- 
lars and the metals sold abroad. Iron, Powder, Steel, etc., 
at home Paid for in said issue and redeemed from the 
proceeds thereof. 

To Save the Expense of Building a State Prison, a law 
should be passed authorising and requiring the Bureau to 
take the Convicts or Prisoners from each County in the 
State, and work them in the Marble quarries. Yards and 
making Lime or in Building Roads, untill thej shall have 

1034 jSToeth Carolina Historical Commission. 

served the term of Sentence of Court and payment of 
costs and fines imposed Wliicli shall be paid by the Burea 
to the proper County thereby saving the people from such 
County Tax Which will relieve the people of the Expenses 
also of a public Prison. The Bureau to provide for all 
such prisoners Comfortable Clothes and food and hospital 

It is well known that a few miles above Salem are large 
tracts of land in which extensive quarries of white mar- 
ble or Lime Stone exist which can be purchased for a 
small sum, and which if walled in and Prison Cabins 
were built for workmen within the enclosure would not 
cost l-5th part as much as a State prison for manufactor- 
ing purposes and neither Should prison labor be applied to 
the manufacture of any article of industry and capital 
generally jDursued by the public. 

To General SicJdes. 

August IS 1867. 

I have examined and considered the amendments pro- 
posed to Sec. 9 and 40 Rev. Code Chap. 101 and enter- 
tain no doubt that an order promulgating the same as law 
would contribute very essentially to the better working of 
the Public Roads of the State. 


To Judge GilUavi. 

Aug. IJf 1867. 
jxiry orders of I had iiot heard, when I sent my telegram to Genl. S. 

Sickles. . ■ . J & 

on the 10th inst., that a single County Court had acted on 
the order touching juries. I regarded the order as qualify- 
ing those only who had paid a tax the current year — this 
fiscal year, and as the County Courts could not know until 
the Sheriffs had made their collection and return for 
this year, who had paid tax this year, the Court could not 


SO reform the lists till the first Court to he held after the 
1st day of October, The General's answer stating that 
the circumstances set forth in my telegram showed that 
I had been "impracticable" to execute his order. If the 
orders have reference to tax assessed and paid last year, 
then it would not have been ''impracticable" t5 reorganize 
the juries. 

I have reason to believe, from a personal conversation 
with Genl. S., that he meant to qualify as jurors every 
one who had jiaid a poll tax or any other public tax, but 
I have no right to put any construction on his ordinances 
and make these suggestions for what you may consider 
them to be worth. 

I propose to try to get Genl. S. to construe his order 
or to modify it, so as not to admit any but a freeholder 
to serve on the jury. 


To G. M. Grifin. 

Aug. 17 1867. 

As Governor I have no color of power to interfere with 
the action of your County Court as to levying a tax to 
pay County bonds given during the war, and my opinion 
as to the power of this County Court derives no impor- 
tance from my official position. 

If you or any other citizen deem the levying of such 
tax unlawful, you should employ a law-yer and seek a 
remedy through the higher Courts. It is a question of 
law and being now rather a rusty lawyer — and my opinion 
entitled only to the consideration due to my opinion as a 
lawyer and so pressed with my multifarious official duties 
that I cannot bestow much time to the consideration of the 
question I hope you will excuse me from the expression 
of an opinion on the subject. 


1036 JSToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To JosiaJi Turner, Jr. 

August 17 1867. 

fo^B's/Hedrick's ^^^^ are aware that for the past 18 months B. S. Hed- 
rick has attended at my instance to a vast variety of busi- 
ness for the State and its citizens at Washington City. 
He has not been paid any thing for these services — has 
not demanded any compensation. He informs me he la- 
bored for all our R. Rs. at the close of the war. He wrote 
me some time ago that his wife and children were on a 
visit to his brother at Morehead City and would visit 
Chapel Hill and perhaps Salisbury perhaps during their 
visit and that he would appreciate a free pass for them 
over our R. Rs. I applied to Mr. Whitford and Mr. Webb. 
The former granted and the latter refused. Mr. Webb, as 
I hear, referred to my application and his refusal at your 
late annual meeting. Mr. Hedrick's wife and children 
passed here from Morehead to Chapel Hill a few days 
ago, paying their way from Goldsboro to Chapel Hill. The 
State owes them, for Mr. H's services a free pass, and if 
he rendered the service to the corporation which I think 
he did, his request ought to have been granted. If you 
think you may do so without impropriety, I shall be 
gratified if you will send his wife at Chapel Hill, privi- 
lege to pass free with her children from Durham to Salis- 
bury and from Salisbury to Raleigh one time at any time 
within a month from this date. 
Company Shops. 

To John C. Wood. 

August 19 1867. 
Yours of the 13th inst. with inclosure came to hand. 
The board created by Genl. Sickle's order as to the expe- 
diency — location, etc. of Penitentiary, have the subject un- 
der consideration. If the report shall favor the building 
of one and recommend a location, I am not informed 


what ulterior steps the General proposes to take. 

Your proposition will receive due consideration, if it 
shall become my duty to have any control in the erection 
of Penitentiary structures. 


To G. F. Lewis. 

Aug. 19 1867. 

I have made a special and earnest call upon each of the 
Trustees of the University to meet in this office, on busi- 
ness of vital consequence to the institution. I hope for 
a full attendance. I suggest that you come then, instead 
of the 5th Sept. 

[P. S.] If you can't be here on the 22nd it is not prob- 
able that I can get a meeting so soon after as the 5th 

Cleveland, O. 

From E. M. Gibson. 


August 20, 1867. 
Hon. Jonathan AYorth, 

Governor of Xorth Carolina, 

Sometime since I noticed an advertisment in the u^|'^[JfQ%o°neerafn° 
Washington Chromcle of public lands for sale in your State ^""''^ Carolina, 
without giving terms or particulars. AYill you be kind 
enough to inform me of the quality, price condition, etc.. 
of the land. My father (Geo. Gibson) emigrated from 
Randolph Co. X. C. more than twenty years ago, to the 
State of Indiana. I have often heard him speak of you, 

1038 JSToETfi Gakolina Historical Commission. 

and think joerhaps he knew you. I have numerous rela- 
tives (Winslows, Walkers, Davises, etc.) living in your 
State now, but owing to my having served, and been dis- 
abled, in the Union Army during the late war, I do not 
know as it would be safe for me to make my home in that 
State now. I might live there, but would my chances in 
the profession of the law, or politically be worth anything, 
is the question. I am young yet, and would not like to 
hazzard future prospects by living in a community where I 
would be obnoxious to the citizens, for any thing I have 
, done or said, for of course I have no regrets for my past 

At present I am a clerk in the above named office and 
will remain here until I determine where to locate. 

From Henry T. Clark. 

Taeboeo, :Nr. C. August 20, 1867. 

LTjiiversity affairs. J ^yas placed on a committee by the last Legislature (or 
at the last session of the Legislature) charged with the in- 
vestigation of the affairs of the University — and to report 
to the next meeting of the Legislature or to the Governor. 
A majority of the joint committee (3 of the Senate and 
3 of the House of Commons) (Messrs. Hall, Peebles, 
Morehead and myself) held a meeting at the last com- 
mencement, made some progTess and expect to resume an 
investigation in Raleigh at the adjourned Session (today) 
this has been thwarted by the suspension of the Legisla- 
ture. And for want of another meeting of the Committee 
a report cannot be prepared. 

I write this as an individual explanation to you, for 
there has been no concert of opinion or action for the 
present emergency. 

We were preparing to offer some suggestions which 
we hoped would be beneficial to the institution — perhaps 


the same may proceed from the very intelligent body of 
Trustees, who I see have been called together in Raleigh 
the 22nd. 

I understand there are three vacancies among the pro- 
fessors, besides the proposed vacancy of Gov. Swain. 

I will venture one suggestion which you may give only 
such attention as you think it merits. It is a temporary 
arrangement while the funds of the corporation are so 
impoverished. Charles Phillips is very competent to fill 
the Chair of Mathematics, lately occupied by his father. 
His professorship is nearly allied to that of his father. 
I would suggest that his salary be enlarged and both pro- 
fessorships so ai-ranged as to be occupied by him — that 
temporarily the two branches be amalgamated or so com- 
bined as to be placed in charge of the remaining Professor. 
If his duties are increased, increase his pay, but not to 
the extent of both salaries (say 33-1/3) This would be 
an economy which the present status demands. And as 
the means of the University increased increase the pro- 
fessorship again. 

Be pleased to consider this only as a suggestion to you 
■ — and 3^ou may present or not as seems expedient to your 
own views. 

I have not the honor of being a Trustee and can have 
no voice. But your body has not a more devoted friend 
to the institution than myself. 

P. S. I w-ould be glad to be advised of the present 
status of our Committee. Genl. Sickle's order does not 
abolish but suspends the Legislature till further orders, 
which in all probability will never be given. Theoreti- 
cally we are a Legislature for two years from date of our 
election. It was made the duty of this University Com- 
mittee if they could not report to the Legislature, to re- 
port to the Governor. But there must be a meeting to 
continue the investigation and make the report. But we 
can't do without authority for our expenses to be paid. 
If your duties and authority have not expired with Genl. 

1040 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Sickles, how can we draw oiir necessary expenses already 
incurred or to be incurred. Geiil. Sickles will make 
promise for his penitentiary Board — would he make any 
for this Committee. 

To E. J. Hale & Son. 

August 21 1867. 

I am disposed to stretch my powers in order to have a 
genteel edition of Wilson's reports. In my annual mes- 
sage to the Genl. A. I recommended a reprint of the im- 
perfect editions of the report made during the war. I do 
not know why the recommendation was not respected. 
Under general powers conferred on the Govr. and judges 
of the Supreme Court I am disposed to take for the State 
100 copies of your proposed edition, but must have the 
concurrence of at least one of the judges of the Supreme 
Court. I expect Judge Battle here shortly. Can you give 
me an approximate idea as to what 100 copies would cost 
the State under your proposition ? 

]S!"ew York City. 

To E. M. Gibson. 

Raleigh Aug. 23 1867. 
Giying desired Your iuouiry, as vou served in the U. S. army in the 

information about 1 .' ? ^ ^ 

North Carolina. j^^.^ ^^,^^,^ whether it woulcl be wise for you to make your 
home in this State discloses the fact that you believe in the 
absurd conclusion which ISTorthern demagogues have fos- 
tered in the minds of the ]Srorthern people ; to-wit, that we 
are a semi-savage and lawless people. How a people claim- 
ing to be so much more virtuous and civilized and chris- 
tianized than we are, can honestly indulge in such senti- 
ments, excites among us combined wonder and [lUegihle]. 
The fact oudit to be known to every body having any ac- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1041 

cess to sources of correct information that there is no place 
in Christendom when a man behaves himself with de- 
corum, is safer than in any part of 'N. C, no odds what 
may he his opinions, political or religions. Even if he 
come among ns, prepossessed with the notion and con- 
tinually making this notion prominent — odiously promi- 
nent — that he claims superiority over us in patriotism — 
virtue — learning — evervthina; noble in the nature of our 
sj^ecies, you are still "^safe" from personal harm — but we 
have not yet been reduced to the debasement generally (a 
few who seek favor by fawning pretend to love and re- 
spect those who thus revile us) to lick the hand which in- 
flicts stripes upon us. The great body of our people were 
forced to elect between Secessionists and Abolitionists — 
thus forced they took up arms in favor of their home and 
section: — when conquered they desired to be allowed to 
participate in a restowed Union : AYhen the ISTorth de- 
mands of them that the future government of the State 
shall be committed to the recently emancipated slave in 
order to maintain the continued ascendency of a party 
which despises the forgiving spirit taught by the religion 
we profess, and delights to trample on a vanquished people 
and throw obstacles in the way of their recuperation, they 
submit as the vanquislied must submit to a conqueror, but 
they are not so meek and so stultified as to love such a 
peo])le. But every body is ''safe" here who behaves with 
decorum — and any of our people respect a Union soldier, 
who, when the fight was over, treats his vanquished foe- 
man, as genuine courage always treats the vanquished. 

I have not time to dwell on the matter. I have said 
thus much because I remember well your father and would 
treat his son with respect. 

iSTobody anywhere w^as a more constant lover of the 
Union and the Constitution — and nobody any where more 
cordially abhors a party, who would force on us a gov- 
ernment so framed, under this bayonet, as to give ascend- 
ancy to the recently emancipated slaves. 

Vol. 2—25 

1042 ]N"oRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

I have not and never had any sympathy with Disunion- 
ism either by Secessionists or Radicals. 
Washington^ D. C. 

To B. S. Hedrick. 

Aug. 2J+ 1867. 

I have been so pressed with the urgent and multifarious 
duties of my office for some weeks past, that I could not 
find time to do justice to my personal correspondence. 

I made application to get complimentary tickets for 
your family, resting the aj)plication on the ground of jus- 
tice to you on account of your services to the State. 

I know that Turner personally desired to grant it. I 
inclose his answer. If I had power I would grant you a 
free pass on every road in the State as some token of my 
apjDreciation of the disinterested service you have ren- 
dered the State. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To IF. H. King. 

August 2J/- 1867. 
Terms for sale of Our lauds are not divided off into sections and classified 
as to qualit}^ We hoped to sell the whole to an immigra- 
tion or to other association of capitalists. In this way 
we would sell at $1.00 per acre — -1-10 paid down — re- 
mainder payable in 10 years — interest at 7 per cent, pay- 
able semi-annually — title reserved until purchase money 
be paid — failure to pay int. for 6 months after due to be 

If we fail to sell the lands on these terms as an entirety, 
we will sell any one entire swamp on same terms — or 

Give alternative sections for ditching and draining. 

Our object has been to draw attention to these valuable 


lands and then dispose of them the best way we can. ISTo- 
body will want to buy enough only for a single farm. A 
leading drain must be cut, which should be done by a com- 
pany or individual owning the whole swamp, to be sold 
afterwards in small tracts. 

We wull ]Day anj reasonable commission to an agent who 
may effect sales for us. 

We now have a commission in j^J'ew York trying to 
effect a sale of the whole ; — on failing in that, — of one 
entire swamp. If we fail in this we will give alternate 
sections to any person or company who will ditch any one 
of these swamps. 

I send you my advertisement seeking to effect sale of 
one tract, as an individual. 

I will pay 5 per cent commission to any person who 
will find purchaser on my terms. I think there is not 
the slightest exaggeration as to this land. The crops here- 
tofore gro^'^al and now growing on the land demonstrate 
its productiveness. In view of the improvements on it — 
so much of it ready for immediate cultivation — its valu- 
able timber and proximity to navigation, it is a most de- 
sirable tract. Its present owners are so occupied in other 
matters that they can't give attention to it. 

Will be glad to hear further from you. 

ISTew England^ Ohio. 

To H. T. Clarh. 

Aug. 21^ 1867. 
I am not advised of Genl. Sickles' ulterior purposes 
either as to the calling of the Genl. A., or his scheme for 
the building of a Penitentiary. How he proposes to raise 
the ways and means or whether he intends to pay or how, 
the board appointed to report on Penitentiary project, I 
am as ignorant as you are. 

1044 JSToKTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

I hope to have another interview wuth him before long- 
in order to understand his designs and to induce him, if 
I can, to modify some orders and to abstain from issuing 
others deranging our State operations. 

We have done what we could to keep the University 
alive. I have not time to give you details — but will simply 
say I think we have adopted measures likely to result in 
reviving the institution. 

The financial question is not solved — but the professors 
will be ]3aid their full salary this session. If money can- 
not be raised by voluntary contribution to disincumber the 
corporate property, I see no hope of avoiding its ultimate 


To 0. D. Cooke. 

Aug. 2Jf 1867. 
Sale of swamp ^ comiuission is now ffone to jST. Y. to trv to effect a 

lands. ° ^ 

sale of the whole of the Swamp lands, to Companies pro- 
posing to negotiate. I fear they wall not effect such sale. 
Until the result of their negotiations shall be known, I 
can only say that this board will sell White Oak Desert at 
$(3.00 per acre — ten per cent to be paid down — int. to be 
semi-annually paid on residue — ten years allowed to pay 
fund — title reserved as security and failure to pay interest 
for 6 months to amount to forfeiture of contract. If we 
can't sell this way we will sell less than the whole on like 

I inclose advertisement of a tract of land I wish to sell 
which I regard as the best liargain in land which I ever 
knew any thing of. The cro]:!S grown on it — and now 
growing are the best testes of its value. The cleared land, 
buildings and timber would make quick returns. 

Boon Hill, 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1045 

To Simon Barnes. 

Aug. 26 1867. 
I have means of arrivino- at a iust interpretation of the Rules for regis- 

, . . . . J, tration. 

Act of Congress touching registration not m reach oi 
every other citizen. GeiiL Sickles is the final arbiter as 
to us — and I had supposed he would have given us liis 
construction on the doubtful points. His plans seems to 
be to leave each board of Registers to decide all doubtful 
cases and report to him all questionable cases for his final 

I think you are entitled to register, and I would apply 
to the registrars, and in case they decide against you, ask 
them to report the case to Genl. Sickles for his decision. 
According to the opinion of the Atto. Genl you have a 
right to register : and surely no citizen can incur any dan- 
ger or blame, who claims the right, where such right is 
sustained by the opinion of the highest law officer of the 
IT. States. 


From J. J. JacJi-son. 

PiTTSBORO August 27 til 1867. 
Registration has commenced in this Countv. The Registratioii in 

~ " Randolph county. 

Board has been in Session in this village two days. 
There is a great rush of negroes to register I suppose 
two negroes have registered here to one white. I am fear- 
ful this county will be Africanized although by the cen- 
sus of 1860 there were nearly two whites to one black. 
The negroes will register to a man, and many of the 
whites will go with them I fear from the idea they have 
that the owners of real estate are to be plundered, and 
what they have confiscated. There are few post offices 
in the county and many of our people are uninformed as 
to whether they can register or no. 

1046 jSTokth Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

I think every facility should be given for registering 
all, and for that reason I write you this, at the instance 
of many of our Citizens, and request that you will call 
Col. Bomford's attention to the Statement hereinafter 

It is I think perfectly clear that there ought to be two 
places for registering on the east of Haw River. One 
third or one fourth of the county lies east of the River. 
There is not now a bridge on Haw River from Keemey 
Bynum's to Haywood. Four bridges have been swept 
away recently by freshets. The Board should sit at Las- 
aters and at Jones Grove, which as you know is about 
eight miles from Pittsboro on the road to Chapel Hill. I 
hear they will sit at Lasaters only. If this be so and I 
am informed that they have only advertised that point, 
it is certain that a large number of voters from the coun- 
try bordering on Haw River and the Orange line will 
not register. To do so they would have in some cases 
to travel over 20 miles. I suppose Col. Bomford could 
issue orders to the Board to sit at Jones Grove and at 
Lasaters, also. 

Permit me to request in behalf of our people that you 
will see Col. Bomford and, if you think it proper, that 
you will represent to him the Justice and propriety of 
carrying out the above Suggestion. 

From J. J, Jackson. 

PiTTSBOEO^ August 27 til 1867. 

I have just heard that Mr. Gibbons is going in the 
morning, and I write you this only to say we are all well 
at present. We hope you are all well. The children 
Bettie, Jonnie and Carrie are going to school to Mr. Sut- 
ton and I think rapidly improving. 


I wrote a letter to Major B. about two days ago re- 
questing him to get up and send to me all of Sickles' 
orders. Lucy has an enterprise on foot. It is a secret 
and I fear it will get out. She has been agitating the 
scheme of publishing a map of the mineral county coal, 
gold, etc., etc. I advised her to defer it for the present 
and suggested the following. 

Mr. Sutton, the head of the female school here, has a 
printing jjress, and I suggested to her to let me get up 
all the orders issued by Sickles and the most important 
of those issued by the Bureau and let Mr. Sutton print 
them in a pamphlet. I thought several thousand copies 
might be sold for a dollar each. AVell she sent for him 
and he is anxious to go into it if his press will do the 
work. Wants to see the orders, etc., before he can tell. 
What do you think of it ? The expense will be trifling — 
only the paper — and I really thinlv there is money in it. 
They could be sold in !N^. and S. Carolina and probably 
Hale could sell several hundred in jSTew York. 

I have not seen the orders from Major Bagiey. If it 
was possible I should like very much for Mr. Gibbons to 
bring them up with him. Write me a line and say what 
you think of her scheme. I write you another line that 
you may if you think proper show to Col. Bomford. I 
think it important that you should do so. 

Love to all, 

[P. S.] — I wonder some printer has notj before this, 
thought of printing in pamphlet form for easy reference 
all these edicts which for the time being are laws. 

To W. H. McRae. 

Sept. 9 1867. 
Yours of the 4th inst. is just reed. 
I have no fears that Congress will confiscate our lands. 
There is much more danger from IST. C. Radicals — and 

1048 JSToKTH Cakolijsta Historical Commission. 

I trust there is not much danger from them. Our white 
friends in Montgomery and Randolph, who are expecting 
to attain political ascendency through the negro, will 
surely wake nj) and see their folly soon. If we make a 
Constitution, allowing all male negroes 21 years old to 
vote, and denying the right of voting to a large and in- 
telligent class of whites, the mean whites co-operating 
with the negroes, may appropriate all the land. I am 
unwilling to believe that the negroes are to be made the 
governing class in IST. C. 

I think it scarcely possible that IST. C, with a popula- 
tion of whites largely greater than the negroes, will by 
their voluntary acts, make the negro the governing power. 
This wall be the result if we carry out the Radical scheme 
now presented to us. 

I advise you to perfect your title to your land in the 
way you deem least expensive — and trust to the good sense 
of E". C. and the nation that government is not to be con- 
fided to negroes and albinoes. 

I have not time to discuss these subjects. I was never 
a Secessionist — still less am I a Radical. Both were and 
are disunionists. The property of this country requires 


To 0. D. Cooke. 

Sepr. 9th 1867. 

I do not know the real agricultural product of the land 
before the war. I learn that the swamp portion produces 
strictly first rate crops of cotton. I invite any one wishing 
to buy, to examine the land. There is a portion of it 
having corn on it now. I have by no means over-stated 
the excellence of the land. The place is known as 
"Round Swamp" — and is celebrated as a place of great 
value. Any body at Whitesville or in that region knows 


that it has always produced exuberant crops of cotton 
and corn. The timber on it is of great value. 

AYe have a complete map of it. It is now in IST. Y. but 
will be in the hands of Worth & Daniel in a few days. We 
have no doubt about the title and will warrant the title — 
and all of us are responsible on a warranty. Each of us 
is out of debt and (for our country) possessed of large 
means. We want to sell it because our several occupa- 
tions preclude proper attention to a farm. I never saw 
any place better suited to make money, both by its agri- 
cultural products and its timber. 

Booisr Hill. 

To Henry T. CJarh. 

September 23 1867. 

Yours of the ninth inst. did not reach my hands till sickles' jury order, 
to-day. Some 10 or 12 days ago I went to my former 
residence, expecting to be there only a day or two. 
[About four lines are illegihle']. Mr, Perkins is here and 
will carry down both pardons. 

I had taken the same view in relation to Genl. S's 
orders as to juries which you present and have fully ex- 
erted myself in communications both to Genl. Sickles and 
Genl. Canby to get the order so modified as to allow 
only freeholders to bs put on the list with this list to be 
purged by the Court as provided by our laws before the 
drawing of the jury. You will see that I have had only 
partial success. 

I think I am getting the relations between Genl Canby 
and myself on a footing likely to enable me to be of some 
service to our people. 

I am endeavoring to get him to abolish the Provost Court 
established for 5 counties, in Fayetteville, by which three 
men having no pretension to legal learning, are taking 
cognizance of all suits, civil and criminal, not capitally 

1050 l^OETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

punished — tlieir compensation being fixed at $4. per day, 
etc. to be paid by the fines they impose. I regard this 
Conrt as more of a burlesque on justice, than the cele- 
brated Court held by Sancho Panza. 

I am also endeavoring to discontinue the trial of civ- 
ilians before military Courts. 

I thank you for the estimate you place on my efforts 
to serve the people of I^T. C. My duties have been enor- 
mous and onerous. I am sure I have endeavored to do 
all I could to get our State on her legs and hope my 
friends duly appreciate my efforts. 

I am feeble and tremulous and must conclude. 


To 0. P. Meares.^ 

Ealeigh Sej^r 26 1867. 

I will be much obliged to you for any remarks you may 
be willing to submit to me tending to aid me in coming 
to a just conclusion as to the action I ought to take on 
the inclosed petition of a number of citizens of Wilming- 
ton for the remitting of the remainder of punishment 
adjudged by you against ISTicholas Carr. 

Please return the petition. 


To A. M. TomJinson. 

September 26 1867. 

I do not precisely understand whether the association 
of Friends proposing to establish the model farm, design 
it as auxiliary to their educational projects or what the 
real object is — but I presume the association may be 

1 Judsre of the Wilming-ton Criminal Court. 


promptly iiicorj)orated under our liev. Code, Chap. 26, 
Sec. 14 and 15 at a trifling expense, whereby the diffi- 
cuhy will be obviated. 

I am somewhat feeble and tremulous from my late 
bilious attack — and hope my writing will be legible and 

I intended to have visited you on my late trip to Ran- 
dol|)h — but was detained so long by my illness that I 
was obliged to hasten back here as ,soon as I felt able. 

I hope your son Sidney will consent to be voted for a 
a member of the Convention, because I believe he would 
be elected and that he belongs to the class who would 
uphold the Constitution of the United States. I regard 
any Union, not based on the Constitution, as Revolution- 
ary and likely to result in ultimate disaster to our Coun- 
try — and I cannot regard a government which admits to 
the polls all this ignorance and excludes much of the in- 
telligence of its people, as likely to secure personal liberty 
or protection to the fruits of industry. 

If the negroes and all the non-property holders are to 
vote, it ought to be for the Commoners only : and only 
those who pay a tax on property should vote for the Sen- 
ate. I have not time to enlarge on this. If non-property 
holders are the ruling power in both branches of the Leg- 
islature, land and property will be in much more danger 
of virtual confiscation from taxation than they are from 
the present Congress. 

Few men have the nerve to preserve integrity if they 
get on the political arena — and hence I would not advise 
any young friend to turn politician — but on our coming 
Convention hangs the security of property and personal 
liberty — and there are few counties in the State where 
secret organizations have so misguided public sentiment 
as in Randolph — and I know of no one so likely to be 
elected as Sidney — ^^vho has not become entangled in the 
vile web of the demagogue. 

Busii Hinn. 

1052 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Thomas Stephenson. 

Sepr 28th 1861. 

Your letter without date inquiring whether this State 
is making any eiTort to procure European labor is before 

JSTo such effort has been made because the action of Con- 
gress disfranchising the experienced intelligence of our 
people and looking to and likely to result in negro su- 
premacy here, we regard as an effectual bar to immigra- 
tion from any country but Africa. 

ISTew York City. 

To D. F. Caldivell. 

Sep. 28 1867. 

The pub. Tr. handed me a day or two ago the within 
papers purporting to a conveyance of a lot in Florence 
from J. S. Ray to Z. S. Coffiii. The Tr. says it was found 
among papers left in the oifice by me as Provl. Treasurer. 
I have no recollection about it. It was no seal — and is not 
a deed ; and if it were, I do not know who Z. S. Coffin is, 
or why the paper was put in my possession. I suppose it 
to be worthless. If you can make any thing out of it 
return as much as you please and pay balance wherever 
you may think it is due. 

I hear that the Conservative political meeting here last 
night was prudently conducted, and that Holden got the 
most terrible castigation ever inflicted in the way of a 
speech, from his guardian friend Major Russ. 

I did not have any hand in the getting up of this meet- 
ing. I have feared that any thing like organization on 
our part might arrest the disintegration which I trust is 
setting in here and abroad among the radicals, and thus 
result prejudicially to us. 

I read your editorials with much interest and appro- 

Cokkespojstdence of Jonathan Woktii. 1053 

I am still rather feeble and my hand tremulous from 
mv late bilious attack. 

To James F. Giles. 

Oct. 2 1867. 

About the time jours of the 29th Aug. came to hand I s.vamp lands, 
was disabled by a bilious attack and so continued for 
some ten days and since my recovery have not got clear 
of the business which accumulated during my illness. 

The Lit. Board has ordered an accurate survey and 
plot of the 90,000 acres to be made out. Owing to the 
remarkably rainy season, the usual disappearance of the 
water from absorption and evaporation has not occurred. 
The water is now rapidly disaiDpearing and a month hence, 
it is hoped, lines may be run over dry ground throughout 
the swamp. Of its extraordinary fertility and easy drain- 
age I entertain no doubt. 

Should you come on in the latter part of this month or 
first of next I think the survey will be in progress and I 
will take care that 'every facility shall be afforded you 
for a satisfactory examination of the premises. 

The tract of land which I oifer for sale by inclosed ad- 
vertisement, having 1.50 acres cleared, a growing crop to 
demonstrate its fertility — houses on it — much valuable 
timber, etc. presents remarkable inducements to a gen- 
tleman wishing to farm and grow cotton on a large scale, 
or to a small colony of immigrants. 

Warhixgtox^ D. C. 

To B. liiggins. 

Od. 7 1867. 
Your lengthy and interesting communication contain- 
ing manv valuable suo-jyestions touching our State affairs 
was dulv reed. 

1054 JSToETH Caeolhsta Historical Commission. 

As the Genl. A. has not been allowed to assemble since 
I reed it — and possible will not be allowed to assemble 
during the time I shall be allowed to occupy my present 

I see little chance to carry out any important enter- 
j)rise in ]^. C. while the policy of the Government repels 
all immigration, save from Africa. 


To P. T. Massey. 

October 17 1867. 

canby's jury order. I am just returned from an interview with Genl Canby 
at Columbia at which his jury order was the chief sub- 
ject of his discussion. . 

Your County Court after making out a list of those 
who have paid a tax this year, whether on property or 
on the poll, will in the first place purge the list by casting 
out the names of those whom they may deem not well 
qualified to serve as jurors, color alone not being deemed 
cause of disqualification. Extreme ignorance, bad moral 
character, deafness or other personal disability will be 
recognized as good cause of disqualification. 

Persons not registered as voters, are not to he excluded 
from the list from ivliicli jurors are to he draivn — but he 
will retain his clause making non-registration good cause 
of challenge. 

The General assured me he would reform his order as 
above. It may be expected in a few days. I hope, there- 
fore, your Court upon this representation will act as 
though his order to this effect were now published. 


Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1055 

■ To Calvin H. Wiley. 

Oct. 17 1867. 

I am just returned from an interview with Genl. Canby. j^f^lg^^ ®^^™p 
It was quite as satisfactory as I expected. 

I am quite willing to take $70,000.— or even $60,000. 
for all our Swamp lands in Hyde and Tyrrell, provided 
not less than tV be paid dowui, interest at 1 per cent 
paid annually for residue and the whole to be paid wdthin 
ten years and failure to pay interest for 60 days to amount 
to forfeiture — but will not consent to bind the State to 
refund for any cause except w^ant of title — title to be 
made on payment of the ]3urchase money. 

I do not feel willing to take less than $1. per acre on 
same terms as to payment, for White Oak Swamp ; we 
paying expenses of survey. 


To A. S. Kemp. 

October 21 1867. 
You are mistaken as to mv havinc; power to fill vacan- Regarding the mi- 

_ " '- , _ ing of vacancies. 

cies in civil offices. This power, by the military re-con- 
struction acts, is conferred on the military commandant — 
Genl Canby. 

The military commandant, as to the filling of vacancies 
in ofiices which is vested in the Governor or the Gov. and 
his Council, by our Constitution or laws, has hitherto 
asked me to nominate, and has appointed my nominee. 

I have not been consulted at all as to the appointment 
of any officer where the appointment of such officer is 
given by law to the Courts of the people. 

From your representation of the facts I see no reason- 
able grounds for your removal and the consequent filling 
of your place by military authority — and hope the County 
Court wull decline to accept your resignation. 


1056 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Thomas Settle. 

Oct. 22 1867. 

I inclose to yoii a copy of a letter which I addressed 
to you on the 17th Apl last, to which I have reed no an- 

Pressed, as I was by the military authorities of the 
U. S. backed by the Representatives of CasAvell County 
in the General Assembly and by Messrs Kerr and Kerr 
who defended Johnson I granted the pardon with very 
great misgivings as to the propriety of extending clemency 
to him. 

I am now informed by the Hon. John Kerr, that upon 
the apiDlication of this man Johnson and of one Tourgee, 
the Sheriff of Caswell, Jesse C. Griffith, who, from per- 
sonal acquaintance and from what I learn from others, 
is a most estimable man, is arrested and carried to Char- 
leston to answer some indefinite charge. 

I earnestly desire from you a statement of the facts 
proved on the trial of Johnson. 

To Andrew Johnson. 

Odoher 24th 1861. 
Introducing Allow me to iiitroducc to you the Hon. Thos. C. Fuller, 

Thomas C. Fuller. -,...,- , ' •n i ^ 

a distinguished gentleman oi the h ayetteviiie bar, who 
visits you in behalf of three citizens of his town, Tolar, 
Powers and Watkins, lately tried by a Military Court, 
under a charge of murdering a negro, named Beebe. 

There was no reasonable ground for the interposition 
of a Military Court. N^o respectable officer of the U. S. 
Army has ever intimated that justice has not been in- 
variably administered fairly and impartially in our Su- 
perior Courts of law. In this case the Military thought 
proper to take cognizance before any civil Court having 
power to try the alleged offence, could act. 


The conceded facts are tliat Beebe, the negro, on Sun- 
day, had seized a yonng lady of unquestionable character, 
on her return home from Church, and attempted to com- 
mit a rape on her — that the community was naturally ex- 
cited, and on his arrest and preliminary trial, the next 
day, a large concourse assembled, and that when they saw 
the neck of the victim lacerated, by the brutal grip of 
Beebe, to prevent her cries from bringing assistance to 
her, it created ungovernable fury, and some one shot and 
killed Beebe. The evidence as to the person who fired 
the fatal shot was contradictory. "What this evidence 
was, you will see in the papers submitted to you. The 
dispute, as I understand, was narrowed down, whether 
one Phillips or Capt. Tolar killed Beebe. Phillips had 
been charged and released by the Military upon turning 
State's evidence. The evidence was contradictory and 
turned on the creditability of witnesses — which a jury of 
the vicinage could have much better decided than a Court 
composed of strangers. What the decision of the Court 
was I do not know — but, I am sure, all of the most intelli- 
gent and virtuous portion of our people believe that the 
defendants ought to have had a trial by jury — that the 
evidence before the military Court did not warrant a 
conviction ; — and if the defendants were capitally pun- 
ished, all good men would be horrified. 

I hope you will deem the case one proper for Executive 

If you should deem it competent for you to set aside 
the finding of the Military Court, and to direct a trial by 
jury, it would satisfy justice and the wishes of the people. 

Every one of these military trials in this State is an in- 
stance of unjustifiable military oppression, there being no 
pretence, from any respectable source, that there is any 
one of our Judges who does not take care that justice is 
impartially administered. 

Vol. 2—26 

1058 NoKTH Caeolusta Histokical Commission. 

To D. G. Worth. 

Oct. 2If 1867. 
onva?ious^matteis You ask me mv Opinion as to how the people of this 

of Reconstruction, r,, j. i i i . .^ n- _e • j_ n /'^( 

fetate should vote on the calling or reiusing to call a Con- 
vention under the military acts falsely called re-construc- 
tion acts. 

These acts require the Convention to amend the State 
Constitution so as to allow universal negro suffrage. They 
declare that we are to be allowed representation in Con- 
gress only after the disfranchising Howard amendment 
shall be adopted and that no member of Congress shall be 
recognised unless he can take this test oath. 

This Convention is called by Congress — not by the 
State : Congress determines Avho shall vote and who shall 
not, in violation of the Constitution of the U. S., which 
leaves it to the State to determine who shall vote and who 
shall not vote — and allows each State to regulate its in- 
ternal affairs, not inconsistent with the United States. 

As this Convention must establish negro suffrage, those 
only should vote for such Convention, who believe that 
it is constitutionally called and that universal negro suff- 
rage is expedient and that nobody should hold office save 
those who can take the teste oath. As I believe that the 
call of a Convention is in violation of the Constitution of 
the TJ. S., which I am bound by oath to support — that to 
establish universal negro suffrage is to base government 
upon ignorance instead of intelligence — even if there were 
no disfranchisement of white men — and as the acts of 
Congress submit the question to those who are allowed 
to vote, whether they want such a Convention or not, I 
think no honorable man in ^N". C. ought to vote for the 

I think they should go to the polls and try to elect con- 
servative delegates — and not vote at all for or against 
Convention. The Convention fails if a majority of all 
the registered voters fail to vote for or against Conven- 
tion. According to the best information we now have 


95000 whites and 65000 negroes have registered in this 
State. It will require something over 80000 votes cast 
for and against the Convention to call it. It is not prob- 
able that more than 55,000 negro votes will be cast, and 
if less than 25000 whites vote for or against a Convention, 
it must fail. I do not believe anything like 25000 whites 
will vote for such a Convention. If concert of action can 
be brought about among those who are opposed to the call, 
it may be defeated, by non voting on the part of the whites. 
I am confident a majority of the whole vote cast is un- 
attainable — and my only hope of defeating the thing is 
this one indicated: and if this fail, in the refusal of the 
voters to ratify the Constitution which may be adopted, 

■^'It is never expedient to do wrong," and hence it is . 

inexpedient to change by our act, the fundamental laws 
of the State, under an unconstitutional act of Congress. 

This is intended for your o^vn eye. I deem it inex- 
pedient to avow my views before the public. 

I gave my views, confidentially, to Mr. Englehardt a 
week or two ago. 


To Andrew Johnson and W. H. Seinard. 

Oct. 25 1867. 

'Capt. A. W. Bolemins, who for the past year has been 
acting in this State as an officer of the Ereedman's Bu- 
reau, has had the rare good fortune to discharge his duties 
with such marked intelligence, independence and impar- 
tiality as to command the respect and confidence of both 
whites and blacks. 

I learn from him that he has ap23lied or will apply for 
the appointment of Consul to the Rhine provinces in Ger- 

I shall be gratified if the application shall receive your 
favorable consideration. 

1060 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

To J. Tf . Purdie. 

Oct. 25 1867. 
In regard to the Xlie military commandant has tlius far not interfered 

filling of vacancies '^ 

in office. with any appointments to office, which by law or the con- 

stitution is vested in the Govr,, further than to request 
me in vacancies, such as that of judge, to submit my rec- 
ommendation, which recommendation has been thus far 
respected, by an appointment of my nominee by the ]\Iili- 
tary Commandant. 

I have not been requested to send to the Commandant 
my recommendant for the appointment to any office where 
the filling of such vacancy, under the constitution and 
laws of t]ie State, is vested in any other authority than 
the Govr. 

If desirous I will endorse the recommendation of a ma- 
jority of your justices, as to the filling of the resignation 
of Mr. Kemp. As his successor will be appointed by 
military authority and must take the test oath, unless 
there be urgent reasons to the contrary, would it not be 
well for the Court to refuse to accejDt the resigTiation of 
Mr. Kemp ? 


To B. G. Worth. 

Oct. 25 1867. 
Since writing you this morning I have seen Mr. Best — ■ 
and find that the grants to which I referred were issued 
for another speculating firm — Baker having no connec- 
tion with them. Mr. Best says he gave the printed form 
of our grants to Baker — ^wdthout his or my signature or 
the great seal of the State — and a separate certificate 
signed by him and me, that w^henever he produced proper 
certificates of entries and surveys and paid the purchase 
money, that he could get grants. I learn that no grant 
has issued to him. He certainly regards persons wanting 
to buy land as very green and easily humbugged. 


I regard Genl. Canbv as an unostentatious and candid Opinion of canby. 
Radical. He lias treated me ■with uniform courtesy, per- 
sonal and official, and has occasionally reformed some of 
the inanj^ absurd additions he has made to the Sickles 
code, upon my representation. I regard him as an honest 
man, believing in the expediency and constitutionality of 
the obstruction acts and therefore cordially co-operating 
with the less vindicative portion of the Radical Congress. 
I do not perceive that we are benefitted by the exchange 
of Canby for Sickles. I think he holds our domestic 
Radicals in less contempt than Sickles and is much more 
esteemed bv Holden »t Co. than S. w^as. 

To J. C. Pass. 


Oct. 25 1867. 
I do not deem it expedient for reasons I have not time opinion of the con 

_ ~ _ _ stitutionality of 

to explain on paper, to give any public advice to the peo- the Convention. 

pie touching the matter about which you ask for my 


The i^roposed Convention is called by an Act of Con- 
gTess which prescribes wdio are to vote and who are not 
to vote. 

This I regard as a violation of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

If the Convention be called it is required to declare 
universal suffrage to all male negroes over 21 years old, 
regardless of intelligence, and it mo.y deny the right of 
suffrage to as many white men as it may think proper. 

All who vote for a Convention necessarily vote for uni- 
versal negro suffrage as a provision in our Constitution, 
which is not at all likely could be amended for generations, 
because constitutional amendments require more than a 
majority — and all the negroes would vote on such amend- 

1062 JN'oKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

This I regard as founding government on ignorance 
and not on intelligence, and I could not vote for it. 

If the Convention do all that is required, we are not 
to be admitted to representation until we ratify the How- 
ard amendment and elect members who can take the teste 

I can see no hope for the future under such a govern- 
ment. ]Sro voluntary act of mine shall fix such a govern- 
ment on us. If Congress have something worse in re- 
serve for us, I can submit to power I cannot resist — and 
obey — but not voluntary sanction what my judgment and 
conscience disapprove. 

As a majority of all the registered voters must vote 
on the question of Convention or no Convention, in order 
to carry the measure, if I had a vote and desired to de- 
feat the call, I should go to the polls and vote for the 
best delegates and would not vote at all for or against a 

There are (say) 65,000 registered negro voters and 95,- 
000 w^hites. To carry the Convention a little more than 
80,000 must vote. ISTot more than 55,000 negroes will 
vote. Then a little more than 25,000 white must vote 
for and against Convention, or it fails. 

You may use these ideals as you j)lease, but not as com- 
ing from me. You must not use my name in connection 
with the subject. 

I hold that "it is never expedient to do wrong" ; and 
with my views, if I were to favor such a Convention, I 
should violate my oath to support the Constitution of the 
U. S. and otherwise do what I believe to be vrronsr. 

To William Clarh. 

Ealeigh Oct. 26/67. 

Opinions as to The pressure of my imperative duties denies me the 

pleasure of complying with your request to write you often. 



In domestic matters nothing important has occurred, I 
believe, since I last wrote you. I think my last was since 
the death of my mother, which has created a past to which 
my mind is continually recurring. 

Politically I have seen little to encourage hope for the 
future. The [luords illegihle] which seems to have pos- 
sessed the dominant majority of the nation is that the con- 
tinued ascendency of the party now in power, is essential 
to the well being of the nation— and that this case must 
be affected by the ascendency of the negro element in the 
States lately in rebellion, and by silencing the popular will 
in Maryland, Delaware Kentucky, and elsewhere, if Radi- 
cal representation to Congress be not returned. 

This reverses the old idea that in a Republic the voter 
should be intelligent. There can he no people in Chris- 
tendom more ignorant than the lately emancipated slaves, 
they are all to vote who are males above 21 years old — 
while the great bulk of experienced intelligence is denied 
the right to vote. Every body hitherto deemed fit for a 
constable, Post Master, County Register, or any other 
office. State or jSTational, who held any of these positions at 
any time within 40 years before the war, j^our people have 
declared unfit to vote, but every Secessionist, provided he . 
had held no office before the war, though he may have been 
guilty of all the enormities you impute to us in the prog- 
ress of the war, is entitled to vote. 

In order to insure the election of Radicals to all offices 
State and ISTational, you have instituted and encouraged 
secret societies here for the organization of the negroes, 
and all that part of the white population who are willing 
to buy favor by fawning, who are bound by oath to vote 
only for the nominees of such societies. 

When the whites see all the iiegToes and a fcAV time 
serving whites, headed by Holden and other base men, 
formed into a coalition devised and carried out by the 
jSTorth, with the aid of the military, to give political as- 
cendency to the negro race, it naturally produces hostility 

1064 ]S[oKTH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

between races and hatred toward the faction whicli tram- 
ples on all the manhood of the Sonth. Those who most 
steadily adhered to the Union throughout the w^ar believ- 
ing the object of the North was to uphold the Constitution 
and the Union, when they now find, even by the declara- 
tion of the acknowledged leader of Congress, that they are 
legislating regardless of the Constitution ; — When he is 
blind, w^ho does not see that the dominant powder is keeping 
the Union dissolved, in order to maintain party ascendancy, 
intense hatred towards those who thus act towards us, 
is the consequence with all save the most ignorant — 
and the hypocrites who hope to control the country by 
fawning to the negroes and our oppressors. The natural 
consequence of the action of Congress is to generate and 
intensify sectional hatred and hostility between the blacks 
and wdiites. 

The manifest result of Congressional legislation, in- 
volves the keeping up in Souther States an enormous 
army, to the overthrow of civil liberty and the impoverish- 
ment of the wdiole nation — and the ultimate extermination 
of the white or black race of the South. 

The democrats of the ISTorth now wear the livery of the 
old Whig party. Their watch-words are the Constitution 
and the Union — Reduction of the standing army and the 
expenses of the Government — not restoration of the Union 
by efforts to restore us to the Union by magnanimous for- 
bearance and lenity — the Union not resting on the sv^ord, 
but national fraternity. The great Union element of the 
South was the old Whig party. This party abhorred De- 
mocracy and Abolition as disunion elements. We now find 
the only consistent advocates of the Constitution and the 
Union act under the name of Democrats. 

Consequences are very obvious. All good and intelli- 
gent men here say little or nothing. They know they are 
under "a grinding military despotism : that personal security 
imposes silence or hypocritical obedience to despotic power, 
but there are few who do not regard our rulers as guided 
by the spirit of the Father of all Evil. 

Coeeespojstdence of Jonathan AVoeth. 1065 

All fools, etc., know that the government we are re- 
qnired to establish bv the late acts of Congress, based on 
universal negro suffrage and the disfranchisement of the 
most intelligent whites, cannot stand or must result in 
turning these States into negro colonies — but the voting 
power, as arranged bv Congress, will probably result in 
the adoption of this horrible monstrosity. 

I regard this hastily wriiten communication as entirely 
persoual. It is a calm impression of my conscientious 
sentiments — but I live under a reign of terror and deem it 
unsafe and unprofitable to publish my convictions. 

I heartily abhorred Secessionism and abolitionism — as 
equally tending and intended to break up the Union. My 
views have undergone no change : but I now regard Re- 
publicanism, as exhibited by the action of Congress, as 
equally Devilish, and infinitely meaner than either of those 
old disunion parties. 

At the close of the war my negroes, able to make a liv- 
ing, excej)t Steve, to whom I have paid regular wages, left 
me. A negro woman aged about 35 with two boys — one 
about 13 and one about 11 — and one girl about 7 or 8 — 
Aunt Lizzie, who has been blind for some 20 years re- 
mained with me. They have been an inconvenient burden 
to me. 

The woman is honest — healthy — a good cook and 
washer — of excellent temper. Her children all healthy 
and smart — and the labor of the family properly directed, 
ought to be more than equal to their support — but situated 
as I am, they are and have been ever since I owned them, 
a burden to me — but I have felt unwilling to cast j^oor . 
Lizzie and the rest of them upon the world. And the 
boys are reaching an age when they will acquire bad habits 
if not governed. "With a Freedmen's bureau here the 
necessary discipline cannot be used here to bring them up 
so as to be useful men. The woman has no tact to gov- 
ern the boys, or to make a living, if turned loose to look 
out for herself. ISTo sensible man will take a negro appren- 

1066 XoETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

tice while an arbitrary tribunal exists here before which 
he is liable to be suirmoned and the indentures can be 
called at the pleasure of some contemptible autocrat. 

I called on the Chief of the Freednian's bureau a day 
or two ago and made a representation of these facts. He 
agreed to accept Lizzie in his hospital here — and advised 
me if I could get some responsible person in your State 
or other JSTorthern States to agree to look out homes and 
employment for the woman and children, he would send 
them at the ex]3ense of the government to such person. If 
you will assume the commission of receiving and looking 
out for them, I will immediately send them, if I can get 
their consent to go. I think I can prevail on them to go. 
What say you ? 

Dr. Roberts who married Corinna with their children 
are living with us. He is in failing health — consumption 
— and I fear will never recover. He has no property. 
Koxana, with little left save her land, and surrounded with 
vast numbers of lazy, thriving negroes, can't make her 
land support her and educate her children respectably. I 
shall have to aid her while I live. AYith these burdens on 
my income I must be economical. 

The legislation of Congress, establishing the political 
ascendency of the negro, repels all immigration from here 
except from Africa and hence we can't sell our lands — 
otherwise few discreet white persons would remain. If 
it were possible for me to sell Eoxana's lands for half 
what they were worth at the beginning of the war, I 
should urge her to sell out and remove to the West. 
EcoAro:MY^ Indiana. 

To William A. Graham. 

Oct. 28 1867. 
The Reconstruc- I heartily coucur in your late letter touching the acts 

tion acts. tj J o 

falsely called Reconstruction. It is incomprehensible to 
me how anybody not willing to give to every male negro 


above 21 years old the Constitutional right to vote; and 
not willing to adopt the Howard Amendment, can vote 
"for Convention" : but the only chance to defeat the call, 
if there be any, is by unanimous non-voting for or against 
Convention, by those who would defeat it. In this way 
I am by no means certain that a majority of all the regis- 
tered voters could be had. 

I deem it inexpedient, if not unjust to the people, to 
give publicity to this opinion. It Avould doubtless result 
in my removal and the appointment of a Eadical Govr — 
and would thus be to alarm the people and to increase 
rather than diminish, the anti Convention vote. 


From David G. Worth. 
Wilmington, N. C. Oct. 28th 1867. 
Tour two letters of 24th, 25th have been reed. I thank 
you for answers to my questions about Convention. The 
Journal does not seem to me very decided as to what 
course to take. I think it favors the idea of bringing all 
the force possible to bear against Convention and not let- 
ting it go by default. If you could only with safety speak 
out your views they would have a powerful influence but 
on the whole it must be most politic and advisable that you 
keep silent. The people here seem cowed — or at least hope- 
less of success and therefore are not exerting themselves. 

The Str. ''Gov. Worth" will leave here on Monday the 
11th of ISTovr. — she can leave very early in the morning 
and reach Fayetteville early Tuesday morning which will 
suit you precisely. You had better come down Saturday 
and stay with Sunday. Can't Ma come with you, or in 
advance of you. We should like so much to have her with 
us now. We are all very well. We have had a most 
severe rain and wind storm today. It has continued since 
9 o'clock this mornino; till now 5 o'clock P. M. 

1068 ISToKTH Cakoliista Historical Commission. 

I am very glad to hear of D. Robert's improved condi- 
tion. ]\'ruch love to all. 

To James TF. shorn. 

Oct. 29 1867. 
Personal and Confidential. 

Reconstruction. ^'^.7 pi'ivate See. has answered the business portion of yr. 

letter. In relation to yr. observations tonching the meas- 
ures falsely denominated re-constrnction measures I deem 
it unjust to those who supported me for my present posi- 
tion, to make a public avowal of my views. I believe 
these acts to be in violation of the Constitution of the U. 
S., wdiich, independent of my repeated oaths to support it, 
I regard as furnishing the best basis of good government 
which can be devised. 

I regard a vote for the proposed Convention as endorsing 
universal negro suffrage, and the Howard amendment — 
which I regard as basing government on the ignorance in- 
stead of the intelligence of the governing power. This I 
regard as wrong, per se, and I hold that it is never expe- 
dient to do wrong. If I had a vote, which is denied me, 
I would vote for delegates in order to mitigate the evil of 
such a Convention — and as the most effectual way to ex- 
press my disapprobation of the whole scheme, I would not 
vote for or against Convention. 

This is giving you frankly (but confidentially) my de- 
cided convictions. I have not leisure to discuss the sub- 
ject more fully. 

It seems to me positively humiliating for a I^orth Caro- 
lina white man to vote for a Convention which must estab- 
lish universal negro suffrage — and which expressly con- 
templates the adoption of the disfranchising Howard 
amendment as an indispensable preliminary to allowing us 
a representation in Congress by teste oath men. 


Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 

From Benjamm Asl-ew to Sion H. Fiogers. 
Trenton Jones County X. C. Oct. 30 1867. 
The Military authorities having removed the Sheriff of 
the County from office and appointed another one in his 
place vrhose bond has not been accepted by the magistrates 
of the County, on the grounds of insufficiency and the 
absence of one obligor to said bonds to acknowledge the 
execution of the same by him. I have since been directed 
and ordered by the Military authorities at Xewbern to re- 
ceive said bonds, file the same and qualify the new ap- 
pointee notwithstanding its non-acceptance by the Court. 
There is no probate on the bonds or any revenue stamps 
or any evidence of its acceptance. The Chairman of the 
Court declines to put his probate upon it. Please inform 
me if the Clerk can deliver it to the Public Registry in its 
present shape and advise me what further action to take 
in the premises. 


To John H. Wheeler. 

PtALEIGH, Oct. 31/67. 
I am having the statistics collected which you desire for The military 

. ^-... ,. -f^. ,' -V-- ^1 ,> government. 

your second edition oi your Piistory oi J:-,. C. irom au- 
thentic sources and will endeavor in a few days to forward 
to you a full compliance with your requests. 

Our condition has been in no respects bettered by the 
substitution of Genl. C. for Geiil. S. He continues to en- 
large the iniquitous code which S. inflicted on ns. He 
has not revoked a single one of the edicts of S. so far as I 
can remember. He has modified some of them by making 
them more objectionable. He continues his military courts 
to try civilians — arresting' and carrvins- them to Charles- 
ton for trial wdthout any preliminary investigations, to the 
utter ruin generally of the section. The protractive char- 
acter of these military trials makes them so expensive to 

1070 JSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

the accused, that few get through them "vvith any subsist- 
ence left. There is no just pretext for the holding of these 
Courts to try civilians. ISTo honorable Yankee officer- — 
not even Holden — can pretend that justice is not impar- 
tially administered in our Supr. Courts. It is masked 
malevolent oj^pressive. C. has lately allowed the accused 
to give bail in cases bailable by our laws, but by strange 
conditions in the bail bond, he has made it difficult to com- 
j)ly with his requirements. ISTo one knows at what hour 
he may be arrested, for some pretended offence, not made 
known to him and without preliminary trial, and impris- 
oned in a military fortress. S. began this — C. continues it. 

S. created at Fayetteville what he denominated a Pro- 
vost Court — with jurisdiction to try all suits in five coun- 
ties, civil and criminal — not extending to life — appointed 
three mechanics no one of whom was a justice of the peace, 
much less a lawyer, to preside over this Court with a salary 
■ of $4. per day to he paid out of the fines they should im- 
pose. Such a characture upon justice has not been heard 
of since Sancho Panza's day. C. continues this mon- 
strosity — having somewhat curtailed its jurisdiction. S. 
required every body, white and black, who had paid a poll 
tax this year, to be put on the lists and. juries drawn there- 
from, leaving the Court no power to purge the lists by 
casting out either the ignorant or the inferiors : C. has 
amended this by some power to purge the lists, but has 
made the edict far worse by disqualifying all unregistered 
persons to serve on juries. Trial by juries thus composed 
is worse than a farce. It would have been better to have 
abolished trial by jury. In an interview I lately had with 
the General, expressing urgent remonstrance against ex- 
cluding unregistered men, he promised to limit his order 
so as to allow them to be be sworn, reserving the right of 
challenge to either party. In his revised order received 
last night he has not made the promised change. 

He is continually announcing the removal of justices 
of the peace, shffs and even constables upon ex parte 


charges, not made known to tlie accused, and filling the 
vacancies without any reference to the will of those among 
whom the officers are to serve. 

Mj acquaintance wdth General Canbj makes me regard 
him favorably as a candid, unostentatious man, but I 
think he is, from convictions, an extreme Radical and he 
consequently executes the legislation of the Congress, not 
simply from a sense of administrative duty, but from be- 
lief that such legislation is wise, just and constitutional. I 
regard him as incapable of the magnanimous and 
statesmanlike views expressed by Genl S. in his late to 
Trumbull — but I do not believe, when he leaves us, that he 
will slander us as S. has in his late speeches by an entire 
disregard of truth. In two cases which he has cited to 
show the necessity of keeping up military government here, 
the Johnson case and the case of whipj^ing a negro woman, 
he has wilfully and ignobly perverted the facts. 

This hastily written letter is called forth by your in- 
quiries. You must regard it as strictly personal and con- 
fidential. I do not deem it just to those who placed me 
in my present honorable position to bring about my re- 
moval and the substitution of Holden or other vindictive 
Radicals, which I suppose would be the result of the pub- 
lication of this letter. I should feel no personal grief at 
such a result, but do not feel that I would be justified in 
publishing views which would be likely to bring about 
such result, and which would not be likely to do any good. 

We live under an unmitigated despotism. The adop- 
tion of the Congressional plan, falsely called, reconstruc- 
tion, would but fasten this despotism on us and bring on 
ourselves self-degradation. • 

As the President no doubt thinks he mitigated our 
troubles by the substitution of Canby for Sickles, I have 
no objection that he see this letter. Beyond this let it be 
regarded as strictly confidential. 

I see no hope for the future save in the returning sense 
of patriotism and justice on the part of our conquerors. 

1072 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

The nation is now divided into conquerors and conquered^ 
and tlie vanquished are at the merc^^ of those who hold the 

Wasiiik'gtojNt, D. C. 

To Henry T. Claris. 

Nov. 2 1867. 
Jury regulations. Since the ili'st movement bv Genl. Sickles proscribing 
a mode of drawing juries, the effect of which as I con- 
ceived would be to make trial by jury a farce, I have been 
in correspondence with the generals in command, using 
my utmost efforts to get modifications of the orders, which 
would make them more tolerable. Genl. S's order l^o. 32 
required the drawing of the jury from the list of tax-payers 
this year — without allowing the Court before drawing, to 
purge the list, by casting out the infamous, or deaf or 
blind or idiots and others manifestly unfit to serve. 

Genl. Cauby, by his order No. 89, modified No. 32, by 
inserting the words "'and who are qualified" and he au- 
thorised me to say to the Courts that he means by these 
words to authorise the Courts to purge the lists of tax- 
payers, before drawing, by casting out the names of such 
persons as they may deem "unfit to serve as jurors. Of 
course he could not sustain any interpretation that all ne- 
groes are "unfit," but it will enable you to cast out the 
vicious and grossly ignorant and others physically unable 
to serve. But Genl. Canby's order No. 89, as I under- 
stand it would exclude from the list all tax-payers not 
• registered as voters. I insisted that the Courts could not 
comply with this order until they were furnished with a 
certified copy of the Registration books — and that I 
thought the fact that a citizen, denied the right to vote for 
a political object, should [not ?] be held so contaminated, as 
to be unfit to be a juror. His last order No. 109, a copy of 
which I herewith enclose, I understand as not requiring 


the unregistered voter to be excluded from the list, but 
after he shall have been drawn and put on the jury, gives 
the right of challenge to each of the parties. The order 
seems to me to be absolutely expressed, but I have written 
the General that this is my interpretation : and not having 
heard from him, dissenting to this interpretation, your 
Conrt may act on it. 

I am prevented by extreme pressure of urgent business 
from replying to the other portion of your letter. I would 
gladly do so if I had time. I can only say now that I 
am firmly convinced that I acted judicially and properly 
in the matter to which you refer and that I feel confident, 
when I shall see you or find leisure to write a long letter, 
I shall convince you that my action in the matter ought 
not to diminish the confidence and regard you have hitherto 
felt for me and which I so highly appreciate. 


To Jolin ^Y. Ilaughton. 

Nov. 2 IS 67. 

I have reed and forwarded to Genl. Canby the petition 
of the Sheriff of Jones with my favorable endorsement — 
but whei'e a remo^'al is made upon a secret ex-parte repre- 
sentation, I need not say to you that there is little hope of 
redress. The maxim of justice that a party accused 
should never be convicted unheard is well understood by 
all men, whether rendered familiar with the administra- 
tion of justice by practice or not. 

jSTew Been. 

To Z. B. Vance. 

Ealeigh Nov. 3/67. 
I have urged upon Judge Gilmer to go to Charlotte, 
even if he could not get there till the train would carry 
him down on Saturday. • 
Vol. 2—27 

1074 ISFoRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Since I saw you I liave received from Genl. Canby the 
petition of your firm — Vance & Dowd — in behalf of cer- 
tain of your clients who have claims against the W. C. 
& R. E. R. Co., substantially asking his interposition for 
the relief on your clients on the ground that our laws, as in- 
terpreted by our Justices, would not render justice to 
your clients — and therefore asking in their behalf the in- 
terposition of the military Commandant of District 'No. 2. 
I had hoped that gentlemen of the bar would not have 
asked of the military despotism now ruling over us, any 
thing more than non-interference with our laws and their 
administration by our Courts. 

My answer to Genl. Canby compliments Capt. Inzalla 
for his intelligent commentary upon your application, and 
refusal to comply with the prayers of your petition. 


To J. M. Coffin. 

Nov. 6, 1867. 

I am overjoyed at the election issues. It aifords rea- 
sonable hope that we are not to be driven into barbarism 
and will tend powerfully to restore friendly relations 
again between the North and the South. Of all the par- 
ties the Devil has ever set up to afflict good men, he has 
brought his work nearest to perfection in the present Re- 
publican party. 


To R. Y. McAden. 

RaleiCxH, Nov. 8/67. 

;al will be elected fr( 
Alamance unless you consent to be a candidate. If this 

Urging him to be From all I can learn a Radical will be elected from 

a caiiaidate. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1075 

be so, I trust I need not urge you to run. Personal as 
well as patriotic considerations should urge you to run. 

I do not suppose that ultra Holden Radicals have the 
ascendant in Alamance, but there is but a shade of differ- 
ence between the moderate and the ultra Republicans. I 
regard the former as the more dangerous. The extrava- 
gance of the ultra defeat their designs. The moderate go 
for re-construction on the Congressional plan — to-wit, uni- 
versal negro suffrage — the ratification of the Howard 
amendment of the Constitution — and the teste oath as 
qualification for office. Once get these provisions inserted 
in the fundamental law, so that they can only be expunged 

by the concurrence of a large part of the negro vote 

Universal negro suffrage is utter ruin to the South. 

I hope you will run. As my affidavit may be necessary 
that Holt has paid me nothing I think I will go up on 
Thursday of your Court and accept your invitation to be 
your guest. 


To General E. B. S. Canly. 

Raleigh Nov. 8th 1867. 
I enclose copy of a communication from the Chairman 
of' Jones County Court sent thro me to the Attorney Gen-' 

I do not perceive that the opinion of the Attorney Gen- 
eral can be of any importance to the writer and send a 
copy of this to you in order to bring the facts, as stated 
by ]\lr. Whitaker to your attention for such action as you 
may deem expedient — respectfully suggesting that unless 
there be very cogent reasons to the contrary, the old Sheriff 
ought to be allowed to complete the collection of taxes due 
on the lists in his hands at the time of his removal. 

1076 ]^[oETPi Carolina Historical Commission. 

From Joshua Boner. 

Salem, ^. C. Novemher 8th 1867. 

A little matter turned up today of so trifling a nature, 
yet of interest enough, to awaken the inquiry, "Is it 
right ?" The Revenue Collector John Worth appeared at 
the Court House this day to collect revenue-tax; and as I 
had failed to appear there some time heretofore, (simply 
because I had no notice of it) I found a note on my table 
notifying me that the tax of $1.00 had increased to the 
amount of $3.70 ! ! ! The old assessor Dr. Johnson had 
promised me to pay this tax, and consequently I spoke to 
Mr. Worth ; and when I called on him this day he actu- 
ally collected out of me and others of this community the 
additional tax of $3.70 ! ! My object in drawing your at- 
tention to this subject is, to inquire if the $2.60 for mile- 
age is according 'Ho Laiv f I paid 64 mileage ! As 
there are several of us interested in this matter, I beg 
leave to put this inquiry to you. 

From Joshua Boner. 

Salem, Nov. 9th 1867. 
Concerning It HOW turiis up, that the Revenue Collector, on yester- 

revenue matters. ^ ^ 

day made one person pay 10 cts. for ISFotice given, and 
another he charged 40 cts. for jSTotice given ; and, on in- 
quiry being made why the difference, he said that the one 
notice was sent by mail, and the other was sent by his 
agent! Why is it, that not all persons were not notified 
through the mail. His sight must be very defective, as 
he mistook 15 cts. for so many dollars and actually 
charged it as such ; but, when notified of this fact, he cor- 
rected the mistake. And why is it, that our citizens, who 
are industriously working and staying at home, and are 
desirous of doing right, whenever they ask for information 
from "Government Officials," are always receiving the an- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth, 1077 

swer "that tliej don't know" ! ! and are at last saddled with 
unnecessary costs, and then differences made, as stated 

Do not these oiRcers get a regular salary ; or do they de- 
pend upon these extra costs for their salaries ? If money 
were flusli these things might be permitted to pass un- 
noticed ; but in our times, when our people are hard run 
for funds, such gross irregularities, are out of tone and 
out of time. 

Again: One party on yesterday was charged $2.76 
and another 20 cents ; and these two cases were perfectly 
identical, and were in one man's hand, though the fact 
was not kno^^ui to the officer. jSTow my dear Governor, 
the case just cited was Dr. T. F. Keelit, who took into his 
hands his "brother-in-law's case," simply because he found 
his brother-in-law was only charged with 20 cents! I 
appeal to you, respected sir, to have this gross injustice 
done our citizens looJced info and righted, if it be possi- 
ble ! 

I will not say who ought to be held responsible for this 
outrage ; but I feel convinced that this matter is instigated 
hy an enemy to you, and one who is kno^vn here, "as a 
radical !'" 

If you can do anything for us, dear Governor, it would 
be received with thousand thanks by all who are opposed to 
the theory of negro-equality I 

To J. M. ^Yo^th. 

Nov. 21, 1867. 
The sale of the Swamp lands to a Northern Co. is con- Saie of the swamp 

T ■ 1 m lauds. 

ditional. Ihey have 60 days to affirm or reject the terms. 
I regard it as very uncertain whether it will be confirmed 
•or not. 

1078 North Cakolhsta Historical Commission. 

The more I learii about the W. O. Swamp the more am 
I convinced that the purchase, on the terms we offer, 
would be a magnificent enterprise, if our ■political troubles 
were settled — but while they remain unsettled I have 
felt unwilling that you embark in the enterprise. If suc- 
cessful you would have to devote your time and embark 
much of your fortune on the enterprise. If universal 
negro suffrage is to be the basis of our future government, 
then universal hlight must ensue. They have strength 
enough (sufficient numbers) even in I^orth Carolina, with 
the base allies their numbers will bring, to be the ruling 
power. In the present uncertainty I would regret to see 
you invest largely in an enterprise which must rest for 
success on stable and safe government. We are still in 
the midst of Revolution — dependent entirely on the will 
of the dominant North and not a little in danger of a 
war of races. 


To Joshua Boner. 

Nov. 21st, 1867. 
Revenue fees. A temporary absence from home is my excuse for not 

answering yours of the 8th and 9th JSTov. at an earlier 

They involve an inquiry into the fees allowed by acts 
of Congress to collectors of Internal Revenue which would 
require much time — and if such inquiry should result in 
showing that the fees collected were not sustained by law, 
I could do nothing, save by remonstrance, to relieve the 
parties injured. 

I advise you to present the facts to Mr. Starbuck, Dis- 
trict Atto. for the United States. If the fees collected 
exceed in amount what the laws allow, it will be his duty 
to indict the parties exacting such fees. I cannot believe 
he will countenance the exaction of illegal fees from our 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1079 

If YOU should fail to get redress as indicated, I will 
most willingly give you the benefit of any aid I can give 
YOU as Governor of N'orth Carolina, under the existing 
state of affairs. 


To J. 21. Parrott. 

Nov. 22, 1867. 

Have you been able to get corn for me on the cars at $1. 
per bushel ? If it can be had at this price I would like to 
have a car load or any less quantity. I am now fairly out 
of corn. Let we know the prospect at as early a day as 
you can conveniently. 

The little we have heard as to the elections is very hJach 
owing to white voters refusing to vote. 


To James IT. Lea. 

Ealeigh, Nov. 23/67. 
Genl, Canby now sends his orders touching our Courts canbysjury 


to the judges and chm. of the County Courts. His final 
orders, as I understand them, touching the drawing of 
juries, require the Court to make a list of all who paid a 
tax for the year ending Sept. 30/67. Your means of 
ascertaining who has paid such a tax must be the returns 
of the Sheriffs, I presume : — you are allowed before draw- 
ing the jury to purge this list, by casting out of this list, 
before drawing, all those whom you deem unfit to serve 
on account of want of intelligence, no one being rejected 
simply on account of his color. iST on-registered voters are 
not to be excluded from the drawing — but may be chal- 
lenged and put off the jury by either party. The Chair- 
man of the County Courts may call special sessions of 

1080 North Caeolika Historical Commission. 

their Court for this purpose, appointing their own days 
for such call. As the matter has been long postponed, I 
presume the General will expect now prompt action in 
the premises, so that a jury, drawn in conformity with 
these orders, may be ready for next Court. 


From Calvin H. Wiley. 


Greejn-sboro, K C, A^ov. 25 1867. 

Educational Yours of the 21st is to hand. The petition to which 

you refer was handed to you Thursday, the day before we 
adjourned at our last meeting. You were just starting 
home, and I handed it and a letter to the Lit. Board to 
you, simply remarking, that you could read it at your 
leisure. I suppose you and Maj. IT. had concluded to 
wait until you saw Mr. Parrott. ISTo doubt in the multi- 
plicity of your duties, you laid it by and overlooked it. 

I stated my reason, in the letter to the Board, for asking 
the decision now. The more I hear and see the better 
satisfied I am that we have made a great contract. I 
labored hard for it : no one but myself knows how hard. 
I used every influence, writing for the papers, correspond- 
ing, night and day, sending off statistics, etc., etc., except 
when gone ISTorth, I was not on salary and yet I worked 
as hard as if it were my private business ; and I feel that 
I have done something that entitles me to offer my old 
claim for what it is worth. Those efforts and our success 
do not effect the legality of that claim ; but they make me 
feel more disposed to ask for what may be due. I am 
sensitive, and I felt for the school fund and was not dis- 
joosed to offer nij claim when I saw the fund depleting 
tho' that did not aft'ect its justice. 

The mission to IsTew York gave me much trouble. A 
number of persons whom I consulted will tell you I did 
not want to go, first because I was going into a billions at- 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1081 

tack, and secondly because I feared I would be hampered, 
and we would spend money and accomplish little. I went, 
as these persons will tell you, solely on account of your 
confidence in me. We cost the Fund heavily, I lost my 
health, was very sick, and sick sometime after my return. s, 

But I determined to work on on "my own hook," in 
my own way — and the result is before us. I then felt 
free to present my old claim for what it is worth. There 
is a maxim that he who gives quickly gives twice, and if 
anything is due the sooner it comes the greater its bene- 
faction — I believe we have both been as anxious to accu- 
mulate the School Fund as if it were our personal prop- 
erty. I believe if I know myself I would choose per- 
sonal wants before j)nblic privation, and yet there is scrip- 
tural warrant for saying the laborer is worthy of his hire. 
If it were any body else's claim I would believe the Fund 
would be more prosperous to pay it, for in public as in 
private matters, money is not made, in the long run, by 
denying |)ast obligations ; but I cannot trust myself to give 
an opinion about my own. It looks now as if we were 
laying up for squanderers and spoilers ; still this is no 
reason why we should not do our duty. 

From B. S. Hedrich. 

Nov. 26, 67. 
Mr. McPherson says that he wrote you in a letter some 
time ago for additional evidence in Moss's case for back 
pay, bounty, etc. of his son. If that evidence can be fur- 
nished Mr. McPherson thinks the application will be al- 

1082 ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To R. C. Holmes. 

Nov. 27th, 1867. 

Keconl\mVtion ^ approve joiiv action in calling special term of your 

Co. Court on the 3rd. Sat. in January next, — to reform 
your jury lists conformably to orders of Genl. Canby. 

I have earnestly remonstrated against this innovation 
upon our time honored plan of making juries from the 
class, who, by the acquisition of property, proved that 
they had intelligence and interest in the well-being of so- 
ciety. My remonstrances have been effectual only to this 
extent: — You are not required to exclude from the list 
from which the jury is to be drawn the unregistered voter. 
— and from the list of tax-payers you are authorised to 
purge, before drawing those clearly unfit to serve on ac- 
count of want of intelligence. You are not to assume that 
all negroes are unfit but you may exclude those who are 
deficient in ordinary intelligence or degraded by moral 

I participate with you in abhorrence in a line of policy 
which proposes to base government on ignorance, instead 
of intelligence, and which substitutes ability to pay a tax 
as a better teste of fitness to serve on a jury than the pos- 
session of a freehold — but as a conquered people there is 
no degradation in submitting to the power of the bayonet 
and obeying edicts we have no power to resist. 

I am now, as always, anxious to see fraternal Union re- 
stored on the basis of the Constitution of the United States 
• — as interpreted by the Judiciary. 


To General Canby. 

Nov. 27, 1867. 

Mr. ISTicholas M'^illiams, the writer of the within letter, 
sets forth truly the facts on which he bases his petition. 
He is an old, law-abiding and highly respected citizen of 


the State. His residence is in Yadkin County, so remote 
from transportation by water or Rail that the surjolus 
grain made by him and his neighbors, cannot be made 
available to relieve the eastern part of the State where the 
grain crop this year is most deficient. 

If yon propose to allow any whfskey to be made in the 
State, I think the privilege should be granted to Mr. 

Cjiaeleston, S. C. 

To Ralph P. Buxton. 

Nov. 27, 1867. 

I had contemjDlated assigning you to hold the special 
terms ordered for Cumberland and Sampson — and Judge 
Barnes to hold the special terms ordered for Halifax and 
Wake. The Court at Halifax is ordered for 1 Monday 
of January next. I am informed that Judge Barnes was 
counsel in many of the important suits in Halifax, and 
such is probably the case as to yourself in Cumberland. 
I now propose to assign Halifax to you and Cumberland 
to Judge Barnes. How will this suit you ? I have im- 
posed on judges Warren and Gilliam so many extra terms 
that each of them vehemently remonstrates against being 
appointed for another. Judge Fowle informs me he pro- 
poses to resign very soon, and therefore asks to be ex- 
cused. Judge I^ittle's health forbids his appointment to 
hold any special Term. Judges Shipp and Mitchell have 
been assigned to hold the special terms of Union and 
Mecklenburg, and if any other special terms in the West 
have been ordered, I shall nominate them to hold them. 


1084 jNoeth Carolina Historical Commissiojst. 

To Thos. J. Wilson, J. 21. Leach, J. ^Y. Alspaugh, J. 
Masten, Jno. H. Welborn. 

Dec. J^, 1867. 

Yours of 2ncl inst. reed. I most eorclially thank you for 
your suggestion. If I (^an be assured that Mr. Poindexter 
will agree to accept, I shall most gladly nominate him as 
a judge to fill vacancy on the bench or otherwise every in- 
fluence I can in favor of his appointment. Let me know, 
at as early a day as possible, after actual assurance from 
him, whether he will accept or not. 


To R. P. Did: 

Kaleigh, Dec. 13/67. 

I left here last Saturday morning before the delivery of 
the mail and returned last night and find yours of the 7th 

I learn that in the mean time the General commanding 
has discontinued the Post at Greensboro and I suppose 
any interference now (especially on my part) would do 
no good. He did not coimnunicate with me touching the 
proposed change. If however you think I can serve you 
or Major Worth I will gladly do so. 
Military arrests. I lately complaiiied to the Prest. of the arrest of the 

Shff of Caswell and other military arrests, there being no 
preliminary trial in which the accused was allowed to 
confront his accuse,rs and submit counter testimony. I 
called these arrests and trials before Court martial, when 
nobody pretends that fair trial may not be had in any of 
our Supr Courts of law, "iniquitous and oppressive." I 
averred that the arrest of Griffin was made, as I was in- 
formed, at the instance of "one Tourgee and Johnson, both 
men of most detestable character." My interference and 
account of the character of these two "patriots," as the 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1085 

General regards them, has involved me in nnpleasant cor- 
respondence — and I am persuaded a letter from Tourgee 
to the General will receive much more favorable considera- 
tion than one from me. Canby is more tyrannical and 
has less intelligence and consideration for our people, than 
his predecessor. 

To C. P. MendenJiaJl B. P. Did', J. A. Gilmer, Thomas 
Settle, II. C. Worth. 

Kaleigh, Dec. lJ^/67. 
I have felt it my duty more than once to protest against Military arrests. 
the seizure of our citizens — their imprisoimient in places 
distant from their homes without any preliminary inves- 
tigation in which the accused was informed of the accusa- 
tions and permitted to confront his accusers and offer ex- 
culpatory evidence — And I have also conscientiously in- 
sisted that the civil authorities of the State were now as 
competent and ready as they ever were to arrest and pun- 
ish malefactors without the aid of military posts and trials 
before Court martials. I lately protested both to the 
Prest. and Genl. Canby at the recent instance of the trans- 
portation of the Shff. of Caswell to Charleston for trial 
before a Court Martial upon the complaint of Tourgee and 
Johnson, whom I characterise as men of "most detestable 
character. In my letter to the Prest. I characterised 
these proceedings as "iniquitous oppression. Genl. C. 
says he does not accept ,my account of the characters of 
Tourgee and Johnson. He labors to show that they are 
both patriots — and expresses his conviction that Johnson 
was convicted not for the reason that he had been guilty 
of the charge, but because he had been a Union soldier. 
He avers that these military arrests and trials are neces- 
sary on account of the leaning of our Courts in favor of 
rebels and against Jmion men. 

1086 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Tour petition is based oii the idea that the continuance of 
a standing army as strong as is necessary for the preserva- 
tion of good order. I am far from concurring with you: 
and can give your petition no endorsement implying my 
concurrence ; besides I have good reason to believe that the 
endorsement of Tourgee and Johnson would receive from 
Genl. Canby more consideration than mine. 

With anxious desire to do any thing to oblige each of 
you, I am neverthe less constrained for the reasons cited 
to decline to do more than to vouch for your being men 
alike distinguished for intelligence and patriotism and 
your views entitled to very great consideration. 

To John McKay. 

Raleigh, Dec. lJf/67. 

I learn from Eoxana who is with us, that you recently 
told her you might possibly find time to rent out for her 
her lands and mills, and to otherwise advise as to the man- 
agement of her concerns. She and I will be inexpressedly 
obliged to you if you will do so. As it would probably re- 
quire several days of your time, I would most willingly 
compensate you, either by doing for you some thing in my 
power and having my son to transact for you in Wilming- 
ton without commission, any business you may have there 
■ — or paying you a liberal compensation in cash. 

On a matter of this sort I have much more confidence 
in your judgment than I have in my own or my son's, and 
both of us are so confined to our business that we can't 
spare time to give her business proper attention. 

If you can be induced to give her your aid it will be 
necessary that you visit all three of her farms, in order 
to see there actual condition — and I have no suggestion to 
make, save only that you exercise the fullest discretion. 

From the impossibility of her watching over her hogs 


I think it Avill be better that she keep not more than one 
breeding sow — considering the number constantly stolen 
from her I am satisfied she had better buv her pork. 

I am confident too that she had better rent ont her mills 
and cotton gin, to some suitable man, she supplying the 
logs and the party renting receiving his compensation for 
his services in an equitable j)art of the products. 

There is a very fertile swamp on the McLaurin place 
and another on the Swamps place — both under fence — 
which could be easily drained. It would be well to get 
the tenants to bring these into cultivation, giving him all 
they should produce for two or three years — ^but if you 
will contract the parties and advise her, I have more con- 
fidence in your judgment than in my own, and whatever 
you do will be approved. Will you undertake it ? If 
you Avill please give your attention to it, at your earliest 

To J. A. 

Raleigh, Dec. 15th, 1867. 

In the letter of the 12th inst. addressed to me by your- xeed of military 
self and others you ask me to use your influence with 
Genl. Canby to retain the troops at Greensboro, then sta- 
tioned there. You say "the conduct of the officers and 
men has been exemplary and we believe every good citi- 
zen feels in their presence a greater security both in per- 
son and property. They are a powerful police force and 
a terror only to evil doers." 

If this be so, then the blessing of military government, 
in preference to civil government, should be greatly ex- 
tended ; and the preamble to the reconstruction act truly 
recites that such a state of lawlessness exists in ISTorth 
Carolina, that military government was required for the 
preservation of order. I am very far from concurring in 
this doctrine. I would eladlv see everv soldier removed 

1088 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

from the State, and the armj reduced every where, and 
therefore cannot endorse yonr petition. 

To D. G. McEae. 

Raleigh, Dec. 16/67. 

Please inform me by return mail as accurately as you 
can at what date you were arrested — how long confined at 
Ft. Macon — on what day the Court convened in Raleigh 
for your trial, and on what day you were discharged. 

I am required by the Prest. to give him a written his- 
tory of this trial, which I presume he intends to publish 
and I wish to be very accurate. 

Do you know at what date the evidence was closed on 
the whole case ? 

If I refer to Avery's falling out with you and his 
threats, can you establish the facts if he deny your state- 
ment. Will you give me a brief statement as to his dis- 
pleasure against you and his threats ? I wish an answer 

To the Chairman of the County Court of Jones. 

Raleigi-i, Dec. 16/67. 
Has any thing further been done since you wrote me 
touching the newly appointed Shff's. giving a bond ? If 
so, what has been done ? Are the tax lists in the hands 
of the newly appointed ? Please write me at your earliest 
convenience what has been done in the matter since you 
last wrote me. 

CoRKESPOisrDEisrcE OF Jonathan Worth. 1089 

To Mr. PhUjJot. 

Rat.eigh, Dec. IStli, 1867. 
I find that in the military Conrt Henderson Cooper was case of Henderson 

■^ Cooper. 

arraigned and tried on two charges — 

1. "Assault and battery with intent to commit a rape." 

2. "Aiding and abetting the commission of a rape." 
Was he indicted in this form in your Court ? Please 

see the indictment and let me know. 

I had got the impression that the proof made by Mrs. 
Daniels was that each of the negroes in the presence of 
her daughter had committed rape on her ? Am I mis- 
taken as to her testimony ? Please answer promptly. 


To Thomas Wilcox. 

Raleigh^ Dec. 18/67. 

^Vill you oblige me by writing me without delay, giving 
me any information you have as to the causes for your re- 
moval — and of the removal of 17 Justices of your County. 
When did O. P. Colgrave settle in Jones ? Where did he 
come from ? Is T). D. Colgrave his brother ? When did 
he settle in Jones ? Does either of them own real or 
other estate in Jones which is unincumbered ? Has O. 
R. Colgrave given bond, approved by the County Court. 
If so, who are the sureties and what do you know as to 
the sufficiency of the bond ? Were you required to sur- 
render your tax lists to O. P. ColgTave ? Have you sur- 
rendered them to him ? — and any thing else tending to ex- 
plain this wholesale removal and the appointment of so 
many new Justices. I may want to publich your state- 
ment or the substance of it. 

An early answer will much oblige. 


Vol. 2—28 

1090 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Thomas H. Gilliam. 

Ealeigh, Dec. 19/67. 

Military arrests. Genl. Caiibj ill a letter to Genl. Grant, by way of vin- 

dicating himself for the arrest and detention of six of 
your citizens, charged as having rescued Pratt, and of 
assailing me for complaining of the arrest, asserts that 
"the arrests were made upon the application of the Shff 
of Chowan County, based on the affidavits of the jailor 
and his wife as to the forcible rescue. The prisoners were 
sent to Ft. Macon for safe keeping until the civil authori- 
ties were prepared to try them and the commanding officer 
of that Post was directed to admit them to bail, if suitable 
bail was offered. I have more than once in years past 
and before there was any serious question of rebellion 
committed the same act of m,ilitary despotism. As the 
commander of a military post and at the request of the 
civil authorities I have deemed the arrest of criminals and 
as an act of comity and of public duty, held them in my 
guard house until the proper civil authorities were pre- 
pared to take charge of them." 

This statement is so variant from all the versions of the 
affair which have been made to me, and so completely 
emancipates the military, that it is made the occasion of 
taunting me for ajaplying to it the terms "military despot- 
ism" in a communication I made to the Prest. I am 
placed on the defensive and am preparing for the Prest. 
which I have reason to believe will be published, a com- 
munication that will justify my language. 

I have the certificate of the ShfP. of Chowan positively 
denying that he asked for the arrest of any of these men — 
and the affidavit of the jailor proving the rescue, but not 
pretending to identify the persons who committed it. 
What I now want is a certificate from one or more of the 
parties arrested on the following points. 

AVere the prisoners apprised upon whose evidence they 
were arrested and detained ? 


Was any effort made to procure their release on bail ? 
If so, why did the effort fail ? 

Plow long were tliev detained ? Were they j)ut to work, 
as has been reported ? 

Especially were they discharged on bail or their own 
recognizance to appear before any tribunal — if so, what 
tribunal and at what time ? And any other facts tending . 
to show that this was an act of "military despotism" and 
not an act of comity to the civil authorities. 

My efforts to preserve some semblance of civil liberty 
have riled Genl Canby and I trust you will willingly put 
yourself to some trouble to aid me in my defence and in 
carrying the war into Africa. 

I shall address the communication I am making touch- 
ing this and other aggressions, to the Prest. at his request, 
who will probably cause its publication, that the ISTorth, 
now awakening to a sense of Justice, may see that their 
re-construction schemes are working. 

[P. S.] Let me have answer at the earliest practicable 


William H. Bagley to General E. B. 8. Canby. 

December 25tk, 1867. 

Your letter of the 20th inst. to the Governor, requesting Election returns, 
to be furnished "with a statement of the aggregate vote 
cast at the election held in the early part of the Summer 
of 1865, for the election of delegates to Convention to 
frame a constitution for l^orth Carolina," has been re- 

Under the Prov. Governor's Proclamation the returns 
of the vote for delegates were ordered to be sent to the 
Secretary of State, and also to the President of the Con- 


vention. I have searched the Journals of the Conveution 
and can find no record of the vote v^^hatever. I find 
in the Secretary of State's ofiice returns of the vote for 
seventy-one (71) Counties, leaving eighteen (18) not re- 
ported. At that time business in the Secretary's office 
was conducted in a very loose and irregular maimer, 
which, I think, accounts for the unreported counties. If 
these incomplete returns will be of service to you, they 
will be copied and forwarded to your address. 

After the Convention had met and acted, the Ordi- 
nances, abolishing slavery, and declaring the Secession 
Ordinance (of 1861) null and void, were submitted to 
the people, and the aggregate vote of the several counties 
upon these questions, can be obtained. This vote, how- 
ever, is exceedingly small and would serve as an indica- 
tion of nothing but the disposition of the people to leave 
politics alone, and attend to their deranged personal affairs. 
If you should desire this vote, the Governor will cause a 
copy to be furnished you, or if the incomplete returns of 
the special vote referred to in your letter will serve you, 
a copj will be forwarded on notice. 

Indisposition has prevented the Governor from answer- 
ing your letter himself. 

Chaeleston, S. C. 

To General Eohert 0. Tyler. 

Kat.eicxH, Dec. 26, 1867. 

Presuming on the kindness and courtesy which you ex- 
hibited towards me when in Charleston I venture to ask a 
favor of you. 

By the laws of this State the Governor is entitled to a 
fixed salary and a furnished mansion, no perquisites or 
contingent fund. When I was installed as Governor nearly 
all the furniture had disappeared, and the mansion pro- 
vided for the Governor was occupied by the military. The 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1093 

Geiil. Asseniblv nominally raised the salary, but in 
view of the depreciation of the currency it was not made 
equivalent to the salary allowed the Govr, before the war ; 
no ajDj^ropriation was made to supply furniture till the 
last session. The repairs on the lot and buildings have 
been so considerable that I have not yet got it in habitable 
condition. At the last session of the Genl. Assembly a 
resolution was passed authorizing me to ask the U. S. to 
allow rent for the occupation of the Governor's mansion, 
and authorizing me to appropriate to my own use the 
amount allowed — in consideration of my supplying a man- 
sion for myself. Capt. Atkins, I believe, to whom it has 
been referred to report what would be a reasonable rent, 
has fixed on $125. per month, with the approval of Col. 
Bumford, which, I understand goes to you for approval. 
This rate, from what I hear, is moderate in reference to 
the rates paid by the government for other houses here ; 
there being many more rooms than in any other house 
occupied by the military. I trust you will approve his 
report. What I desire of you is that you take action on it 
as soon as may be consistent wuth your convenience. If 
approved by you, does it go to Washington for further 
action? Who will issue the warrant to me to draw the 
money ? AYill it be necessary or expedient for lue person- 
ally or my agent to do any thing further about the matter ? 
I am in a condition that this small sum would be of much 
benefit to me. 

In view of a very deficient crop and the low price of 
cotton and naval stores, and the political condition of the 
country our people are gloomy. The Christmas has not 
b)een a merry one with us. 

Charleston^ S. C. . • 

1094 NoETH Cakolina Historical Commission. 

To B. G. Worth. 

Raleigh, Dec. 26/67. 
Business matters. J liave been much gratified at the clieerfiil tone of yr. 
two last letters as compared with the preceding one. It 
is probably presumptuous in me to offer you my advice in 
commercial matters, but my conviction is so strong that a 
monetary crash throughout the nation is not far distant, 
of an appalling character, when the little honor now exist- 
ing will nearly disappear, that I think few mercantile 
houses, having a large amount of liabilities to meet out of 
debts due them, can survive. With these views I shall 
feel solicitude for you while you are much in debt, however 
flattering your balance sheet may appear. I presume the 
mass of yr. debtors are in IsT. C. and other Southern States. 
Prosperity cannot revive soon in the South. The negroes 
work better now than they will in future. The race never 
did work voluntarily — and never will. With free negro 
labor we shall never jDrosper. Our country (the South) 
is much poorer than it was when the war closed, and will 
continue to grow poorer until the relative number of ne- 
groes shall be diminished, and the l^orth shall allow us 
to manage our local affairs without interference. I have 
not got the jaundice. These are the convictions of my 
sober judgt. If the miserable set of jackasses, from Gen- 
erals down to the Freedmen's Bureau men, were with- 
drawn and we were allowed to re-organize the militia and 
pass and enforce a stringent vagrant act — even if we 
were compelled to give transportation to every negro de- 
siring to move to any of the negro loving States, to which 
they might be desired to remove, we would rapidly recu- 
perate, — the conditions of the negro would be improved 
and the IsTorth would be benefitted by the revival amongst 
us : but we have no rational ground of hope while Radical- 
ism rules. 

I have been to my office but once since my return from 
Washington. Under the injunction of my doctor I hav<^ 


staid by my fireside — took physick every day — have been 
able to do and have done much business every day and 
feel that I am gradually improving. 

P. S. In giving us Canby for Sickles the Prest. 
swapped a devil for a witch. My revelations to the Prest. 
astounded him. He required me to write out my narra- 
tive and communicate it to him. I have nearly completed 
it. His purpose was to publish it. If he does so, I think 
it will produce a sensation. I state nothing which I can- 
not sustain by documentary proof. I think it will result 
in the removal of myself or Canby. Let it come. I will 
not be a subservient serf for the sake of office: — have not 
time to give you particulars. 

To William Clarh. 

Kaleigh, Dec, 28/67. 
I would gladlv trv to remove some of your mistaken Discussion of the 

. " " . . . . negro. 

notions in relation to the existing state of affairs if I had 
time. It is annoying to me that the Quakers generally — 
and especially you whom I know to be a sensible good 
man and acquainted with the negro, should believe under 
the circumstances that the African race is capable of at- 
taining to a respectable degree of civilization. I do not 
think that you are sincere — but are you really sure that 
you are sincere. If you really thinlv they could be made 
good citizens, why do you not invite them to immigrate 
from the South and dwell among you ? as you do invite the 
German, the Irishman — any of the white races ? I am no 
lover of slavery. I feel toward the negro not only no 
hatred but nothing but kindness and pity ; but I know from 
observation of history that the African left to its o^vn self- 
control, is so indolent and improvident, that he will not — 
indeed I think he cannot be made a good citizen. I speak of 
the race, not of individual cases trained by contact with the 

1096 ISToKTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

whites. I cannot give the ]S[orthern Radicals credit (I 
mean the best of them — the worst of them I regard as the 
meanest tyrants on earth) for sincerity when they insist 
that the negroes can be made good citizens. Actions 
speak louder than words. They are rapidly sinking into 
their natural position and by an irresistible law of na- 
ture, will soon perish out in contact with a superior race — 
and in the mean time will be the curse of our country. 
They retarded our prosperity as slaves. As free negroes 
they will be the curse of our Country — particularly of the 

How is Barney Coffin coming on ? Has he protected 
his services ? What is he doing ? I send a jSTo. of the 
National Intelligencer — always conservative and always 
edited by able statesmen. I beg you to read it. It pre- 
sents a truthful picture of our condition and of the work- 
ino's of Devilish Radicalism. 

To /. Turner, Jr. 

Raleigh^ Dec. 30/67. 

I have a letter from G. F. Lewis, to whom the Trustees 
of the University contracted to sell our Agricultural land 
scrip. He says he will want to visit this State several 
times this summer and asks me to procure for him "the 
usual editorial passes" over our chief roads, and hands 
inclosed tickets to show the practice here. Please return 
the tickets with the pass or your refusal to grant it. 

I wish he had not troubled me with this commission. 

What is the freight per bu. for shelled corn in bags 
from Salisbury to this place — what on both roads from 
Statesville to Raleigh ? 

Company's Shops. 


To J. ^Y. Martin. 

Raleigh,. Dec. Slsi^ 1S67. 
I have hitherto done and am continuina; to do all I case of Toiar and 

o others. 

properly can do for Capt. Tolar and the two men convicted 
with him — Powers and Watkins, — becanse if they were 
guilty of the charge, the punishment is out of all propor- 
tion for a crime springing from a noble rather than from 
a depraved heart — and because I believe the evidence as 
to Tolar, was so contradictory (the more credible wit- 
nesses proving his innocence) that no fair tribunal could 
have convicted him — and as to the other two convicts in 
whose behalf less public sympathy is exhibited, that there 
was no evidence warranting a conviction. 

Besides writing to the Prest. asking for the pardon , I 
lately made a strong oral representation to him, giving 
him a full history of this matter, as well as ones even 
worse, against the military oppression w^e are enduring. 
He heard me at length with profound interest. The mat- 
ters of malignant military oppression to which I called 
his attention have not been furnished to the press : — but 
are authenticated by my correspondence with the military, 
which prudential reasons have restrained me from pub- 
lishing. At his urgent request I have just concluded a 
letter to him, giving him in writing the substance of my 
narrative, sustained by copies of the documents establish- 
ing all the facts, among which is a history of the fiendish 
malignity with which Capt. Tolar and others have been 
persecuted for the alleged murder of Beebe. Be assured 
if they are not pardoned, it cannot be attributed to want 
of zealous effort on my part. Your letter would have been 
sooner answered if I had been able to answer it. I have 
been confined to my fireside by sickness for two weeks, 
and the writing out of the voluminous narrative for the 
Prest. and other public duties have taxed me heavily. 


1098 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To W. G. Moore. 

Ealeigh, Dec 31/67. 
Mmtary govern- J j^ave been sick all the time since I saw yon — am now 

getting well I hope. 

I shall send yOu by Express to-morrow a commnnica- 
tion which I have made out at the request of the Prest. 
giving an idea of the operations of our Military Com- 
manders. I have deemed it necessary to accompany it 
with many extracts to sustain my narrative. This makes 
the pile of paper formidable. I have had my statement 
copied by my daughter because she writes very legibly. I 
beg you not to refrain from reading it on account of its 

Any of the orders [Three ivords illegible^ would jus- 
tify the removal of Canby — especially his jury orders 
which are rapidly disbanding our Courts — his Provost 
Courts and his numerous arrests of citizens and their trial 
before Court martial 

If you will read this narrative to the President or get 
him to read it, and he shall think proper to remove Genl. 
Canby, and appoint a fit successor, I am perfectly will- 
ing that the whole of it, or any part of it, with or with- 
out the extracts be published over my signature. But if 
this be published mth Canby still in office I shall be re- 
moved: and if for any reason the President should re- 
move him I could not be re-instated \ Several words illeg- 
ible.'] as I cannot take the iron-clad oath and my people 
would severely criticize me for any act resulting in put- 
ting in a new Govr. over them. 

I have submitted the documents to the hands of the 
President to do with them what he may think best. It is 
well known that I have always been an ardent follower of 
the great Whig leader Henry Clay: — -always opposed to 
ISTuUification, Secession, Abolitionism and all other doc- 
trines looking to a dissolution of the Union: — that as a 
member of the Senate of this State, I voted in May 1861 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1099 

(only two others voting with me) against the Convention 
called to pass the ordinance of Secession — and that be- 
cause I felt it my duty when war was inaugurated which 
I could not prevent, to co-operate with my section. I al- 
ways preferred that peace should be made on the basis 
of the Constitution of the U. S. as established by our 
fathers. I am now reviled as a "rebel" by those who have 
devoted their .lives to fostering sectional alienation, and 
my revilers are caressed by the fraction of a Constitu- 
tional Congress. 

I learn this morning that Glenl. Canby's latest legisla- 
tive feat is the issuance of orders to the Post Commander 
here for the suppressing or regulating of the whore houses 
of this little city. I have not seen these orders: — will 
send you a copy of them if I can get a copy. — "ISTero fid- 
dles while Eome is on fire". 

Washington^ D. C. 

To Andreiv Johnson. 

Kaleigh, Dec. 31 1867. 
I learn that my friend, B. S. Hedrick, a native of this 
State, now holding an important position in the Patent 
Office, may present his name to you for nomination to fill 
the vacancy of Comr. of Patents. He graduated with dis- 
tinction in our University — was for a considerable time 
one of its professors, — is a gentleman of exemplary moral 
character, and is familiar of the duties of the position he 
seeks to fill. He is ardently attached to his native State 
and has rendered me much service in Washington since I 
have been Governor. I regard him as an eminently suit- 
able man to fill this vacancy, and I shall feel personally 
obliged if you shall think proper to nominate him: and 
I think our people would be gratified at such mark of ap- 
preciation for one of her sons, who is indebted to his own 
efforts for his highly respectable attainments. 

1100 TsToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To David L. Siuain. 

Kaleigh. Dec. 31 1867. 

I herewith transmit a copy of the resolution passed at 
the late meeting of the Trustees of the University in 
which I heartily concur. 

The indisposition which prevented my being present 
when the resolution was passed has confined me to my fire- 
side up to this time, and many pressing official duties 
have so occupied the time I could devote to them, that 
I hope you will excuse my apparent tardiness in trans- 
mitting it to you. 

My health is much improved. 

Chapel Hill^ IST. C. 

To John Kerr. 

E-ALEiGH^ Jan. 1/68. 
Military govern- Tou will remember with what reluctance I pardoned 
Johnson, in the face of what seemed to be the universal de- 
mand of my friends, backed by the military authorities of 
the U. S. In view of all our surroundings the facts 
brought to my knowledge led me to believe that he ought 
to have been convicted for larceny and not Burglary. The 
alternative of hanging — or total exemption from imprison- 
ment, for a great crime depended on my action. The 
delegation from Caswell, backed by Mr. Hill and the 
military, pressed the petition for out and out pardon. I 
luost reluctantly granted the pardon, upon the condition 
that the convict pay the costs, which Mr. Hill represented 
he would do : — But when it was ascertained he could not 
pay the costs, I made the pardon unconditional, I had 
written to our friend Mr. Settle for the proofs on the trial. 
He had failed to answer. This much to excuse myself 
for pardoning this villian. Tor your part in it, it is 

Cokkespondejstce of Jojstathajt Worth. 1101 

enough that you were his counsel. I held the scales of 
justice. If they were not ''right adjusted" I think I am 
not culpable. 

I had been for months corresponding with the poor 
devils whom Congress had made our military governors, 
against the trial of civilians by court martial : and was 
full of indignation at the want of regard for these remon- 
strances when the letter touching the arrest of Griffin was 
reed. I immediately addressed the Prest. I inclose copy 
of my letter, and again asked Mr. Settle for a version of 
the facts proved on the trial of Johnson, as your letter 
stated that Griffin had been arrested upon the evidence of 
this felon and Tourgee, whom I regard as a still greater 
villain. Mr. Settle answered promptly, and I forwarded 
it with my remonstrance, to Genl Canby. 

The Prest. referred my letter, addressed to him, to 
Genl Grant, who referred it to Genl Canby. The terms 
''iniquity" and "military oppression" — gave offence — and 
drew from him by way of reply, a little volume addressed 
to Genl Grant, (a partial copy of which Genl. Canby fur- 
nishes me) assailing our Courts generally — sustaining the 
character of Tourgee as a Capt. of the U. S. army and 
extolling Johnson for his partriotic services in the U. S. 
army — assailing me for "disingenuousness," — purporting 
to detail the evidence in Johnson's trial and summing up 
with the conclusions — first — that Johnson was convicted 
not for the oifence with which he was charged, but be- 
cause he had deserted the Confederate army — and had 
fled the conscription hunters, and joined the U. S. army — 
had guided Sherman and "ought to be hanged any how." I 
thought I could see in this letter, coupled with the givings 
out of the devil who presides over Radicalism in ]^. C, 
my official decapitation — and as an act of duty to the peo- 
ple of the State, went to see the president. He was aston- ■ 
ished with my account of military usurpation in 'N. C. — 
and requested me, urgently, to furnish him in writing a 
narrative of the facts I had stated to him : — interference 

1102 JSToETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

with our juries — Court martials for the trial of civilians 
■ — arbitrary arrests — and removals from office, etc with 
copies of mv remonstrances against these things. I have 
been confined to my fireside by sickness since my return 
— but have just completed the narrative, sustained by un- 
answerable proofs — copies of my correspondence with 
Sickles and Canby. I expect it to result in Canby's re- 
moval—or in my removal. The Prest. will sustain me 
with all the power he has. This rapid review brings me to 
the purpose of this letter. It may become very important 
to me to know all that is known to Mr. Griffith, as to his 
arrest and trial. Were Johnson or Tourgee — or either of 
them examined or their affidavits brought forward on the 
trial ? What did they prove ? What were the charge and 
specification vs. Griffith ? To what costs and expense was 
he subjected ? Any other facts you deem it important for 
me to know. 

In Genl. Canby's letter to Grant, he lays down as a 
principle of j)ublic law, sustained he says by the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of the 29 Apl 1865, that all the pre- 
ceedings in our Courts during the rebellion, are absolutely 
null and void : hence the indictment against Johnson was 
a nullity: and that the Court would have been guilty of 
''murder if he had been hanged". 

The subject is too wide to allow me (oppressed with 
other duties) to go more into detail. 

In view of all the circumstances, public and personal. 
I am sure you will not regard me as asking too much of 


To Commander of Post, Newhern. 

Raleigh Jan. 1/68. 
I am informed that a large band of banditti who have 
been committing robbery and murder in Pitt County have 

Coeeespondejstce of Jonathan Wokth. 1103 

been arrested and are now confined iu jail at Greenville. 
I am afraid they will be rescued or make their escape. 
I have sent a commission to Judge Warren to hold a Court 
of Oyer and Terminer in Pitt at an early day for their 
trial. As we are not permitted to organise the militia, 
will you send without delay an adequate detail of reliable 
soldiers to guard the jail until their trial: — and if con- 
victed, until they shall be executed. 


Raleig-h. Jan. 2nd 1868. 

I have long known Bryan Tyson by reputation. He 
lived in this State at the breaking out of the late war (I 
think he is a native of this State). By printed publica- 
tions and otherwise he strongly opposed the war and has 
always been an ardent supporter of the Union. I think 
no man can be found in America who has at all times 
more consistently supported the Union. 

He is an enterprising man and has done much for the 
distressed people of ISForth Carolina since he took up his 
residence in Washingi:on City, some three or four years 
ago. He has my fervent wishes for success wherever he 
be and in whatever business enterprises he may engage. 
Like all zealous Union men he is now reviled by many 
new converts in this State. 

To Bryan Tyson. 

Ealeigh, Jan. 2nd 1868. 

I came home from Washington quite sick some four 

weeks ago — have been able to get to my office only twice 

on very special business, remaining only a few minutes, 

since my return from Washington. I have hardly been 

1104 NoKTH Cakolika Histoeical Commission. 

able to attend to nij important official duties. I regret 
that among the many things deferred has been such delay 
in answering as to draw from your note of the 9th ult. 
As it does me unintentional wrong, I herewith return it, 
its theme being oppressive. 

My health is not restored — and I write with difficulty 
and a tremulous hand. 

Washijstgton City. 

To Governor Charles J. Jenkins.^ 

Raleigh^ Jan. 3/68. 
Various matters Judging froui your last annual campaign and other 

connected with . . i o 

Reconstruction, sourccs of information, I have thought there was much 
accordance between yr. views and mine in relation to the 
late convulsions in the JSTational Government — and the 
measures proper to be adopted to repair the terrible mis- 
chiefs resulting from it : — and being in Washington city 
last spring to collect all the information I could by which 
to shield my conduct in the anomalous condition we were 
placed by the legislation of Congress : and learning from 
Judge Sharkie and Govr. Parsons, that you had gone to 
]Sr. Y. and that your return to Washington was daily ex- 
pected, I waited several days to see you and interchange 
views with you as to the course we ought to adopt, in the 
then existing state of affairs, particularly in reference to 
the question as to the expediency of seeking relief from 
the acts of Congress, then recently passed, through the 
Supreme Court of the U. S. 

Believing that the plan of Govrs, Sharkie and Walker 
would not elicit a decision of the Court on the constitu- 
tionality of the acts — I decided not to make IST. C. a party 
to the proposed suit. Your stay in IST. Y. being protracted 
beyond what your friends expected, I returned home, dis- 
appointed as to meeting you. 

I have never doubted as to the unconstitutionality of 
these acts, or as to their vicious tendency. 

1 Governor of Georgia. 


I was always friendly attached to tlie old Constitution 
and Union party: an ardent admirer of Clay and Web- 
ster — and their co-adjiitors : was a member of the Senate 
in this State — and even in 'May, 1861, voted against the 
Convention to dissolve the Union, only two others acting 
with me. Strong as were my convictions against the views 
of our Secession friends, they were stronger against the 
other disunion party, — the xVbolitioiiists. AVhen my ef- 
forts to avoid war were ineffectual, I did not deem it ex- 
pedient to desert my section, and abandon my home and 
kindred, and thereafter cooperated in good faith with 
my section, until war decided the contest ; since which 1 
have ardently sought to soothe sectional animosity and 
restore the government to its old status. I regard the 
actions of Congress since the war with positive abhorrence. 
After these preliminaries I reach my point. 

Our abominable Convention assembles on the 14th inst. 
The State of our Treasury would enable us, without ex- 
haustion, to meet the reasonable expenses of this Revolu- 
tionary assemblage. It is probable that Genl Canby will 
require (with the sanction of the Convention) that these 
expenses be paid out of the State Treasury. The Treasr, 
by the laws of the State, can pay only on the warrant of 
the Govr. The Govr. can give a warrant only in con- 
formity with the laws of the State. The legislation of 
Congress, as I understand it, (even if Constitutioual) does 
not warrant the military Comt to make such order. With 
the lights now before me, I will not obey such mandate, 
if issued. Such order, if issued, may be directed, as I in- 
fer from news-paper accounts, it was directed, in your 
State, to the Treasr — overlooking the Govr. In this case 
it would not be material to me, as Governor. The respon- 
sibility would rest on the Treasr. 

Our military comt. is, con amore, a Hadical. He be- 
lieves, as he has assured me that the laws he is appointed 
to execute, are not only constitutional, but wise. He con- 
siders these laws as investing him with unlimited despotic 
Vol. 2—29 

1106 J^OETH Cakoliis^a Histoeical Commission. 

power over the laws and Constitution of this State. Sick- 
les maintained these views as a partizan and politician. 
Canby maintains them as a narrow minded conscientious 
Radical — Both have issued edict after edict, until they 
have made a new code for us, — destroying the respectabil- 
ity of trial by jury, — forcing the most manly of our 
judges to resign rather than be the instruments of execut- 
ing their code: have established new tribunals of justice, 
held by men having no pretensions to law learning, with 
jurisdiction in many counties extending to every thing 
civil and criminal, save murder, manslaughter, Rape and 
Arson, — and where this Court has not been established, 
authorising arrests by military detectives — and the im- 
prisonment in distant military fortresses, of civilians, 
without preliminary trial; and trial by 'Court martial 
without colorable pretext that justice is not impartially 
administered by our Courts : the removal of innumerable 
officers, assigning no cause for such removals — and filling 
these places with men not only intrinsically unworthy 
— but excessively odious to the communities in which they 
are to act, etc. 

I foresee, if the Prest. shall not remove Canby, it is 
not unlikely I shall be removed. I have not deemed it 
expedient to make any public official announcement of my 
utter detestation of the whole Congressional programme — 
but it is well known that I should have voted, if not dis- 
franchised, against the call of this Convention, and that I 
w^ould not vote to ratify the action (whatever it may be) 
of what I regard as an unconstitutional — revolutionary 

How stands this matter now, as to paying your Con- 
vention between the Convention and your Treasr. and your- 
self? How happens it that Pope did not remove your 
Treasr. and you for not obeying the mandate issued by 
him and the Convention requiring you to pay ? 

Any information you may find it convenient and agree- 
able to you to give me touching this paying of the Conven- 


tiou, which I foresee is soon to be upon ns, will be thank- 
fully received. 


To ^Y. G. Moore. 

liALEiGH^ Jan. Jj. 1868. 
I enclose new edict of Genl. Canby ISTo. 164 which ai> Military gov ern- 

. , T ment. 

j)eared in the news-papers yesterday. The simple read- 
ing of it wull satisfy you that it would be a relief to our 
civil authorities if the General w^ould blot out all sem- 
blance of civil rule, providing he would find other agents to 
carry out the new mandates he is continually issuing ab- 
rogating our laws and creating new ones. 

I heard from a reliable source that some weeks ago he 
removed the ShfF. of Richmond County, as usual without 
assigning any cause, and appointed another: that the new 
apjDointee could neither give a bond — nor take the iron- 
clad oath : that he has been acting ever since without quali- 
fying and without taking any oath of office : that a mili- 
tary agent was sent there to see if a man could be found 
fit to fill the office who could give bond and take oaths: 
that the agent reported to Col. Cogswell, Post Commander 
of the district in which Richmond is situated, that no 
such man could be found ; but, recommending that the 
new appointee be allowed to go on performing the duties 
of Shff. without giving bond or qualifying: that his re- 
port was sent Genl. Canby, who has referred it to Col. 
Eomford, Post Commander in this City, the military 
posts having been recently changed whereby Richmond 
County is attached to this post: and that Col. Bomford 
has the subject under consideration and is greatly per- 
plexed — One of the expedients being suggested to him, 
being the appointment of a Sergeant from the army to go 
to Richmond County and act as Shff. thereof: I learn that 
the Colonel, Bnmford, has not yet decided whether to 

1108 IsToETH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

adojDt this expedient or not. If Canby be continued in 
command the State government will be in a positive state 
of chaos ; and already every civil officer is bewildered by 
the innumerable innovations and partial recovations of 
previous military edicts. The code military is not con- 
solidated in any volume, but our civil officers and people 
are expected to understand and obey and preserve them. 
JSTone of our news-papers being authorised or paid to pub- 
lish them save the Standard and Pioneer, two ultra Radi- 
cal Journals, which are warmed into life by money paid 
them from the National Treasury, to traduce us and nur- 
ture Radicalism. 

I cut from a news-paper edict ISTo. 164 and inclose it. 

I dare not indulge in commentary on it. 

All of it is unnecessary. Even his display of benefi- 
cence to the poor in diverting the money arising from li- 
censes to the retailers, from the fund set apart for the sup- 
port of common schools. The wreck of this fund consists 
of $600,000. in one of our best Rail Roads — and above 
$300,000. ante-bellum State bonds. Since the war our 
legislation has looked to building up this fund and more 
than $100,000. have been added to it. The tax on Re- 
tailers' licenses have been set apart since 1825 in aid of 
our School fund. He never consults me as to any of his 
edicts remodeling our laws. I think from the ill success 
of all my remonstrances, that to continue them would be 
as useless — as it would be undignified. 

The proposed relief to debtors for the purchase of ne- 
groes, almost universally enures to the benefit of the ne- 
gro speculators and to the injury of widows and orphans. 

The regulation as to bail operates only to let adventurers 
who have come among us and abused the credulity of our 
people by contracting debts run away without paying. I 
have never heard of any honest man being beset to give 

His paragraph headed "Executors and Trustees" is 
absurd as applied to this State. We never had any law 


aiithorisiug guardians, executors etc to invest in Con- 
federate bonds. Under an old Statute, passed some 20 
years ago, they were authorised to invest in State bonds, 
and all our bonds issued to carry on the war were repudi- 
ated by our Convention of 1S65. 

His chapter ^'District Courts" is wholly unnecessary. 
I have power and am continually exercising it, of appoint- 
ing Courts of Oyer and Terminer, to try criminals and ex- 
tra terms, where necessary. Our Courts of Quarter Ses- 
sion having concurrent jurisdiction with our Supr Courts, 
as to petty offences, sit every three months. Six regular 
terms are held in every county each year. Special terms 
to save costs by trying petty oft'enders would cost more 
than they would save. Our laws provide that each county 
pay the costs not paid by defendants, for the prosecution 
of offenders : — and county revenue is provided for the 
purpose. He charges the exiDense of these special terms to 
be paid out of the State Treasury, not supplied with funds 
for this purpose. 

His i^ilotage order is issued to reverse a decision of our 

His section 6, if carried out, will essentially affect the 
amount of Revenue to be collected this year. Our laws 
require the owner of lands to list for taxation (poll tax) 
and pay for all persons liable to pay such tax, who are in 
their employment on the 1 Apl each year. The owner of 
the land is allowed to retain enough-, (out of the wages, of 
such employees), to indemnify himself. In this way mi- 
gratory persons are listed, who would otherwise evade list- 
ing, and a large amount of taxes are collected from per- 
sons from whom nothing could be had by distress. It 
operates alike on white and black. Under this edict al- 
most nothing will be made from men (white and black) 
who work for wages. Its operation will be to save from 
the payment of any tax nearly all the negroes and many 
white man. 

AYith this brief commentary I dismiss the subject. 


jSToeth Carolina Histokical Commission. 

Concerning the 
appointment of a 

Our Convention is called to meet on the l-ith inst. I 
suppose the General will require me to issue my warrants 
on the Treas to pav the expenses of the Convention. This 
I will not do, unless I can see some new light on the 

I write this expecting you to bring it to the attention of 
the President. 

I am still indisposed, (but improving), and my hand 
is so tremulous I fear you will be at some trouble to read 
what I have written. 

AVasiiingtox^ D. C. 

To Thomas J. Wilson. 

Raleigh Jan. 4. 1868. 
I am greatly annoyed by the uncertainty in which I 
am left, as to the acceptance or non-acceptance of our 
friend Poindexter of the appointment of Judge. I do 
not know his postoffice. I have twice written you to as- 
certain and report to me whether he would accept or not 
— in the latter letter written by my secy., inclosing to 
him his commission. I have reed, no answer. Should he 
decline, it is hardly probable now to get together my Coun- 
cil and act in time for his Circuit. What is the matter ? 


Concerning the 
appointment of a 

To Thomas 8. Ashe. 

Ja7i. 6 1868. 
I am today notified by Mr, Poindexter that he declines 
the acceptance of our nomination, ' for the reason, among 
others, that he cannot conscientiously take the teste oath. 
I am in doubt whether I ought again to put the mem- 
bers of the Council of State to the inconvenience of as- 
sembling here. I know of no one having any just pre- 


tensions to be a judge, who would accept the appointment 
under the existing circumstances. I suppose, if we make 
no nomination, some sergeant or other officer of the U. S. 
army, or some worse man who is a citizen of the State, will 
be appointed. 

Will you favor me with your personal opinion whether 
I ought again to assemble the Council, or to report that 
1 can iuake no recommendation fit to fill the position, who 
will accept and take the required oaths, thus throwing the 
responsibility exclusively on the military Court ? Will 
you do me the favor to respond promptly. 


To ir. A. Wright. 

Kaleigh Jan 6 18'68. 
I am this dav in receiijt of a letter from Mr. Poin- concerning the 

■■- appointment of a 

dexter, declining to accept the appointment of judge, the J"''^^- 
reasons among others, that he cannot take the teste oath. 

Before incurring the expense and subjecting the Coun- 
cil to the inconvenience of assembling here, I request that 
you ascertain definitely from Mr. Baker whether he would 
accept the appointment. 

If he will not I incline to the opinion that we had bet- 
ter, limited as we are, throw the whole responsibility on 
Genl. Canby. 

Give me your views on this. It is important to have 
your answer as soon as possible. 


1112 North Caeolina Historical Commissions . 

To B. H. Coivaii^ 

Raleigh Jan 6 1868. 

Some five or six weeks ago, Genl Canbj sent me for my 
remarks, an appeal by certain clients of Vance and Dowrl 
(names not now remembered) praying for military inter- 
position to compel your Road to pay them for work done 
for yon since the war (building bridges, I believe) for 
which they had obtained judgments against your Com- 
pany, but which could not be enforced on account of the 
mortgage which the State holds on your Road and all its 

This appeal represented the appellants as poor men 
who had re-built certain bridges, destroyed in the latter 
part of the war, or carried off by other casualty, under a 
special promise by j^ersons making the contract in be- 
half of your Company, that the work should be promptly 
paid for on its completion : but that the work being done 
your Company sheltered itself from payment under said 
mortgage. The case as presented by the appellants and 
the argTiments of their counsel, exhibited wanton bad 
faith on the part of the subordinate authorities of your 

As I knew nothing of the facts, save what appeared 
from this ex-parte showing, I replied that no action ought 
to be taken against your Company until you were heard: 
that these parties must be presumed to have known of the 
existence of the mortgage and that the State ought not 
to be deprived of the benefit of the mortgage, even if the 
officers of the Company were guilty of the bad faith im- 
puted to them — and wound u]d promising to investigate the 

I soon afterwards saw Gov. Yance who told me he had 
made an appeal to you, as prest. of the Road, in behalf 
of his clients — and that you had ordered the payment of 

1 President of tlie Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherford Railroad. 


bis clients' claims: but tbat your subordinate (j\Ii% Guion. 
I believe) obstinately disregarded vour order. 

I was going to Washington a day or two after, and de- 
signed seeing yon on the subject^ but on my arrival there, 
on inquiry, found you were gone to Isew York. The mat- 
ter, thus postponed, went out of memory until my atten- 
tion was recalled to it by a late letter from Genl Canby. 

I request that you give immediate attention to the mat- 
ter and favor me with an answer as soon as you can: if 
the memorialists state the facts truly, that you take care 
that the}^ be paid without delay. 


To D. F. Caldwell B. P. McLean and B. GorreJl. 

Ealeigh, Jan. 6th 1S68. 
When I was informed of the arrest of the Shff . of Cas- Military an-ests 
Avell ujDon information furnished by Tourgee and John- 
son, and his transportation to Charleston to be tried be- 
fore a Court martial, having made to Genl. Sickles and 
Canby ineffectual remonstrances against such arrests and 
trials, I addressed the Prest on the subject and charac- 
terised Tourgee and Johnson, as men of "most destable 
character" in this State. My letter was referred to Genl. 
Grant and by him sent to Genl. Canby for his remarks. 
Canby sent me a partial copy of a little volume which he 
wrote to Genl. Grant, in which he says that my account of 
the character of Capt. Tourgee is "not accepted". In my 
reply I stand by my assertion. This affair is likely to 
culminate, I think, in the removal of myself or Canby. I 
have the most emphatic assurances of the Prest that he 
will sustain me. I am certain that all the power of the 
ultra Radicals will be employed to bring about my re- 
moval — and I know nobody in stronger sympathy with 
the ultra Radicals than Canby. I am certain Canby will 
remove me if not restrained by apprehension of his own 
removal, if he do so. 

1114 ]SroRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To-night I have reed from Genl. Canby a letter in which 
he says "Mr. A. H.^ Tourgee has been nominated to fill a 
vacancy in Civil Office in ISF. C. and would have received 
immediate apjDointment but for the charges affecting his 
moral character made against him by yon in your ofiicial 
communication of the 30th I^oy. 1SG7." 

With a view to the investigation of such charges I de- 
sire you to furnish me with the names and address of all 
parties from whom you derived the information upon 
which your charge was based. And also a statement of 
any matters within your knowledge that may be important 
to such inquiry. 

It is of great interest to the public that men of es- 
tablished character should fill the public offices, and of no 
less importance to the nominee that an opportunity should 
be offered him to vindicate his character from public 
charges which, if true, disqualify him from holding of- 

ITow I am sure I have heard more than 100 men speak 
of Tourgee all representing him as a man of "most detest- 
able character" and I never heard one speak well of him 
— ^but I can designate only a few of them. All I can 
now remember are two of you, Messrs. McLean and Cald- 
well ; B. S. Hedrick, Hiram Worth and Jesse Wheeler — 
and I helieve the two Messrs Gilmers and Peter Adams. 
Will you see these gentlemen and ascertain of them 
whether they remember to have spoken to me in disparag- 
ment of the general character of Tourgee. Will you also 
give me the names of other good men who will say, if 
called upon that he is not generally regarded as a man 
of good character for truth and honor. I would prefer, if 
not objectionable, to have the signatures of a number of 
your prominent citizens to a certificate of this sort — 

Being requested by Govr. Worth to state whether we 
know the general character of A. H. Tourgee among the 
most respectable and intelligent citizens of Guilford 

' This is an error. A. W. Touroree is intended. 


Coimtv, as to truth and honor, we answer that we do know 
his general character among these classes and that it is 
bad. Jan. Y 1868. 

Poindexter refuses to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Judge Fowle. I presume this is the va- 
cancy Tourgee seeks to fill. I beg you to answer very 

[P. S.] What does Major Worth think of .Tourgee. 

To ^YilJiam Eaton. 

Raleigh, Jan. 6 1S6S. 
I am this dav notified bv Mr. Poindexter that he can- Concerning the 

" . "^ , appointment of i 

not accept the appointment ol Judge. He cannot con- Judge, 
scientiously take: the test oath. 

I know no one having any respectable pretensions to fill 
the place, who will accept. In the present aspect of af- 
fairs would not acceptance itself be strong evidence of 

Will you favor me with your personal advice and opin- 
io!] whether I ought to subject the Council of State to 
the inconvenience and the State to the expense of again 
convening the Council ? Limited as we are will it not be 
best to throw the responsibility on the military comt. ? 


To JoJui Kerr. 

Raleigh, Jan. 6 1868. 
On recpt. of your letter touching the arrest of Mr. Military arrests 
Grifiin, having made divers ineffectual remonstrances to 
Genl. Canby against such arrests, I wrote the Prest. (a 
copy of which I inclosed to you on the 1st inst) in which 
I speak in strong terms of the ''detestable character" of 
Tourgee. I am this evening in receipt of a letter from 
Genl. Canby in which he says "Mr. A. H. Tourgee has 
been nominated to fill a vacancv in civil ofiice in jST. C. 

1116 JSToETH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

and would have reed immediate appointment but for the 
charges affecting his moral character made against him 
by you in vour conimnnication of the 30th jSTov. 1867. 

"With a view to the investigation of such charges I de- 
sire you to furnish me with the names and addresses of 
all parties from whom you derived the information upon 
which your charge was based : and also a statement of any 
matter within your knowledge that may be of importance 
to such inquiry." 

"It is of great interest to the public that men of unblem- 
ished character should fill the public offices, and of no less 
importance to the nominee that an opportunity should be 
afforded him to vindicate his character from public 
charges, which, if true disqualify him from holding 

I have made no specific [charges?^ against him save 
for his lying speech at the Convention of Sept. last in 
Phila. but I have stated that his general character is very 
detestable in this State. 

Can you promptly furnish me the names of some prom- 
inent men in your County who will sustain me in this 
general allegation against his character? 

Poindexter declines to accept the appointment to fill 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of judge Fowle. I 
have no doubt this is the vacancy Tourgee seeks to fill. 

All I have heard of the man has led to regard him 
with positive abhorrence. 


To Jesse G. Shepherd. 

Raleigh Jan. 7/68. 
Concerning the Poindcxter refuscs to fill vacancy occasioned bv the 

appointment of a . . "^ "^ 

^^^s^- resignation of Judge Fowle. 

I am in doubt whether it is expedient for me to re- 
assemble my council to make another nomination, — From 


the material to which I am limited I know uo one I can 
nominate having any jnst pretensions to be made a judge. 
I incline to the opinion that I ought to decline to act and 
throw the whole responsibility where the act of Congress 
places it, on the military despot who is appointed to rule 
us. The result of this will be the nomination of some 
mean JSTorthern adventurer. I have cogent reasons to be- 
lieve that A. H. Tourgee, the very meanest of this class, 
is applyirjg to Genl. Canby for the appointment, and that 
the General would have nominated him but for the terms 
of loathing in which I have lately referred to him in an 
official correspondence with Genl. Canby and the Prest. 
of the U. S. I am now officially called upon by Genl. 
Canby to sustain myself, by nammg the -persons luhom I 
have heard speah in disparagement of Tourgee. He says 
Tourgee has applied and would have been appointed to fill 
a vacant civil office in ]^. C. but for my assault on his 
character in an official letter, in which I say his char- 
acter is "detestable in this State". I am much indisposed 
— forced to do more than I am physicially able to perform 
— cannot go further into details — ^AA^ith all the lights now 
before you do you think I should again assemble my coun- 
cil and recommend some boy or superannuated lawyer for 
a judge, if I can find even one of these who will take the 
required oaths ? or should I say to Genl. C, that I decline 
again to call the council together because I can hear of 
no one having any just pretensions to fitness who will take 
the oaths — and that I therefore decline to re-convene the 
Council and leave him to fill the vacancy without any rec- 
ommendation on our part ? 



IsToETH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

Concerning the 
appointment of a 

To Henry Joyner. 

Raleigh^ Jan. 7th 1868. 

I made diligent inquiry before the last meeting of the 
Council to get the name of some respectable lawyer, old 
or young, who would consent to take the oaths and fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge Fowle. 
We nominated Genl. Poindexter in the hope that he would 
accept. He was strongly recommended by prominent law- 
yers in his neighborhood. I had written immediately on 
receipt of his recommendation to ascertain whether he 
would accept and got no answer. I reed a letter from him 
yesterday declining to accept. If we make no recommen- 
dation, some mean Yankee adventurer who has come among 
us to traduce us and get office, will probably be appointed. 
If we recommend we can recommend no one at all fit to be 
a judge, who will take the oaths. Under all the circum- 
stances do you think I should again assemble the Council — 
or should I say to Genl Canby, limited as we are, that we 
decline to recommend an unfit man, and let him designate 
a successor for Judge Fowle ? 

I have reason to believe that one Tourgee, who claims to 
have been a Capt. in the U. S. army and who settled in 
Guilford, after the war, and whom I regard as the very 
meanest of this class who has settled among us, seeks the 
office, and is a man who exactly fills Genl. Canby's no- 
tion of fitness for the position. I write to each councilor 
for his advice whether I ought again to convene the Coun- 
cil. What is your opinion ? 

Halifax, C. H. 

Concerning tlie 
appointment of a 

To Giles Mehane. 

Raleigh Jan. 7 1868. 

Genl. Poindexter notified me yesterday that he could 
not take the teste oath, consequently declining to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge Fowle. 


Geul. Canby wrote me, asking that I convene the Coun- 
cil aucl recommend to hiin for appointment as successor to 
Judge Fowle. After diligent inquiry I can hear of no 
lawyer in the State, having respectable pretensions to fit- 
ness, whom I can recommend. If w^e recommend nobody 
some one of the meanest Yankee adventurers, who has 
settled among us will probably be appointed. AYe can- 
not recommend, so far as I know, any fit man who will 
take the oaths. I ask to-day the opinion of each of the 
Councilors, whether it is expedient that I re-convene the 
Council for this purpose — or shall I say that, limited as 
we are to the range of selection, we respectfully decline to 
act further on the matter ? 

I have strong reason to believe that Tourgee has ap- 
plied for the aj)pointnient — that he is a man who exactly 
fills Genl. Canby's ideas of fitness for the position : and 
that the General's action is suspended upon the result of 
an inquiry into the truthfulness of an official allegation of 
mine to Gen. Canby, made in the case of Griffin — that 
Tourgee is a man of most "detestable character' in this 
State. I am officially called upon by Genl. Canby to fur- 
nish him the names of the persons whom I have heard 
speak ill of Tourgee — and their several post-o-ffices. If I 
shall furnish a few, as I can, how many of them will 
shirk or buck out from apprehension of oppression ? thus 
leaving me with the bag to hold. If I fail to furnish any 
Tourgee is triumphant — and where am I. I take a day or 
two to arm myself for the onslaught. If everything else 
fail me I shall at all events be shielded by the conscious- 
ness of right. 

Please answer promptly. 


JSToETH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

Concerning the 
appointment of a 

To E. A. Jones. 

Eai.eigh Jan 7tJi 1868. 

Poindexter by letter wkicli reached me yesterday says 
that he cannot accept the office of judge, for the reason, 
among others, that he can't take the iron-clad oath. 

If I re-assemble my Council, with present lights, I 
cannot recoinmend any body having any just pretensions 
to fill the place. If we recommend any body, it must be 
some one manifestly unfit. Will it not be better to throw 
the entire responsibility on the military comt ? If we 
recommend any body it must be a super-annuated lawyer 
or some boy who has not tarried long enough in Jericho 
for his beard to grow. 

I have good reason to believe that Tourgee, the meanest 
Yankee who has ever settled among us, has applied to 
Genl. Canby for the appointment, and that he would al- 
ready have been appointed but for the fact that I recently 
said of him, in a letter to Genl Canby, that he is a man of 
most "detestable character." This is made the occasion, in 
effect, of an attack on me. Genl. Canby calls on me to de- 
fend my assertion by naming the persons and address of 
any person whom I have heard speak in disparagement of 
Captain Tourgee. There is great congeniality of temper 
and sentiment between the General and Tourgee. I am 
thrown on the defensive. Matters miust soon culminate in 
my removal or his. 

Please favor me with your opinion as promptly as pos- 
sible, whether I re-assemble the Council of State. 


Canby's course as 
military governor. 

To B. 8. Hedrich. 

Raleigh Jan. 

The course of Genl. Canby has shown in his government 
of this State, that he despised the axiom that the Governor 


should have resi^ect to the will of the governed. He has 
not put his foot on our soil. Pie has not communicated 
to me, as Governor of iST. C. elected by the choice of her 
people, without electioneering on my part, any of his 
contemplated changes in our code : — in his numerous re- 
movals of civil officers the first notice I have had has been 
his bulletin of removal. He has not consulted me in a 
single instance as to the fitness or respectability of his 
new appointees. This contempt of the popular will could 
not have sprung from any apprehensions of my loyalty, 
in the just sense of the much abused word. As our ruler 
he was bound to have made himself acquainted with my 
antecedents, personal and political. He could have found 
nothing in them to warrant the contempt exhibited by all 
his official acts. 

]N^o man having any pretensions to be regarded as a 
gentleman, whether citizen or army officer stationed among 
us, has ever presumed to impute to our judges want of 
personal character, legal learning or impartiality in the 
administration of Justice. 

After a series of acts exhibiting a total disregard of our 
laws and of our Courts, against which I had remonstrated 
in vain, I learned some weeks ago, that he had caused the 
arrest of the Sherifi^ of Caswell, one of the best men in 
the State, — a Union man — and consequently not a Radi- 
cal, — upon the evidence of a convicted felon, one Wm. 
Johnson, (whom I had been induced to pardon by the 
false compassions of our people and the importunities of 
the military power appointed to rule us) and upon the 
evidence of A. II. Tourgee, a disbanded Captain of [A line 
is missing here'] as Genl. Canby says, — I say, on this evi- 
dence, as I was informed, the Shff. of Caswell, a County on 
the JSTorthern bouudary of X. C. was seized under the or- 
ders of Genl. Canby, without preliminary trial and trans- 
ported for trial before a Court martial in Charleston for an 
alleged offence of which our Courts have cognizance. 
Worn out by the contempt uniformly exhibited by Genl. 
Vol. 2—30 

1122 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Canby, towards the judiciary of the State, I addressed a 
letter to the President in which I characterise these in- 
formers as most "detestable men" to the people of this 
State. The President referred my letter to Grenl. Grant 
who referred it to Genl. Canby. Genl. Canby makes a 
voluminous reply to Genl. Grant, a partial copy of which 
he sends to me, impugning the integrity of the legislative 
and judicial authorities of the State — and says my ac- 
count of the character of Tourgee "is not accepted" : as- 
signing as a reason why it was not "accepted" that Tour- 
gee was [J. line is missing here'] . 

I have just reed from Genl. Canby a letter in which he 

"A. H. Tourgee has been nominated to fill a vacancy 
in civil office in IsT. C. : and would have reed immediate 
appointment but for the charges affecting his moral char- 
acter made against him by you in an official communica- 
tion of Is^ov. 30th 1867. 

With a view to the investigation of such charges I de- 
sire you to furnieh me with the names and addresses of 
all parties from whom you derived the information upon 
which your charge was based : and also a statement of 
any matters within your knowledge that may be of im- 
portance to such inquiry. 

It is of great interest to the public that men of unblem- 
ished character should fill the public offices — and of no 
less importance to the nominee that an opportunity should 
be afforded him to vindicate his character from public 
charges, which, if true, disqualifies him from holding 

The following is what I wrote to the Genl. on the 30th 
ISTov. touching Tourgee. 

"As to my allegation that Tourgee and Johnson were 
men of bad character, I can only say that I have heard 
many men, some of them United States' officers of esti- 
mable character, and I have never heard any one speak well 
of them. I believe the character of each of them, in this 
State, to be very bad among virtuous men". 


^ow Genl. C. knows that I could not give the names 
and addresses of all whom I had heard thus speak. I can 
give many of them — Among the U. S. officers I can name 
are H. H. Helper, Jesse Wheeler, Hiram AVorth and your- 

I have no doubt that Genl. Canby, through representa- 
tions by Tourgee, and such as he, intends to find a pre- 
text for my early removal — and the filling of my place 
with an ultra Radical. I shall feel no personal grief at 
such removal — but I owe it to the people of J^orth Caro- 
lina to frustrate this design by all legitimate means. 

I have been confined to my fireside by indisposition since 
my return from Washington : have been slowly imj^rov- 
ing: am now nearly well but it would be the extreme of 
imprudence for me to go to Washington to ask of the Presi- 
dent the protection of which he may deem me deserving 
so far as he may be able and willing to protect me. 

I have no doubt the vacant office Tourgee seeks to fill 
is the judgeship made vacant by the resignation of Fowle 
on account of his conscientious unwillingness to obey mil- 
itary edicts in conflict with our laws. 

jSTow you know the utter disgust all the respectable peo- 
l^le of this State would feel at putting on our bench of 
judges such a wretch as Tourgee who stinks in the nostrils 
of all men of honor. 

ISTow my purpose is to ask you to see the President — 
make known to him the contents of this letter — and if he 
desire it, to put it in his possession to be used as he may 
think proper — and to tell him what you know as to the 
standing of Tourgee in ^. C. 

It can scarcely be that one whose whole course here has 
exhibited such malignant baseness, can have a good charac- 
ter wherever he conies. Can you not find some agency by 
which I can be correctly informed of Tourgee's standing in 
the neighborhood whence he came ? 

Washington^ D. C. 

1124 JSToKTH Carolhsta Histokical Commission. 

To General Canhy. 

Raleigh Jan. 9/68. 
In opposition to Yours of the 4th inst. is before me in which you say 

tlie appointment 

of A. w. Tourgee ^'^A. W. Tourffee has been nominated to fill a vacancy in 

as a judge. ... 

. Civil office in ISTorth Carolina, and would have reed im- 
mediate appointment but for the charges affecting his 
moral character made against him by you in your official 
communication of I^ov. 30 1867. 

With a view to the investigation of such charges I de- 
sire you to furnish me with the names and addresses of 
all parties from whom you derived the information upon 
which your charge is based — and also a statement of any 
matters within your knowledge that may be of importance 
to such inquiry." 

I regard this as a most extraordinary request. The 
character of G-eneral Washington is very good — that of 
Genl Arnold very bad. I am sure of this ; and yet I not 
only could not give the names and addresses of all I have 
heard say so, but I am not sure I could give the name and 
address of one of them. I happen in this case to remember 
a few. I name B. S. Hedrick, holding a prominent posi- 
tion in the IT. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C, H. H. 
Helper, U. S. Assessor, Salisbury, IT. C. 
Jesse Wheeler, U. S. Assessor, Greensboro, ]!T. C. 
Hiram Worth, IJ. S. Comr. 
Hon. J. R. McLean, " " 

Hon. J. A. Gilmer, 
Hon. Jno. Kerr, Yanceyville, ^. C. 

In addition to the above gentlemen who I can remember 
to have heard speak in strong terms of disparagement of 
Tourgee, I have been informed and believe that the fol- 
lowing gentlemen know his character well and that they 
will fully confirm what I have said of him. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 


Tlios B. Keogh, Kegister in Bankruptcy, Grreensboro, iT. C. 

Jno. Crane, Collector Int. Kevenue " " 

Ralph Gorrell, 

Jesse H. Lindsay, 

Jed. H. Lindsay, 

J as. bioan, 

AV. L. Scott, 

Levi M. Scott, 

David F. Caldwell, 

Hon. Jas. T. Morehead, " 

Nathan Hiatt, " 

Jonathan Cox, 

Jonathan Harris, 

Cyrus P. Mendenhall, " 

Ptobt. P. Dick, 

ISTereus Mendenhall, '^ " 

Hon. Bedford Brown, Yanceyville, " 

Samuel P. Hill, 

\\ m. Long, 

Thos. Trotter, 

Hon. Jas. M. Leach, Lexington, ^' 

D. H. Starbuck, I'. S. District Atto., Salem, '' 

Thos. J. AVilson, Winston, " 

I also refer you to the record of certain suits in Guil- 
ford County Court, at Feb. Term, 1867, or about that 
time., Cyrus P. Mendenhall vs. Tourgee and certain Ca. 
Sa. cases in which freedmen were 23laintiffs and Tour- 
gee was defendant. I have not the names of the plaintiffs. 
The Clerk of the County Court of Guilford can if you 
wish them. 

Major Worth, 8th LT. S. Infantrj^, Raleigh, i^. C. 

A. B. Chapin, Surgeon of H. S., 

Thos. Burly, freedman, Greensboro, jST. C. 

You do not indicate to what vacant civil office Tourgee 
w^ould have been immediately appointed but for my 
charges against him ; and therefore I am not called upon 
to speak of his fitness, in other respects than moral char- 

1126 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

acter, to fill such office. I hear, from sources to which 
I give credit, that he seeks to be placed by yr. appointment, 
on the bench of judges of our Supr. Courts of law, to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge Fowle. 
I think he has neither practised law nor obtained a license 
to practise in this State. As your communication does 
not ask for any information as to his fitness, and as you 
have not hitherto deemed it expedient to ask my views as 
to the suitableness of any one of your numerous appointees 
to civil office in this State, I am not unconscious that any 
suggestion from me in this direction may be deemed ob- 
trusive : — but duty to those who placed me in the position 
I occupy constrains liie to say, that I entertain no doubt 
that few men can be found, mentally and morally less un- 
fit to fill such a position. In fact if I were called upon to 
name one for judge particularly unfit for the position and 
disgusting to the bar and virtuous intelligence of the State 
I should regard the name of A. W. Tourgee as most fit. 

You ask me for a statement of any matters within my 
knowledge that may be of importance to the inquiry. 

I do not know Tourgee personally — but I know he was 
appointed at a rural meeting in Guilford, a delegate to the 
political Convention held in Phila in Sept 1866. He 
had settled in that County soon after the close of the war, 
having been, he said, a Capt. in a company of Ohio Vols. 
He was reported in the iST. Y. He raid as having made a 
speech in that Convention to enlighten the IsTorth as to the 
character and temper of the people among whom he had 
settled. I quote from that speech as follows — 

Speaking of "loyal men who have worn the blue uni- 
forms," he said, "I come here to say that selling every 
thing they had at a nominal value, twelve hundred of these 
loyal men have been driven from the State. I know hun- 
dred of these loyal men who were threatened with death 
if they wore the blue, and they are now wearing the gray.'^ 
and "I was told by a Quaker in iSTorth Carolina as I was 
comina: here that he had seen the bodies of fifteen mur-' 


dered negroes taken from a pond. Seven hundred loyal 
men had joetitioned President Johnson for redress from 
the rebiel depredations, and the j^etition was referred back 
to the disloyal Governor of that State and came hack to 
the authorities of their own town." 

I believe, and the respectable people of the State believe 
every statement in the foregoing quotation, was a ma- 
licious falsehood, made to engender and inflame the ani- 
mosity of the j^orthern people against us: and I know the 
last statement was false. The President had referred but 
two petitions to me : — the one from some forty men in 
Camden County — representing that they had been Union 
soldiers ; and that they were cruelly persecuted by indict- 
ments in the Courts of their County for acts done as Union 
soldiers. I requested D. D. Ferebee of Camden, then a 
member of the State Convention, and Hon. Geo. AY. 
Brooks, judge of the District Court of the U. S., and also 
a member of the State Convention, residing in the neigh- 
borhood of the petitioners, to investigate their allegations. 
They reported that they had examined the records of the 
Court, and that there were only two indictments against 
any one of them — the one for retailing lic[uor without a 
license; the other for Foiiiicafion and Adultery. 

The other was a petition from Clay County, imputing 
oppression to one of the Courts in a prosecution for an 
offence of which one had been found guilty, which proved 
to be an equally groundless complaint, as all like com- 
plaints honestly investigated ^vill turn out to be. The 
Secty of State though proper to write me a note comple- 
menting me for the manifest fairness with which these in- 
quiries were conducted. 

Chaklestox, S. C. 

1128 JSToRTH Cakolina Histokical Commission. 

To Dr. G. D. Poulson. 

Ealeigh^ Jan. 10, 1868. 

Of the wreck of my estate which the late unfortunate 
war left me, a considerable part is invested in our co-part- 
nership — but the harassing cares of my public position 
leave me no time to devote to my personal concerns. I 
hear from Mr. Wiley and Mr. Coffin very favorable ac- 
counts as to your management and success — ^but more fre- 
quent letters from you touching the matter would be more 
acceptable. The absence of such letters makes me feel 
uneasiness. Did you get the spts turp. you asked me to 
have sent you ? I took measures to have it sent. How 
turns out your purchase of the Aurora gas light ? Have 
you found the note we gave for a balance on this pur- 
chase ? What have been your monthly sales anything else 
tending to show the good or ill success of our enterprise. 
I think you should keep me more fully informed as to 
our business. 


To W. A. Graham. 

Raleigh, Jan. 10, 1868. 
Mmtary govern- The frcqueut and wantonly absurd orders of Genl. 

Canby are greatly multiplying my cares and perplexities, 
and are likely, as I believe, to culminate in an order for 
my removal. 

Major Bagley informed me that he learned from you on 
the cars yesterday, that you would be several days in 
Washington, and that a letter from me to you, to care of 
Hon. Reverdy Johnson would reach you. I was much 
gratified to learn this. I have been much indisposed 
lately — am now nearly well, I believe, but am required by 
my physician to remain at my fireside for some days yet. 
I am unable to go to AVashington however great the emer- 


I desire to have your opinion in the event of an order 
foi* nij removal, (whether coming from Canbj or the 
Convention), whether I camaot, by refusal to obey the 
mandate, or surrendering the office on the ground of mili- 
tary duress, by Writ of Habeas Corpus, — or a Writ of 
Mandamus, have the validity of such act of removal tested 
before the Supreme Court of the U. S. — And if you think 
this feasible and expedient, exact instructions as to the 
i3roper course for me to pursue : to what judge should I 
in the first instance apply ? I would like to have you, if 
you deem it expedient, get the views of Eeverdy Johnston 
or any other constitutional lawyer you prefer. I am will- 
ing to pay a suitable fee to you or him or both. Under an 
act of the last Genl. Assembly I am authorised, when I 
deem it necessary, to employ counsel in any case effecting 
the rights of the State, and to pay by drft on the Pub. Tr, 
As I could not so draw after removal it would be best to 
draw in anticipation : and if nothing should be done ; — if 
the removal should not be attempted to refund it. 

When I saw the Prest. about a month ago and gave him 
a narrative of Canby's action in the Spears case from Bun- 
combe ; his orders touching juries ; his Provost Court in 
Fayetteville ; his numerous removals of civil officers ; as- 
sigTiing no reasons for such removals, and not in a single 
instance consulting with me as to the fitness of successors 
appointed by him; — the wanton detail in prison and trial 
of Mr. McPae — the seizing of Griffith and carrying him 
to Charleston and his trial before a Court martial upon the 
evidence of the two villians Tourgee and Johnson ; — and 
the virtual discharge of the Granville negro, convicted of 
a wanton rape upon a woman of good character by him- 
self and another negro — first one and then the other, in 
the presence of her little daughter, old enough to be a 
witness — and the verdict confirmed by a Court martial, 
the villain Avery, being Judge Advocate, and the case of 
the removal of the Shff. of Jones and the swearing in of 
the insolvent Yankees, without a bond worth a straw — the 

1130 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Prest. exhibited disgust and indignation. He expressed 
astonisiiment that these things had not been published. I 
explained to him that the most of the facts could only be 
reached through my official correspondence mth Sickles 
and Canby, and that I did not doubt that the publication 
would be followed by my immediate removal. He re- 
quested me to remain a day or two and to see him again. 
At the next interview he said the publication of the facts 
I had disclosed would have much influence on the public 
mind jSTorth, now awakening to a sense of right. He re- 
quested me to come home and give him in writing the nar- 
rative I had made to him : and that he would have it pub- 
lished — and that if Canby removed me he would remove 
him. I prepared it as soon as I could, being sick all the 
time. It took much labor to make it full and clear — and 
much copying of extracts to sustain its facts. It was sent 
him 10 days ago — and to prevent its falling into Grant's 
hands — as my letter to the Prest. had, touching the arrest 
of Griffith, I sent it to Col. W. G. Moore the President's 
private Secty. He was out of the City and only got it 
last Sunday. 

I still thought and so wrote the Prest, that Canby ought 
to be removed, and then the publication made ; because if 
he removed me, though the Prest. would immediately re- 
move Canby and give us a sensible commt., such comt. 
could not re-instate me, because I could not take the teste 
oath. I doubt whether the Prest., in the midst of grave 
cares, will not be deterred from reading it. There are 
some 30 pages of it and the extracts besides. If you have 
leisure I wish you would get it and read it and then confer 
with the Prest. about it. 

I would not have you or he think that I have great per- 
sonal solicitude as to my removal — but I dread public cen- 
sure if a Eadical fire-eating Govr. be appointed in conse- 
quence of any supposed imprudence on my part. I am 
perfectly willing, if you and the Prest. think it expedient, 
that the publication should be made, to retire from my 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1131 

harrassing j)osition if you think the public good require it. 
I inclose you a copy of a letter from Canby and my 
reply, touching Tourgee. It will serve to show yon what 
a fool Canby is — as well as his animus towards me and 
the people of ]Sr. C. 

P. S. I regard it as positively necessary that you, to 
whom ]Sr. C. looks more than to any other man, as a guide, 
should read this narrative made by me to the chief mag- 
istrate of the State. You will find Col. Moore, to be an 
urbane gentlemanly man, as all men are, who like himself 
belonged to the old constitutional Union Clay party. 

If that narrative shall be deemed unduly prolix (I 
do not think it was capable of much more condensation) it 
will be remembered it was made out when I was sick and 
continually interrupted by the harrassing cares of my of- 
fice in onr present anomalous condition. 

AVashingtox. D. C. 

To J. B.lYhital-er. 

Ealeigh. Jan. 12th 1868. 


I see in yr. paper of yesterday Cenl. Canby's special state police force, 
order No. 1 dated Jan. 2/68. 

The striking point of this order is the organization of 
our armed j)olice forces in which negroes are to be the 
more numerous element. AVhite and black to work to- 

An article appeared in the Sentinel immediately after 
the publication of this order, giving a sketch of the four 
Shffs. who are to organize and employ this force. I have 
not observed that you have re-published any part of this 
Sentinel article. As I jDresume you have an important 
circulation in the four counties which this order affects — 
as has the I^ewbern Commercial which has neither com- 
mented on the Sentinel, nor made editorial save to praise 

1132 IsToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

the successor of Harper. I infer that you do not concur 
in the facts or the reasoning of the Sentinel. 

The ISTorth has not required negroes and white men to 
act together in the same companies. I have been sur- 
prised at the publication of this order without editorial 
comment on the remarks of the Sentinel. Have you re- 
frained because you have doubts as to the accuracy of the 
facts stated in reference to the removal of the old Shff in 
Jones, which are astonishing and interesting to the whole 
country ? This Editorial in the Sentinel has attracted 
much attention in other parts of the State. The Wil- 
mington Journal has republished all of it — or nearly all 
of it. Why have the two Journals near the scene, neg- 
lected to publish these articles? Are the facts inaccu- 
rately stated ? The case of the appt. of Colgrove without 
bond or security to fill Wilson's place, with powers to col- 
lect arrearages of tax due Wilson, is the climax of ab- 
surdity and mean oppression. If the facts stated are 
incorrectly set forth, a true version should be given. I 
write this simply to call your attention to the matter. 


To W. T. Fairdotli. 

Raleigh, Ja7i. 13/68. 
Will you give me yr. views on inclosed petition ? Upon 
the ex -parte representation of the petitioner, I incline to 
shorten his imprisonment and let him go home and provide 
board for his numerous family — but shall refer to your 
judgment — ^you knowing all the circumstances which 
should control my action. I would consult the judge if I 
knew where to address him. 



To Calvin 11. WUey. 

Raleigh^ Jan. IJ^/GS. 
Protracted illness and the pressure of duties of the nt- saie of the swamp 

-t^ lands. 

most gravity, have entirely overtaxed my powers for the 
last month. 

I regret to say that among the things postponed is yr. 
communication and acct. neither of which has been ex- 

My health is gradually improving hut I am still much 

You will remember with how much reluctance I ap- 
proved the acct of expenses of Comrs. to JST. Y. touching 
our Swamp lands, which I regarded as very extravagant. 
They amounted to more than $900. From respect to the 
feelings of the members of the board, I concluded to ap- 
prove it, with misgivings as to the propriety of such ap- 
proval. The acct exhibited, drawn up by Genl. Gwynn, 
purported to cover all the expenses of the commission. 
Your part of the bill, as I remember it, exceeds $400. To 
mv great amazement. Mr. Best now exhibits a further 
account exceeding $S00. including more money for parlor 
rent. I am not less annoyed than pained at this account 
and the responsibilities which the extravagance of the 
whole bill devolves on me. I have deferred action on Mr. 
Best's claims until I see a specification of the items mak- 
ing up the amount paid to you and Genl Gwynn. It dis- 
tresses me to feel constrained to ask for such items — ^but 
I have been employed on more commissions than one since 
our troubles commenced, quite as dignified and which did 
not api^roach in expenditure the expenses of your com- 

I hope it may be convenient to you to be here at some 
early day, (our continuance in authority is likely to be 
short) in order to confer with you and Mr. Husted to put 
these matters in shape to enable me to justify myself be- 

1134 Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 

fore the public for the warrants I have issued and am re- 
quired to issue on the school fund. 

To Richmond M. Pearson. 

Jan. 15, 1868. 

I am feeling comparatively well to-daj — but my physi- 
cian has positively enjoined it on me not to leave my fire- 
side for some days. 

Besides the matter of appointing a Librarian, in which 
I am not anxious to participate, there are other matters 
of which I deem of much greater importance about which 
I very much desire to confer with you and your associate 
judges : and hence I requested yesterday a conference at 
my residence. If such conference be of any value to the 
public it should take place without delay. If it suit you 
I will send over a conveyance to bring you over at such 
hour after your adjournment to-day, as you will designate 
this forenoon to Major Bagley. 

To W. B. Wright. 

Eaeekih, Jan. 16/68. 

* * * -X- * ->r * 

Opinion Of Qur public affairs are in a most appalling condition. 

Congress. ^ i i o 

The devils now claiming to be the Congress of the U. S. 
seem determined to leave no vestige of the wise and benefi- 
cent government under which we so long prospered and 
commanded the respect of the world. ISTot a man of them 
can elevate himself above the behests of mere partizanship, 
Actual physical resistance or submission to military des- 
potism seems to be the only alternative offered to this 
great nation. 

jSToeth Carolina Historical Commission. 1135 

To Andrew Johnson. 

Raleigh, Jan. 16 1868. 
Having jnst learned that my friend Col. AYm. M. John- 
son will be in "Washington City to-morrow, alloAV me to ask 
the favor that yon grant to him a brief interview — and that 
3^011 communicate to him any information tonching the 
present crisis in National affairs, Avhich yon may think 
it would be useful for me to know — particularly as to 
what you think of the expediency (if Genl Canby require 
it) that I cause the expenses of the Convention to be paid 
out of the State Treasurv. 

To Andrew JoJtnson. 

Ealeigii, Jan. 16, 1868. 
Learning that my friends Cenl. J. M. Leach and Dr. 
Win. B. Mears are on their way to Washington City — and 
feeling profoundly the responsibility of my position in 
the present crisis of affairs I shall regard it as a personal 
favor, if you will accord to them a brief interview and 
give them the benefit of your views on such matters as may 
concern my action at this juncture — particularly as to the 
propriety and expediency, of my granting my warrant for 
the paying of the expenses of the Convention out of the 
State Treasury. 

To David G. ^yorth. 

Raleigh, Jan. 17/68. 
I am feeling better to-dav than I have done for weeks concerning his 

° _ " state of health. 

jjast — "" * ^^ I g^ill gj-r^Y at home under the doc- 
tor's orders. I have transgressed a little ; on two or three 
pressing occasions, to my manifest injury. I have all the 
time dispatched more business at home than I could have 


done at mj office, and may not subject myself to the ex- 
cessive annoyance at office which awaits me, whenever I 
fall into the old routine, for several days yet. I think 
there will be nothing in the odor of the Convention to 
quicken convalescence. 

* -sf * * * * * 

I know nothing as to the cloings of the Devils claiming 
to be the Congress of the U. S. which the public journals 
do not disclose. 

To B. G. Worth. 

Raleicut, Jan. 18/68. 
My health, I trust, is about re-established. By staying 
at home and submitting to a real siege of Doctoring I be- 
lieve I am about cured of what I feared would prove 

chronic Diarrhoea. 

-X- -X- -x- * * * -x- 

Am philosophically awaiting the orders of Canby or 
Grant to retire from the governorship, which may come at 
any hour without occasioning surprise. The helm of the 
great Ship of State seems to be in the hands of a set of 
Devils and the great nation, with comparative quiet, as- 
sents to the pilotage of these devils. We are tied here 
hand and foot — The folly of our hotspurs rushed us into 
war — and the ignoble baseness of our conquerors delights 
to torture us, involving all in a common ruin. 

If there be any sense in the great masses of the people, 
a proper rebuke to these devils and wretches they propose 
to use in executing their purposes will soon be admin- 
istered. If not, civilization will surrender to anarchy. 


• To David Heaton. 

Jan. 22, 1868. 

Haviiiff entire confidence in vr. personal honor, what- suggesting an 

. . ' . , ' . interview. 

ever may be the difference in onr views as to the prominent 
political questions of the day, it has occnrred to me that 
a confidential interview between us might result in public 
good. I am so much indisj30sed that I cannot leave my 
fireside with the approval of my physician. If you can 
perceive no improjjriety in it, as I cannot, I shall be 
gratified if 3"ou will call on me at my residence this even- 
ing or to-night, at such time as mav suit vou, to hear 
from me certain suggestions, confidentially, touching pub- 
lic affairs. I do not propose to have any friend present 
at such interview — but am willing and even prefer, that 
you bring with you Mr. Goodloe, in whose personal honor 
I have implicit confidence, — or any other political friend 
of yours for whom you are willing to vouch as a gentle- 


To David Heaton. 

Jan. 23/68. 

I regret that my indisposition forbids my leaving my 
fireside to-day — and hope that this will be deemed suffi- 
cient apology for troubling you by coming here on what 
may turn out to be of no benefit — but the interview is 
asked in perfect candor with some hope that public good 
may result from it. 

Come over whenever it may be perfectly convenient to 
you — as I am confined at home and one hour is quite as 
convenient to me as another. 


Vol. 2—31 

1138 JSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To George Makepeace. 

EaleiCtH, Jan. 2Jf/68. 

In the midst of my many cares (my health poor too) 
I am far from indifferent as to the prospects of my inter- 
est in Cedar Falls Co. I made the investment as a re- 
source for declining years and may possible be thrown upon 
it as my chief resource at no distant day. 

I have heard that you contemplate retiring from the 
management at an early day. If so, have you any one in 
view as a fit successor ? What are the present prospects of 
the company. Can a dividend be made at once without 
unduly crippling the resources of the Company ? Any in- 
formation touching the present condition and the future 
prosjiects of the Company will be most thankfully received. 
Try to wa'ite me soon. 

So heavy are the responsibilities of my situation (con- 
fined as I have been for weeks past to my fire-side by in- 
disposition) that I cannot go into an exposition of my 
views of the political situation. My decapitation at an 
early day is not improbable — but my friends shall have no 
cause to blush at such event, if it occur. 

I look for relief, at no distant day, from the action of 
the Supreme Court of the U. S. — Or if this fail, from the 
aw^akening of the intelligent N^orth to the folly of a Radi- 
cal-Disunion Congress. 

Love to Lucy. 


To /. M. Worth. 

Raleigh, Jan. 24- 1868. 
I have written David to be sure to attend meeting at 
Fayetteville on the 11th proximo. 

I write to-day to Makepeace to get at his plans. 
I am not so entirely despondent as you are as to politi- 
cal matters, though I deem it not at all improbable that I 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1139 

sliall be decapitated very soon — but I have strong faith in 
the Supreme Court of the IT. S. — and still stronger faith 
that the masses jSTorth will before very long crush Radical- 
ism. Xegro domination cannot long prevail. 

]\ly health is not re-established — and my labors, mental 
and physical, very oppressive. I feel mentally competent 
to meet all my responsibilities — ^but scarcely have strength 
to conduct my responsible correspondence and attend to 
my duties. A little freedom from care, which I shall 
get at removal from office, would probably do more than 
physic to restore my health. AVhether removed or not. 
if von return bv here from F. I think I will go down 
with you and get the benefit of a vacation and your medi- 
cal experience. As a slight specimen of my labors I will 
try to inclose you a copy of a letter I lately wrote Genl 
Canby which has extorted from him a manly letter of re- 
traxit. I hope you will read it with some pride. I am 
not sick enouffh to be a fa^^^uiino' dog. 

To M. E. Mai-dy} 

EaleiCtH, Jan. 2Jf/68. 
Our military ruler is eoui-teous enough to allow the concerning the 

G-i ^ .-, , /. -r 1 appointment of a 

ovr. and Louncil to recommend a successor of Judge judge. 

Fowle. This recommendation is likely to be ratified. 
If we make no recommendation the vacancy will 
be filled by an extreme Radical, deriving his authority to 
act exclusively from military appointment. ]^o native, 
so far as we can learn, having any pretensions to fitness, 
will take the teste oath. The alternative is presented to 
make no recommendation and thus bring on us the ap- 
pointment of A. W. Tourgee or other villianous Radical, 
having no personal or professional pretensions to be a 

1 ^Matthias E. Manly, of Craven, a former Justice of the State 
Supreme Court. He had been elected to the United States Senate in 
1865 but was not admitted. 

1140 ]N^OE,TH Carolina Historical Commission. 

judge with ignoble malevolence towards onr j)eople: — or 
selection from among the Yankees who have recently set- 
tled among ns, some one less exceptionable for another. 
Mj Conncil meets on this matter next Friday. It is repre- 
sented to me that Mr. Seymour of your place is among 
the least exceptionable of those to whose selection we are 
confined. Will yon do me the favor to confer with my 
friends Clark, Hanghton, and other prominent members 
of your bar and favor me with your views on this general 
question — and particularly as to the most fit man, among 
your acquaintances, according to your views, who would 
accept the appointment. 

[P. S.] Brevity is unavoidable with me — I am now, 
and have been for weeks, confined by illness to my fire- 

To Kemp P. Battle. 

Monday morning Jan. 26/68. 

offlciafaction^'^ Siiicc learning that Gov. Graham is of opinion that it 

wuU be inexpedient f5r you or me, in case of my removal 
from office by military authority, to resort to any legal 
steps for restoration, I am clearly of opinion that we owe 
it to ISTorth Carolina to hold on to our positions, if we can 
do so without positive dishonor. 

If you may surrender your office and funds upon a mili- 
tary mandate, without recourse to law, surely you may 
obey a mandate to surrender wo part of your funds. 

I have arrived at the conclusion that if Canby should 
issue his edict, requiring you to obey the order of the Con- 
vention, you and your bondsmen will be sunk, pecuniarily 
— and your official dignity and honor better preserved by 
a partial yielding to such order, than by a total surrender, 
which I shall regard as most disastrous to the best inter- 
ests of the State. 


I think, therefore, that it should be managed, without its 
aiDpearing to be done by your resquest, that Canby super- 
add his order to that of the Convention, and that you yield 

I put these views in writing because I desire to assume 
my full share of responsibility. 

If the state of the weather, in the opinion of my phy- 
sician shall warrant it, I will go over to my office this 
morning and confer with you. Appearances now forbid 

To Charles C. Clarh. 

Ealeigh, Jan. 28 186S. 
I thank you for yours of yesterday. 
After most diliffent inquiry previous to the meeting of Concerning- the 

" -^ "^ -^ _ ^ appointment of a 

the Council of State a month ago, neither I nor any mem- J^^dge. 
ber of the Council could name a native lawyer who would 
take the appointment to fill Judge Fowle's place. There 
was some reason to hope that Poindexter would accept. 
He was nominated: before I could get his answer I re- 
ceived a letter from Genl Canby stating that A. W. Tour- 
gee had been ''nominated to a civil office in the State and 
would have been immediately appointed," but for the fact 
that in another correspondence with the Genl., I had de- 
scribed Tourgee as a man of "most destable character." 
I had reason to believe, what turned out to be true — that 
the civil office to which he referred was this vacancy on 
the bench. The Genl. called on me, (having previously 
written to Genl. Grant that my estimate of Tourgee's char- 
acter was "not accepted") to give "the names and address 
of all persons on whose statement I based my charge." I 
replied giving him a long list embracing some half dozen 
officers of the IT. S., one respectable negro, and some 
thirty of the most prominent citizens of Guilford and ad- 
jacent counties. I wound up by stating that I had reason 

1142 ISToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

to believe the vacant civil office which he proposed to fill 
with Tourgee, was this judgship ; and that I knew no 
man every way so unfit, he having never had a license to 
practice law in this State — and his moral character being 
very bad. I then added that I had a right to infer from 
his letter that he did not intend to await or expect a 
recommendation from me and my Council which he had 
previously desired us to make : that after much delay, oc- 
casioned by difficulty in getting into communication with 
Poindexter, I had received his answer declining to accept 
— and that under all these circumstances, I did not pro- 
pose to re-convene my Council. My letter further referred 
to the fact that he had never visited the State, and that he 
had not consulted me as to a single removal or appoint- 
ment out of the many he had made in this State. My let- 
ter was as pungent as I could make it consistent with 
civility. To my surprise his reply acknowledged that my 
rebuke was just, alleging however the excuse that he had 
inferred from my delay in reporting the action of myself 
and Council, that I did not intend to act, and admitting 
that he had been led to believe that I was disposed to 
throw obstacles in the way of the administration of his 
duties in IST. C. 

In the mean time I wrote to each member of the Council 
apprising them of what had occurred. Several of them 
whose opinions you would most respect, even before I re- 
ceived the Greneral's letter respectfully apologising for his 
apparent discourtesy, strongly urged that they ought to be 
re-convened in order to make a further effort for the rea- 
sons that they hoped we could find some one willing to 
accept who would be less obnoxious to us than one ap- 
pointed by Genl. Canby, under the advice of persons here 
who have evidently got his ear. 

Under these views of several members of the Council 
and after receiving the courteous answer of G-enl. C, I 
summoned the Council to meet here next Triday. In the 
mean time I have conferred with the judges of the Su- 


preme Court and all others whom I could consult (I have 
been sick for some weeks and rarely able to go to mv of- 
fice) and thus far I have not been able to hear of any na- 
tive lawyei', young or old, in practice or out of practice, 
willing to take the test oath and the oath of office pre- 
scribed by our State and I have reason to believe that the 
judges of the Supreme Court would not recognise a judge 
not holding a comn. from the Govr. and Council. 

In view of all these facts I have been inquiring, if no 
native can be found, for some one not a native, who would 
have some respect for our laws and people ; and Mr. Sey- 
mour's name has been urged upon me by Mr. Goodloe and 
some other Republicans, who have represented to me that 
the prominent members of the ISTewbern bar would recom- 
mend Seymour. I do not know him personally nor by 
reputation, either as to personal character or legal acquire- 
ments and am in no wise committed to nominate him or 
any body else. 

I feel my position as most embarrassing — and having 
made you this long exj)lanation, I shall be most thankful to 
you, judge Manly, Mr. Haughton and other members of 
your bar, for any suggestion you will make touching my ex- 
treme perplexity, as to what is best to be done under all 
the circumstances. 

ISTew Bern. 

To D. F. Caldwell 

Raleigh Jan. 29 IS 68. 
Genl. Canby's late letters indicate that Tourgee will 
not be appointed. They are not so offensive. On the 
contrary they are not only entirely respectable but apolo- 
getic — but so far I can hear on no native who will accept 
the appointment and take the oaths — nor do I know of 
any lawyer, not a native, whom we can conscientiously 

1144 NoKTH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

My son and myself have owned $1800. of stock in the 
Coalfield E,. E,. for years. When some months ago my 
attention was called to the ammended charter, requiring me 
to appoint an agent for the State, with power to nominate 
directors (a new sort of charter) and a meeting of stock- 
holders then called and to come off in some two or three 
days, I did not have time to ascertain what were the ques- 
tions likely to arise, I nominated my son, because I be- 
lieved from his location and natural fairness, that he 
would not favor any local interest, which he might think 
conflicting with the interests of the State, nor do I now 
believe he will favor any location or other scheme not, in 
his judgment, most conducive to the best interest of the 
corporation. His appointment, as usual in case of State 
proxies, lasts to the end of the term of the present board of 

He is expected to cast all his votes for what he shall 
. deem most conducive to permanent interests of the cor- 


To John D. Whitford. 

Ealeigh, Jan. 30 1868. 
My old man Stephen was a faithful and honest seiwant, 
and since he became free maintains his good character. At 
the late election here he voted the conservative ticket 
openly. • This much to interest you for him in a very 
small matter. Just after the close of the war he loaned 
$5. in silver to Alexr. Scott, a smart bright mulatto. I 
think he is a carpenter — used to be in some way in the 
employment of the IT. C. R. R. He is a smart fellow — 
makes money — ^but from want of honesty or improvident 
carelessness, does not pay. Stephen learns he is in your 
town or a place called Little Washing'ton. I would not 
have you put yourself to any special trouble, but shall feel 

CoRRESPO]srDE]srcE OF Jonathan Woktii. , 1145 

obliged if you can find the fellow and induce him to pay 

I have never been more embarrassed in the discharge of 
my official duties. 

"I was gratified with your late effort in behalf of our 
Eastern E. Rs. and seaports. The newspapers ought to 
keep the matter before the public, reiterating the facts and 
arguments and presenting them so as to be understood by 
the common people. 


To C. A. alley. 

Raleigh, Feb. 2 1868. 
I have had a consultation with the iudges of the Su- concerning the 

J o appointment oi a 

preme Court and all the prominent lawyers of the State Judge. 
Avhom I have met since I last saw you and feel warranted 
in saying to you that your acceptance of the judgeship to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge 
Fowle would be highly agreeable, under existing circum- 
stances to the judiciary — the bar and the virtuous intelli- 
gence of the State. If you will consent to accept, I will 
nominate you. My Council are called to meet on the 4th 
inst. Please answer by telegraph. 

To Samuel B. Bunting. 

Raleigh. Feb. 2/68. 
I have not outlawed any body since I have been in office. 
If you mean by outlaws those for whose apprehension I 
have offered a reward, explain and I will have list sent to 
you. Of late I have discontinued the practice of offering 
rewards by advertisement in ITews-papers, because the 
friends of the party to be apprehended generally give him 

1146 IToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

notice. I issue printed hand bills and send them to the 
Sheriffs, Mayors, etc. in the region where I may have 
reason to believe the fugitive may be found. 

To General Canby. 

Ealeigh, Felj. 3 1868. 

Owing to accidental causes a quorum of my Council 
failed to meet on the 31st ult. Most of them explain the 
special cases which made it impossible for them to be here 
on the 31st ult. 

I have summoned again to meet on the 11th inst. 

I earnestly hope we may be able to recommend some one 
having some pretensions of fitness to be made a judge. 
My standard of fitness is attention for inquiry and power 
in legal reasoning. Since obedience to the Constitution 
and the Union are essential \_8everal words illegible.^ pi'ej- 
udice can [Several words illegible.'] manners. He should 
not only be a good man — but his past life should warrant 
and challenge the confidence of every man. A partizan 
judge will follow the stripe of his partizanship. I detest 
such, as do the honest people of ISTorth Carolina, and if 
he have not learning and firmness, he is but a tool in the 
hands of the smart lawyer on whom he [Several lines 

Charleston, S. C. 

To Rev. C. H. Wiley. 

KaleiCxH, Feb. 3 1868. 

For weeks past I have been able to attend only to the 
most urgent of my public duties, owing to constant indis- 

I have to-day read and filed in the archives of the Lit. 
Board your report touching funds in the hands of Chn — 


School houses, etc. I conceive nothing can be done in 
these matters so long as we remain under military Govern- 
ment, nor is there any probability that during my ad- 
ministration the information imported by your report can 
be taken into any account. 

I have felt myself constrained to give Mr. Best a war- 
rant for his part of the trip to JST. Y., making the sum 
total exceed $1100. I had perceived that it was not em- 
braced in the bill rendered for you, Genl. Gwynn and 
Major Bagley. I certainly would not have signed the 
warrant without a review of the details, which by no legiti- 
mate means, as I think, could be swelled to the amount I 
have allowed. It must be numbered now among the 
errors of my administration. Conceding your extraordi- 
nary past services and that your pay was ever so inade- 
quate, and even conceding that your claim against the 
board, not yet finally acted upon, ought to be allowed, I 
do not perceive any bearing whatever which these matters 
have on the subject of compensation for the trip to JST. Y. 
nor do I perceive the propriety in case the board should 
allow your claim for past services, in retaining a portion 
of it to lower the extravagant expenses of the trip to jST. 
Y. I see no benefit to arise from any further allusion to 
this (to me) most disagreeable subject, unless from the 
filing of the items making up the aggregate, it can be 
made to appear reasonable. 

The survey of W. O. Swamp is progressing at very 
heavy expense. 

I hear nothing from Maylett lately. I suppose he has 
abandoned the enterprise. I have not entirely lost hope of 
effecting a sale of W. O. Swamp, when the survey shall 
be completed — but I have faint hopes until governmental 
affairs shall assume stable form, of which there appears 
no well-grounded reasons for hope, at any early day. 


1148 NoKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To B. G. Worth. 

Ealeigh, Feb. 7 1868. 

The wine has arrived and I presume is genuine. 

My health for the past week has very greatly improved. 
I am now simply weak — have not for a week suffered from 
undue laxity of the bowels, or other affliction — and with 
returning appetite am regaining my strength. 

I am in entirely uncertainty as to the future — whether 
I shall be dismissed from office in a day or a week or a 
month or allowed to serve out the term for which I was 
elected — but, if I live and remain here this year, I think, 
and as a matter of taste and profit, want to cultivate a few 
acres of land in corn, etc and to make it turn out a good 
yield — and to this end want 10 bags best genuine Peru- 
vian GuanO'. Please send them to me by freight, not ex- 
press: and when you shall report the bill, I will remit, in- 
cluding price for wine. 

To Edward Cantivell. 

Ealeigh Fel. 10 1868. 

Your late letter asking whether a report had been made 
to me under the resolution of the Genl Assembly of Feb. 
21/66, and if so, asking for a copy of such report, has 
been reed. 

A very voluminous report, accompanied by sundry docu- 
ments and testimony, was made to me by Atto. Genl. Rog- 
ers and immediately communicated to the Genl Assembly. 
These documents are among the legislative files and not 
in my possession. The copying would involve the hiring 
of extra clerical force for at least a week's work — proba- 
bly longer. The result was an order that the matter un- 
dergo investigation by judicial proceeding, which has been 
instituted and is pending in Cumberland Supr. Court. 



To J. J. Jachsoii: 

Raleigh, Feb. 10/68. 

I have brought to a happy conclusion a most laborious canby^"^ ^^^^^ 
and dangerous correspondence. Without in the slightest 
degree lowering the colors I am trying to carry creditably 
to l^orth Carolina, Gen. Canby has frankly and honorably 
made the amende honorable, and he and his staff and the 
judge of the Supreme Court with a few others took tea 
with us tonight. He and his staff politely called on me 
at my residence immediately after his arrival here. I 
have reason to expect courteous treatment for the future 
of my official position. 

I ardently hope our people may not, by vote or inaction, 
degrade themselves by allowing it to be said they ratified 
the schemes on foot to dishonor them. 

To Clinton A. Cilley. 

Ealeigh, Feb. 13 1868. 
I am not yet officially notified whether Genl. Canby 
will ratify the action of myself and Council appointing 
you a judge. I have no reason to believe he will disregard 
it — and to-day write to Judge Shipp, requesting him to 
exchange circuits with you, as you request in yours of the 
11th inst. 


To ]Yilliam A. Wright. 

Raleigh, Feb. 13/68. 
I reed a few days ago the inclosed letter from Mrs. 
Shrier— and replied that I could do nothing upon her un- 
supported allegation. By this morning's mail I have reed 
inclosed letter from Gov. Orr. Courtesy seems to re- 

1150 ISToRTH Caeolijsta Historical CoMMissioisr. 

quire me to make some inquiry into the matter. Will you 
give me sucli information touching the matter as may en- 
able me to send some response to Govr. Orr ? 
Please return the letters with your answer. 


To D. Heaton. 

Ealeigh, Feb. 13 1868. 

'x?^^f^f}^^^ ?^% ' The friendly personal relations between us seem to re- 
appointment or a ./ J. 

^^^^^- quire some explanation in relation to a paper delivered 

to me some days ago purporting to be a petition by yourself 
and some 30 other members of your Convention, addressed 
to Genl. Canby, advising him to appoint E. W. Jones Esq 
to fill vacancy on the bench of our Supr. Court judges 
occasioned by the resignation of Judge Fowle. 

It was kno^vn that the reconstruction acts of Congress 
authorised the General to fill this vacancy and that he had 
courteously invited the Govr. and Council, according to 
our Constitution, to recommend a fit person to fill this 
, vacancy, reserving to himself the right to approve or reject 
such recommendation. I do not therefore perceive either 
courtesy or propriety in sending to me, in advance of the 
action of the Govr. and Council, a petition to fill this 
vacancy by the General. It seems to invite the disregard 
of such recommendation, as it would have been addressed 
to the Govr. and Council, if intended to influence their 

The paper sent to me purports to be the original peti- 
tion, but as the petition and signatures are in one hand- 
writing, I suppose it was intended to be regarded as a 
copy : but why sent to me, I cannot comprehend. 

If the paper had been addressed to me to be laid before 
the Council of State it would have been so treated and due 
consideration given to it. JSTot understanding why it was 
sent to me and for what purpose I have taken no action 
on it. 


I deem this explanation dne to yon and the other gentle- 
men whose names are attached to the paper. 

To General Canhy. 

RaeeicxH. Feb IJf 1868. 

I hojDe Yonr interview with onr intelligent citizens and 
the information derived from the worthy commandant of 
this Post, who has been long stationed here, will have sat- 
isfied you that the present municipal officers of this city 
have discharged their duties for the past year with remark- 
able fidelity and discretion and that our orderly population, 
whether white or black. — property-holders or non-property 
holders, (who are not mere partizans) anxiously desire 
their continuance in office, until a new election shall be 
held, or until there shall be just grounds of complaint of- 
fered against them. If you take no action in the matter 
I understand they hold over under the corporate laws, 
until their successors shall be appointed. AVith the single 
view to the good government of the town, I earnestly hope 
that you will deem non-action in the premises consistent 
with your duty. 


To Charles A. EUriclge.^ 

Raleigh, Fel. IJf 1868. 
If it be deemed necessarv bv you and others combatting outlining condi- 

T 1 -T 1 T ^ -n. "t "i-' -1 . tious in the state. 

tne devilish schemes oi Radicalism, to expose the unprin- 
cipled scheme of enfranchising any body here favoring the 
vile plan called re-construction, wholly irrespective of his 

1 Charles A. Eldridge, a native of Vermont, and at this time, and 
since 1852, a member of Congress from Wisconsin. He was in sym- 
pathy with President Johnson. 

1152 jSToETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

ante-cedents, it seems proper you should be furnished with 
authentic facts. 

For more than 25 years W. W. Holden, late Provl Govr. 
of this State, was the editor of the IST. C. Standard. I ran 
against him for Govr. in the fall of 1865. I inclose to 
you a paper, extensively circulated, in that contest. 
Holden has never impeached its exact truthfulness. From 
this you will see he was a Secessionist — violently abused 
the abolitionists — that he voted for the Ordinance of Se- 
cession in 1861 — sustained the South with violent abuse 
of the ISTorth in the early part of the war — was an ad- 
mirer of Jeff Davis etc — that he was the most ardent sup- 
porter of the Confederacy while the arms of the South 
maintained the contest with some prospect of success. See 
extracts after the war. I approved aud he disapproved, 
the terms of capitulation between Sherman and Johnson. 
. He professed to be a most ardent supporter of Prest. 
Johnson's plan of re-construction and I gave in my ad- 
hesion to it, as the best that was practical after the Sher- 
man-Johnson plan was rejected. The great burthen of his 
appeal to be elected over me was that he claimed to be a 
more reliable friend of the Prest and his policy than I 
was. I have always been known and recognized as a 
Union man, but yielded obedience to the Southern govern- 
ment and acted with fidelity to my section when war be- 
came flagrant. I was elected and re-elected Governor by 
large majorities. Then Holden turned against the Prest 
— became an ultra Radical. Before negro suffrage became 
a part of the Radical programme, he kept at the head of 
his paper ''uncompromising opposition to negro suffrage." 
Now he is a whole-hog Radical. He has always been a 
miserable political Jackall, standing off and grinning till 
the lion would throw him a bone. These bones now sup- 
port him. The public printing given him by the Clerk 
of your house, — Bankrupt and other public work keeps 
up his vitality. He is now to be made a Patriot, and 
fitted by act of Congress, to be elected Gov. of a people, 


every one of whom, having the instincts of a man, (and 
not the canine instinct,) despises him. 

You must not infer that this letter springs from hos- 
tility to Holden, growing out of political rivalry. I am 
an old man, — have seldom consented to accept political po- 
sition — always abhorred Holden as a political cameleon — 
ardently desire to retire from political strife, but hope I 
shall never quietly acquiesce in promiscuous offers by au- 
thority, to encourage villiany. 

I will not ask Congress to remove from me disabilities 
they had no right to impose, although I have been all my 
life a Constitutional Union — and law and order man. I 
inclose a paper or two, to show this — and submit whether 
it would not be well (not at my instance however) to 
move to add my name to the list to be enfranchised, so as 
to force the House to reject me and adopt Holden. I wish 
it distinctly understood that I would not go for the Radical 
schemes, for any office or reward Congress or the ISTation 
could confer on me. I entertain neither hope nor wish 
that Congress will ever make me the political equal of the 
most ignorant slave I lately owned. I suggest it only as 
a means of showing that this Congress is not willing to 
allow the people of ^. C. to choose between a constant 
Union man: and a Secessionist, anti- Abolitionist — anti- 
negro suffrage man who has spent a life time in assisting 
sectional alienation — if the Union man be not now a 

If the papers I inclose be of no use to you, please re- 
turn them. They are of fugitive character — I have had 
some trouble to find them — and in our local affairs they 
may be of use to me. 

I address you, though a stranger personally, because I 
am an admirer of your manly course in Congress — iVnd 
trust that you will not misconstrue, though it may be use- 
less, this effort to expose W. W. Holden and those who 
Avould now^ try to make a Patriot out of such base ma- 

Wasift^'gton^ J). C. 
Vol. 2—32 

1154 ISToRTJi Cakot.ina Histokical Commission. 

To Willimn Clarh. 

Ealeigh Feb 16 1868. 
Resarding the Yours of the 3rcl iiist. replying to mine of the 28th Dec. 

negro in politics, i , ■ • i.-"- j_ ,^ i 

last, giving my speciiJative views as to the negro race and 
Radicalism, was a hastily written letter ; and if construed 
as imputing unworthy duplicity to the Quakers, requires 
explanation. I have more respect for the Quakers than 
I have for any other religious sect. I regard their lives 
and doctrines as approaching nearer to the teachings of 
Jesus Christ and enlightened reason, than those of any 
other organized society "of men, but / do not believe that 
they believe that I understand them to profess to believe, 
that the negro race is capable of being made the equal in 
any thing which distinguishes civilization, with the white 
race. I think they have dwelt on the wrongs done to the 
African race until sickly sentimentality has disturbed their 
usual equanimity. It seems to me that the whole history 
of the race, confirmed by all our observation, who have 
lived with the African in America, forces the conclusion 
that the Caucasian is a superior race of man: and as the 
Quakers and other jSTorthern Radicals profess to believe 
him in all things the equal of the white man, but continu- 
ally and conclusively show by their actions that they don't 
want him (the African) as a citizen among them, while 
they court the immigration of the white race from all coun- 
tries, I do not believe them sincere in their professions. 
They are willing and anxious to • invest him with equal 
political power with the whites in the South, (necessarily 
involving social equality) they don't want him as a citizen 
among them. Are anv of vou willing to encourage the 
negro to settle in Indiana — where your property and rich 
lands would enable joxi to give him remunerative employ- 
ment and where you could extend to him the kindness and 
protection you say we will not extend to him ? — and which 
you hold justifies the keeping up of an enormous standing 
army to carry out the Radical plans which the Quakers 

Coeeespojstdeitce of Jonathajst Wokth. 1155 

approve, with the enornioiis taxation unavoidably attend- 
ing it ? If yon are really sincere why not invite the ne- 
groes to go to yon where yon conlcl take care of them and 
train them, withont the expense of the enormons army you 
vote to sustain. I think it proceeds from your internal 
consciousness that the negro is a drone — that he cannot 
(because nature has forbidden it) be made a good and 
useful citizen. You must allow me to doubt your sin- 
cerity until you invite the negro to settle among you, and 
in all things, social and palitical, to become your equal. 
/ think you all internally feel and know that the normal 
condition of the African is that of a savage — and that 
Providence, for inscrutable reasons, has made him incapa- 
ble of permanent civilization and useful citizenship. If 
you really believe him an oppressed equal the benevolence 
which is your distinguishing characteristic would make 
you invite him within your protecting influence. 

Until you invite him to go to you, you must allow me to 
fear to believe — that you are not free from the revengeful 
feeling against the South, springing from our unwise, 
wicked revolt — and that you are willing to fasten on us as 
a punishment this unprofitable dronish race. 

This is a fuller exposition of my ideas. I must not be 
understood as alienated from the Quakers: far from it, 
but I don't believe they are free from the imperfections 
which belong to human nature — and one of these imper- 
fections is the sustaining of an enormous standing army 
and Freednian's Bureau (which all of you do who sustain 
the Radicals) under pretence of protecting the negro, 
while you do not disguise your aversion to have him settle 
among you. 

I have been long suffering under infirm health: and 
though lately much improved, am still less robust than 
usual — and rarely indulge in the exposition of my views 
as to questions of the character I have discussed in this 
hastily written letter. I abhor the Democratic tendency 
of our o'overnment. I use the word democratic in its 

1156 XoETTi Carolhsta Historical Commission. 

proper — not its party — sense. The tendency is to ignore 
virtue and property and intelligence — and to put the pow- 
ers of government into the hands of mere numbers. The 
Quakers, therefore, as the advocates of universal negro 
suffrage, of course carrying with it the right to all who 
have neither property nor intelligence to vote, have be- 
come ultra democratic, and I politically part with them 
on this great fundamental principle. Men will be gov- 
erned by their interests. The majority in all times and 
in all countries are improvident and without property. 
Agrarianism and anarchy must be the result of this ultra 

Economy^ Indiana. 

To B. S. Hedriclc. 

Ealeigh, Feh. 16 1868. 
Rent of mansion. (jgj^|_ Tyler, Qr. Master of this mil. District, informs 
me he has submitted to the proper authority in Washing- 
ton his report on my application for rent for the Govern- 
or's mansion. He says it is not his province to decide for 
or against the claim — and that he has simply reported the 
facts and an estimate of the amount to be allowed — if any 
thing be allowed. I could perceive that his judgment is 
against me, as to the legality of the claim and I fear his 
report is adverse to me. 

The facts are that the Governor, in addition to his sal- 
ary, which was $3000. a year before the war, has been 
furnished with a furnished residence by the State. As the 
mansion was occupied by the military and the furniture 
missing I have supplied my own residence and furniture, 
my salary being fixed at $4000. in present currency, and 
the Genl. Assembly in lieu of supplying me with furnished 
house, passed a resolution authorising me to apply to the 
U. S. for rent for the occupation of the mansion and to 
apply such rent to my own use. 


I inferred from what was said to nie at the Qr. Master's 
department, the day jou went there with me, that the 
claim would he paid, as to occupation after the date of the 
President's peace proclamation : but I fear if I have no one 
to j^ress it, that I shall not get it. ]Srow I authorise you 
to attend to it in my behalf — or if it be inconvenient to 
you — or 3'ou deem it expedient, to employ a suitable attor- 
ney to press the claim for me. I hope I shall have no fee 
— or at all events only a small fee, to pay if nothing shall 
be allowed me. 

You will add to the many obligations I am under to 
you, if you will give attention to this matter for me. 

Washingtox^ D. C. 

To Bory McNair. 

Raleigi-1, Felj. 16th 1868. 
Yours of the llrth inst reached me last night. Genl. 
Canby had left here yesterday morning. I w^as not in- 
formed of effort to get your Count}^ officers removed. If 
you find any thing of the kind on foot, let me know, and 
I will do my best to frustrate the designs of your bad 
man Saintclair. 


To James B. Levy. 

Ealeigh, Feb. 16 1868. 
Yours of 11th Feb. inst. is received. If wrong be done 
you as one of the property holders of Wilmington and the 
Corporate authorities of Wilmington will not redress (into 
which I cannot inquire as Gov. of the State) and if any 
amendment of our general laws, or local laws, be necessary, 
I presume you are aware of the fact that Congress has 
devised a scheme of government which denies to these 
States — (the Southern States) — the right to legislate. It 


Request to ex- 
cliansre circuits. 

ISToKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

often happens that legislation is necessary to meet the oc- 
currences of onr anomalous condition. We are not al- 
lowed to legislate. Our conquerors claim the right to 
legislate for the whole nation and over corporate towns in 
the South. [Best of Utter missing.^ 
New York. 

To Judge W. M. Shipp. 

Ealeigh, Feb. 17/68. 
Mr. Cilley has heen induced at my solicitation, speaking 
in behalf of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the 
bar — so far as I could collect the opinion of the bar, to 
accept the position made vacant by the resignation of judge 
Fowle. Mr. Cilley is very desirous to swap circuits with 
you and asks me to do what I may properly do, to carry 
out his wishes. I can only say that I shall be personally 
gratified if you shall exchange circuits with him — which 
exchange, so far as I can see, will not incommode you. 


Outlining Recon- 

To Joel Lucas. 

Raleigh Feb. 18 1868. 

Your long letter of the 3rd inst. leave no doubt as to 
your interest in the welfare of the people amongst whom 
you were brought up. 

Tor several years our Country has been afflicted with 
ISTational Insanity. When the leading men of the South 
undertook to protect slavery by breaking up the Union 
and setting up a Southern Confederacy — they exhibited 
insanity. The jSTorth now, which would put us under the 
government of the negro, is still more insane. Sane men 
know that for 6000 years, the negro has in no instance 
extablished or maintained successful civil government. 
They know that he is every where a drone in the national 


hive — and hence every Xorthern State is averse to negroes 
settling among them. If they really believed him an 
equal and oppressed brother, they would invite him to 
settle among them, where they could better attend to his 
culture and fit him to aid in the march of civilization. 
What i^orthern Abolitionist wants the negro among them ? 
but their hatred to us would make this race rule over us. 
This is insane hatred. If we be ruined, our dead corpse, 
hanging upon the body of the nation, will disease the 
ivliole body. Our folly led us into a war, in which since 
the days of miracles passed away, Ave should have expected 
three strong well armed men, likelv to overcome one un- 
armed man. Our conquest was almost a certainty. The 
going into such a contest was insanity on our side, l^ow 
that we are conquered the J^orth, if national, should treat 
us as the repentant 23rodigal son — but JSTorthern insanity 
gives us only kicks and gibes — which must necessarily re- 
sult in national ruin. There are some symptons of re- 
turning sympathy and sense, in our conquerors. I do not 
think we can do much in any way to aid this returning 
sanity. The general fact is known that we acknowledge 
and submit to the results of war. We still have some 
self respect. When we are called upon, by our OAvn act. 
to declare that we deem it expedient that the negro shall 
hereafter be our rulers — when the national legislation asks 
me for instance, by my vote, to say that the most ignorant 
of my late male slaves ought to rule and that / ought not 
to have any hand in the government, because, when 1 
could not prevent the late rebellion, and the United States 
could not protect me, I yielded obedience to the govern- 
ment established here, I will not yield to such insane de- 
mand. I can perceive no course open to us only to hope 
for returning sanity among our conquerors and in the 
mean time to submit to what we cannot resist : but not to 
give voluntary assent to put on and w^ear the chains which 
a generous conqueror would despise to ask us to wear. 
I was glad to hear from you. Hope you have im- 

1160 jSToetii Caeolixa Histoeical Commission. 

proved your furtuiie by removal and glad to find you feel 
an interest in those among whom you were brought up in 
this time of sore calamity among them. 
TnoKNTOwisr, Iowa. 

To Mr. Coivan^ 

Feb. 18/68. 
Afifeireonhe w. c. I have carefully examined the paper yesterday, relating 
to the W. C. & R. Rail Road, you placed in my hands, 
purporting to have been prepared by you. I treat you as 
responsible for the facts therein set forth. 

On this assumption the W. C. R. R. must soon pass into 
the hands of strangers, to the total loss of the State and 
individuals who have done so much to build it, if the 
proposed relief asked from the Convention by this paper 
be not made effectual : — and you and Mr. Porter assure me 
it cannot be made effectual without my signature to the 
certificates of your bonds — toiwit that the Convention now 
sitting has passed the ordinance therein referred to. 

Of course you ought to have my signature to prevent a 
calamity so terrible, if I may give it without great official 
unpropriety, as you aver such signature is essential to the 
success of the plan. 

I regard this Convention as an assemblage called in vio- 
lation of the fundamental provisions of our government — 
and I further think, even if it were constitutionally called, 
that no power is conferred on it by Acts of Congress which 
called it ; — or the election of the delegates under such 
acts, to -pass the ordinance for the relief of your corpora- 
tion ; and consequently I can do no act not in consistency 
with these convictions ; nevertheless I perceive that the 
certificate asked of me, is simply an affirmation that the 
Convention has passed such ordinance and not an affirma- 
tion of my opinion that such ordinance is rightfully passed 

1 Probably R. H. Cowan, of Wilmington. 


— Even ill this view I am embarrassed in giving my sig- 
nature, because I do not perceive bow I can officially know 
that any such ordinance has passed: — but in view of the 
terrible calamity to result from my refusal to sigTi it, I 
overlook what may be regarded as a technality, perhaps, 
and will sign it, when the passage of the ordinance shall 
be duly certified to me by the President of the Convention. 

To B. G. ^Yorill. 

RaleiCxH, Felj. 21 1868. 

My health is now pretty good. Gov. Graham's speech 
is not yet published. It was off hand. He is one of the 
very few men of America — who is great intellectually 
without a particle of demagogueism — a manly, virtuous, 
honorable statesman. 

To B. S. HedncJc. 

Raleigh Feb. 2Jf 1868. 
By the inclosed papers you will see my claim for rent Rent of the 

'^ III/ i/ mansion. 

for Govr's mansion has been rejected contrary to my ex- 
pectations as derived from the officers we saw in the Q.M's 

I doubt whether the claim has been duly considered. It 
is not a claim in behalf of the State. The use of the 
mansion is by law one of the rights or perquisites of Gov- 
ernors. At least after the Prest's. proclamation of peace, 
the military should have surrendered it to me. I fur- 
nished my own house because the military occupied that 
provided for me by law, and the Genl Assembly passed a 
resolution, authorising me \_line iJlegihle'] amount of the 
U. S. to apply such rent to my personal use. It is in 
effect a part of my salar}^ — a purely personal right. The 

1162 jSI'oeth Caeoluvta Historical Commission. 

Govt, has paid every private citizen here for rent of his 
house occniDied by the military, at least since this peace 
proclamation. If they choose to occupy the governor's 
house, I cannot understand why I should not be paid for 
such occupation. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To General Canby. 

Feh. 2J^th 1868. 
Relating to claim Owinff to the absence of the Prest. of the Wilmiuffton, 

against the W. C. ° & ? 

&R. R. R. Charlotte & Eutherford E. E. and other causes I have not 

been able to close my investigation with the complaint of 
Messrs. Vance & Dowd against the Company, which you 
referred to me some time ago, so promptly as was desir- 

I reed yesterday certain papers touching the matter. I 
regard them as throwing no new light on the matter. 

I am satisfied the claims of the plaintiffs are just and 
meritorious — and believe the officers of the company are 
anxious to pay them, w^henever they can get means to do 
so. — The Company is in the most deplorable financial con- 
dition of any of our Eoads. The Convention now sitting 
passed an ordinance a few days ago intended to enable 
the corporation to continue their operations by a loan of 
money and the agencies of the Eoad are endeavoring, as 
they assure me, with good hopes of success to raise money 
very soon, but whatever may be the result, I cannot per- 
ceive that the plaintiffs ought to have from you the re- 
lief they ask, for the reasons set forth in my former re- 
port — and especially and forcibly reported by Capt. La- 

Charleston^ S. C. 

CoKEESPOiN^DE:NrcE OF Jojstatiia^^ Wokth. 1163 

To John M. Morehead. 

Feb. 25th 186S. ' 

I was taken quite by surprise the other day when you Business matters. 
told me you and your family felt grateful to me for my 
agency in bringing to final settlement the long protracted 
and important controversy between yr father and IST. C. 
R. E. You properly appreciated my motive. I hold that 
every upright and judicioiis man, whether acting for him- 
self or as agent or trustee for others, is anxious to bring 
to a close the controversies which are continually spring- 
ing from business. I was attached to your father. 
Mutual kindness and respect had always existed between 
us. I desired also to deserve well of the State which had 
honored me by confiding to me her most important inter- 
ests. I therefore suggested the reference of this con- 
troversy to Judge Ruffin and Govr. Graham, because from 
their character for intelligence and probity, no body could 
doubt they would settle it justly and more intelligently 
and satisfactorily than it could be done by the Courts. 
In making the suggestion I sought to serve all the parties 
concerned. You did not misconstrue my motives : but I 
understood you as desiring in behalf of your father's rep- 
resentatives to signify your thanlvs to me for my agency 
in closing this controversy in a manner- to which nobody 
could except, who looked to a fair settlement of it. It 
resulted in relieving you and all concerned from anxious 
and protracted litigation. In this view of the matter, I 
accept, with great pleasure, the present you propose. 

When I became a member of the bar of ISTorth Carolina, 
I was very poor. I had no wealthy relative. I had mar- 
ried a wife poor as myself. At that time your father's 
pecuniary condition was far better than mine. He loaned 
me money when he knew I had no present means for pay- 
ment, and it was long before my talent, not of precocious 
order, enabled me to pay. He did not mortify me by ask- 
ing for payment before I was able to pay — and I did not 

1164 JSToRTi-i Caeomna Histoeical Commission, 

delay payment when I was able to make it. Cordial re- 
lations always existed between ns. 

With these views I accept your present with cardial 


To J. Turner. 

Feb. 25 1868. 
Railroad matters. I belicve ill practice, the Board of Internal improve- 
ment, after the appointment of the State's proxy and 
Directors, has regarded itself as functus officio — and hence 
perhaps, I should not trouble them with my views: but I 
had requested Capt. Berry, at the annual meeting last 
July to offer a resolution, looking, without prejudice to the 
freighter, to carry freight the longest distance possible 
on the Roads in which the State is interested, not as an iur 
jury to any other corporation, but because, as I conceived, 
the interests of the State required it and the common usage 
of business required us to do every thing possible for 
the State and not working wrong to it. He offered such 
a resolution which was adopted — unanimously I am in- 
formed. I am informed however that this resolution is 
rendered inefficient and freights still leave the State 
Roads at Raleigh, without benefit to the freighter and to 
the great loss of income to the State Roads, by reason of 
certain co-operative plans of operation between the Di- 
rectors on the ]Sr. C. R. R. and the R. & G. R. R. I am 
not thoroughly acquainted with the details, but I feel 
sure our people would prefer to patronise the State's 
Roads, not to their pecuniary prejudice, if left free to 
act — and I learn that very large amounts of freight, with- 
<out benefit to the freighter, are still diverted; to the great 
detriment of the State, from her roads. I fear the Direct- 
ors on the IT. C. R. R. are not carrying out fully Gapt. 
Berry's resolution, which I regard them as officially bound 


to execute. I do not go into the modus — because I do not 
fully understand it — but I believe this resolution is made 
inefficient bv some action, or non-action on the part of the 
Directors of the ]Sr. C. E. R. which I will endeavor more 
clearly to understand should it continue to be my duty 
to look after the interests of Xorth Carolina in her In- 
ternal Improvement investments. 

I do not believe a large majority of freighters would 
disregard the interests of the State if the Directors of 
your Board were in earnest in carrying out Capt. Berry's 

CoMPANY''s Shops. 

To ^VilViam A. Graham. 

Feb. 27 1868. 

J^orth Carolina, you know, looks to you as her leader 
in the |)i'esent stringency of political affairs. 

Your speech at the late Conservative Convention has 
not been published and many are ignorant of your plans 
to carry out your views. 

It is generally understood that you accept the issue 
forced on us whether the negro or the white man is to be 
dominant, and that you accept no middle ground. 

I had entertained the view that upon some qualified 
basis of property or intelligence, negroes should be al- 
lowed to exercise a limited political power. I had in- 
clined to this position — but vdth doubts whether we should 
not place ourselves on the broad ground that this is a 
white man's government — and that white men" only must 
be its political managers. I understand you as having 
taken the latter position. — Although not perfectly satis- 
fied that the course is exactly right or the most 
politic — I yield my doubts and I shall heartily co-operate 
in your views, being satisfied that co-operation is indispen- 
sable to enable us to preserve any semblance of civil 

1166 ISToETii Carolina Historical Commission. 

Assenting tiien to the position, I understand yon as 
thinking that the negro is to have no part in the civil gov- 
ernment. I have not understood — and do not understand 
— vour plans, in [Tivo ivords illegible] looking to the 
carrying ont of these principles. 

I know that it is contemplated to make Vance onr can- 
didate for Govr. in the coming election under the recon- 
struction Congressional plan. 
tivelucce^ss'^^^^^"^' ^ concur in the soundness of his jDolitical views and 
know his efficiency as a canvasser and if this object be 
chiefly to put him in opposition to canvass the State and 
thus defeat the adoption of the Constitution which will 
be proposed to us, it may possibly be a judicious plan — 
but I have been unable to yield my entire concurrence in 
it. The genuine object is to defeat the adoption of the 
Constitution. It seems to me, if we succeed in this, we 
must carry with us a large portion of our people such as 
are to be found in Alamance, Griiilford, and elsewhere 
who will not vote for him, and may thus be induced to 
vote for ratification. If we are to choose a candidate for 
Governor, members of Congress, and bring forward as our 
candidate men whom the great body of our people will sup- 
port with enthusiasm, but whose war record will drive 
Goodloe, Helper, the Quakers, etc into the support of the 
Radicals, I fear we will fail in our main object. ISTo good 
man can desire to be elected Governor under the Consti- 
tution about to be proposed to us. I would myself de- 
cline such a position — but to accomplish our object — the 
rejection of the pro|)osed constitution — our candidates 
should be most equivocally opposed to it — but not odious 
to moderate — or rather equivocal Radicals. If Goodloe 
and his followers be entirely driven from us, we shall be 

The drift of this letter may lead you to think I am seek- 
ing the nomination. I desire nothing so much as repose- 
There is no office I want — and I sincerely hope a more suit- 
able man can be nominated — but I am firmly convinced, if 
we succeed, our nominee must be somebody whose antece- 


dents are of tlie character of my own — and I have been 
nnable to think of any body, if we are to have a candidate 
for Govr, whose name will suit so well as my own — but 
you must not let this frank avowal ( — immodest — or pre- 
sumptions — yon may deem it) mislead you. I shall co- 
operate with you in the nomination you may make, with 
all my might — and while I would not refuse the use of 
my name, if I know myself I would yield to its use from 
no other than the most unseliish patriotism. 

It seems to me that we ought to defer any concentra- 
tion on our candidates for the present — until we see the 
final action of the Convention and the direction of the late 
action of Congress. 

These views are presented for your personal considera- 
tion — without any wish or expectation of an answer, with, 
perhaps, imprudent frankness. 

To Z. B. Vance. 

Ealeigh Mar 2/68, 
I hear various rumors as to whether you wdll consent Advising lum not 

to accept nomina- 

to run under late nomination. tion for governor. 

I hear much on the subject. Very many of those act- 
ing with us, who were ultra Union men, greatly disap- 
prove the nomination. While we all know that you don't 
want to be elected — that the object is to defeat the ratifica- 
tion of the Constitution, and that there is not a man in the 
State whose power with the masses equals yours, very 
many of us think you ought to canvass under the appear- 
ance of entire disinterestedness. You could in fact be 
disinterested. You don't tvant to he elected under the 
Constitution. Iso patriotic man would desire to be 
elected imder this Constitution. The question simply is 
would your running tend to defeat ratification. 

I think, if you will not canvass, save as a candidate, it 
will be best for the State that you accept. Your services 

11 68 N'oETii Cakolhsta Histoeical Commission. 

as a popular sjDeaker are indispensable, but as your sincere 
friend personally and politically, I think you ought not to 
be placed in a position of soliciting election to an office 
you don't want — and could hardly accept. I think, if you 
will consent to render the State yr invaluable services in 
rousing our people from their fatal lethargy, it would be 
more agreeable to you, and more efficacious^ that you ap- 
pear as the disinterested advocate of another. 

I shall sustain you openly and earnestly, whatever may 
be your decision — but I am satisfied you can render more 
efficient service in the present emergency, and a service 
tending more to the elevation in future due to your talents 
and patriotism, by canvassing for Lash, Haiies or other 
man of like political stripe, than by canvassing for your- 
self for a place you do not want. Large numbers of con- 
servative Quakers in Guilford, Randolph and elsewhere 
and many others of like views over the whole State, will 
not now vote for you, and may thus be prevented from 
voting on the main question. 

I have not been consulted at all on this matter by any 
body, and must be regarded as a volunteer in expressing 
these views. 

If in looking to the votes of these Quakers and others 
of like stripe, we are likely to lose many voters who would 
ardently support you, and would not another equally con- 
servative, I would at once abandon the opinions I have ad- 
vanced. My great object is to use the most efficient means 
to defeat Radiccdism. 

If the candidate must canvass for himself, I would sug- 
gest Genl Leach. 

If my name should be thought to be more efficient than 
that of Hanes, Lash or other person of like political stripe, 
it may be used, but I not only do not desire it, but have 
aversion to it. It may be that in the present temper of 
the public mind, that Edgecombe and other parts of the 
State of like views, would not rally under Hanes or Lash 


and that they ivould sustain me. Personally I prefer that 
it be any body, rather than myself — , but I would allow 
nothing personal to interfere with the main object. 

I am afraid the frankness of this communication, even 
in your mind, may be misconstrued, — which would be 
mortifying- to me but the mens conscia recti which has al- 
ways sustained me, emboldens me to obtrude my views on 
you, believing you will consider them with candor and 
give to them such consideration as they deserve. 


To Joslah Turner. 

Mar. 8 1868. 
I desire to say to you, for you to use as you may think 
proper among our friends (not for the press) that if Lash 
w^ill say unmistakably so, that he regards the reconstruc- 
tion acts as unconstitutional, and that he is opposed to the 
ratification of the Constitution, which will shortly be sub- 
mitted to the State, that his name will be the best one 
you can present in place of Vance's — and further that 
I would much prefer that he be nominated, than that / 
should. If our friends nominate me I will not decline, 
but I decidedly prefer that I may not be nominated. 

To A. 8. Merrimon. 

Mar. 9 1868. 
I hear that some of our friends speak of nominating Declaring his 

,1 r^ , ■ ^ T 1 , (> ^ determination not 

me as tne Conservative Candidate lor Governor. tomnfor 

T 1 • • •-If Governor. 

i desire to say m unequivocal form, that I do not de- 
sire such nomination. 

I think it essential to the main object, to-wit, — the de- 
feat of the new Eadical Constitution, that our Candidate 
shall have a good Union record — and if a genteel man 
Vol. 2—33 

1170 jSTorth Caeolina Histoeical Commission. 

can be found, who would not be disfranchised by the 
Howard amendment and who is not a Radical, it would be 
most politic to nominate him. 

If such man cannot be found I think yoiir name would 
be eminently acceptable to our party, and personally I 
would much prefer that you be nominated instead of my- 
self — but — if our friends, against my wishes, deem it 
best to nominate me, I feel that I ought not to decline the 
use of my name. 

If Lash will say he is opposed to the ratification of the 
Constitution to be proposed to us, I think he is the man to 
be nominated. 

Raleigh^ IsT. C. 

2^0 E. J. Warren-. 

Raleigh. Mar. 10/68. 

I received some weeks ago a voluminous report of 
agents of General Canby touching the conviction of Jas. 
P. Mitchell, asking me to pard.on him on the ground of 
uncertainty whether Allen was not yet alive. The bur- 
then of the application rested on the alleged ground that 
the proofs (other than the evidence of fellow prisoners of 
the convict of bad character) left it very doubtful whether 
Allen was not still alive and consequently averring that 
there was no proof that a homicide had been committed — 
much less fixing the guilt on him. His petition, herewith 
inclosed, sets forth the gist of the military application. I 
sent these voluminous papers to Mr. Taircloth (being more 
accessible than yourself) and asked his commentary 
thereon. He replied that he had no memoranda of the 
proofs of the trial — but that he thought you had — but 
stating that the evidence satisfied him on the trial that 
the prisoner was guilty. I refused the pardon. Having 
reed since my refusal, the inclosed petition from the pris- 
oner, I shall be obliged by jowr commentary thereon, to 
aid me in the exercise of the discretion intrusted to me. 


[P. S.] Since writing the above I have reed letter 
from Genl. Canby desiring your statement of the facts 
which were proved on the trial. 

To William A. Graham. 

Ealeigh. Mar 10 1868. 
I regarded your speech before the late Conservative conceminff the 

, '^ , . guberaatorial 

Convention as placing us before the nation and the world nomination, 
in not only a defensible, — but in a proud attitude. I 
concur fully in all its views. If we were left free to 
form a constitution — and the negroes were not banded 
against the whites, I would grant to those of them hold- 
ing a given amount of property, the right to vote. This, 
I think, would be right per se — and consequently politic. 
If I am nominated for Govr. I shall accept, but from 
a pure sense of duty. I prefer that it fall on Merrimon, 
or any other man ec/ually available. I am afraid my can- 
dor may subject me to the suspicion that I seek the nomi- 
nation. — Very far from it is the tnith. I will feel re- 
lieved if another equally available can be found, who will 
accept. I go to Randolph to-day and shall not return for 
a week. If I should be nominated, I would not be present. 
I have written a note to Merrimon that I prefer that he 
b)e nominated rather than myself. The real object is to 
defeat the ratification of the Radical Constitution. If Lash 
will say he opposes its ratification, as he is eligible under 
fhe Howard amendment, I think his nomination would be 
more available that Merrinion's or mine — and on this con- 
dition I favor it. 


1172 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

ToA.C. C. Worth. 

Ealeigh, N. C. Mar. 22 1868. 

Yours of the lOtli inst. came to hand last night cover- 
ing your photograph executed in the best style of the art. 
Accept my cordial thanks for it — but I was more pleased 
with the sentiments of your letter than with the tokeji of 
your regard it contained. 

I had previously deemed that your actions prove what 
you say — that you are "striving to be a man" \_Word il- 
legible^ Worth has a son of whom his father may be 
proud. JSTature has endowed you with the talent to suc- 
ceed in the object of your vocation — and I am rejoiced to 
learn that your are falling into none of the views to which 
youth are so prone — that you have the ambition necessary 
to success, tempered by all the rules of integrity and vir- 
tue essential to real satisfaction in life and rational hopes 
of the future. He is really a great man, whether occupy- 
ing elevated position or not, who never allows the tempta- 
tions continually besetting him to get a temporary benefit, 
or to gratify the demands of passion, to disregard the rules 
of sensible integrity or the other laws of morality which 
the religion we profess inculcates. But there is a 
happy medium in all things. Industry,, Religion, every 
virtue may be run into an excess nearly as reprehensible 
as Indolence and the other opposing views. Since Pope 
used the expression "an honest man is the noblest work 
of God", the expression has been on the tongues of all 
men, and the sentiment of mankind has endorsed with 
equal unanimity the homely saying (Dr. Franklin's, I be- 
lieve) that "Honesty is the best policy". Resolve — in- 
flexibly resolve — whatever temptations may beset you, to 
be honest in all things — And you cannot fail to command 
the respect of one whose esteem will be of more value to 
you and yield you more comfort than all the honors the 
fickle multitude can confer on you. I mean — so act in 
all things as to command your own self respect. 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1173 

If my example has not in all things reached this high 
standard, I have at least endeavored to act on these prin- 
ciples — and hope I have not fallen further short of my 
jDurpose than is the necessary incident of human frailty. 
I have used no unworthy expedients to acquire property or 
popularity — and think the results in my case confirm the 
adage that "honesty is the best policy. At a period when 
the misfortunes of our people made them look for a safe 
leader, without effort on my part, I was elected Go^'ernor — 
and re-elected without regular opf)Osition. ISTo other Govr. 
was ever elected in this State without an opposing candi- 
date. I shall shortly retire by the expiration of my term ; 
or by removal by military authority ; with about universal 
approbation. The only f)olicy I have pursued was honesty 
-^a sincere diligent effort to discharge all my duties so 
as to have a conscience not reproaching me with wrong 
to any of my fellow men. 

IN'ew York City. 

To Dennis Ileartt.^ 

Ealeigh ilfar. S2 1868. 
W. W. Holden, Solm. Pool, Deweese, and C. L. Harris 
sent to Genl. Canby a petition asking that Mr. Hogan be 
appointed Shff. of Grange instead of Mr. Turner recom- 
mended by you and others. I have recommended the ap- 
pointment of Turner on the ground of the petition signed 
by you and others. Genl. Canby sent both petitions to 
me for my remarks. I don't know his decision. You will 
not notice this in your paper, but I do not object to your 
stating the facts, or showing it to others. 


iThe editor of the Hillsboro Recorder. 


jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission. 

To James Rush. 

Kaleigii Mar. 25 1868. 

You will perceive, as soon as you read the new Con- 
stitution that if it be adopted, taxation will very soon 
swallow up the landholders of this State. 
Opinion of Ashe. Ashe is a good man — an old Union Henry Clay Whig 
who got wrought up higher than you or I, for the war, 
but the choice is between him and Holden, who has al- 
ways lived by sectional strife. I would vote for Ashe if 
the new order of things allowed me any vote. If you can- 
not induce our friends to vote for him, if they are true 
peace and Union men, they should not vote for the prince 
of Secessionists and agitation. There is no baser man than 
Holden as a politician. If they will not select the lesser 
of what they regard as two evils, let them not vote at all 
as to Governor. If we are not to become Mexicanized and 
lose sight of civilization and [Word illegible] we must 
put do-wn the proposed Constitution. Get every body to 
vote against the Constitution whether they will vote for 
Ashe or not. 

Concerning the 



To Z. B. Vance. 

Mar 25 1868. 

Yours of the 22nd inst. has been reed. I have car- 
ried out your sugestion, as far as I think I can prudently 
go, in a letter to Genl. Canby, a copy of which will be 

I am sorry that I was not in your dagu. gallery at Euth- 
erfordton. It would have done me good to see the 

There is no man among us fitter to be made Governor 
than Ashe — but the substitution of his name for yours 
will not help us. I feel relieved at being out of the ring, 


and think onr friends did right, under all the circum- 
stances, in not nominating me. Merrimon or some one 
having no record — or a very specific record — and who is 
now unmistakablv opposed to the ratification of the mon- 
ster constitution, w^ould have been more available. I fear 
the Quakers and their influence will not go for Ashe. 
Many of them might have been induced to vote for a nomi- 
nee suiting us as well. But this is now settled. Hurrah 
for Ashe. 

Every good man in the State owes you gTatitude for 
the effort you a]'e making to prevent a reign of scallawag- 
ism in X. C. 


To Colonel J. V. Bomford. 

Mar. 26 1S6S. 

I learn from Secty. Best that a party of soldiers who 
yesterday brought wood into the Capitol Square for the 
use of the military now occupying a room in the building, 
drove their wagon against one of the iron gate posts and 
broke it down. Mr. Best says he saw them run against 
the post and break it down, but he does not know the 
names of the ^^arties : — that he requested them to carry 
it to the foundry to be mended which they refused. I 
respectfully request that you investigate the matter and 
cause the wrong-doers to pay the expense of rep.Tirs. 


To A. S. Kemp. 

Mar. 26 '6S. 
The body of your late letter which reached here in my 
absence, w^as attended to by my private secty. tie re- 
tained the Post-Script in which you express the belief 
that I ouG'ht to have been re-nominated for Govr. 

1176 NoKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

There were considerations against it. If I were nomi- 
nated it was feared mv acceptance of the nomination 
would be considered by Genl. Canbv as opposition to re- 
construction, and that I would be immediately removed 
and an odious successor appointed. This was a weighty 
consideration, — especially if the new Constitution be de- 
feated, which all good and sensible men ought to strive 
to effect. It is a monstrosity. Chaos is preferable to it. 
It would tie us as to reformation. The negroes and their 
meaner co-adjutors under the provisions of this Constitu- 
tion would always defeat amendment. 

I did not personally desire the nomination. . I have 
been twice elected by the voice of the people — in the sec- 
ond election without regular opposition — the first instance 
of the kind in our history. My ambition ivas more than 
satisfied. If our friends had deemed it best for the 
State to run my name in this contest, I would have con- 
sented to it from motives of patriotism only. They Jcneiv 
I did not personally desire the nomination. I am con- 
scious that in allowing my name to be run against ITol- 
den in 1865 — when the prospects of defeat were strong — 
and in all my subsequent actions — I have acted from un- 
selfish motives — And I am gratified with the belief that 
our whole people accord to me patriotic motives, and, with 
the exception of Holden, feel no malevolence against me, 
and it is not improbable that my name would have been, 
as you think, the most available one to defeat the monster 
demagogue, Holden : but I am not sure our friends did 
not act discreetly in the premises. I think there should 
be no hesitation in preferring Ashe to Holden — And that 
no good man, entitled to vote, should fail to vote against 
the Constitution. 

I always desired, as I do now, to support the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. When the State arrayed her- 
self against it, as I understood it, against my judgment, 
I yielded obedience to the "powers that be" and therefore 
acted with fidelity to my new engagements. I desire 


Uniou ou the basis of the Coustitution — but not the Union 
proposed to us by the Radicals. 

To George Laws.^ 

Mar. 27 18GS. 

Yours of the 25th inst. came to hand to-day and is 
forwarded to Genl. Canby with request for prompt action. 

He lately forwarded to me for my remarks a petition 
signed by you, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Hiatt and others recom- 
mending the appointment of Turner. Also correspondence 
between your Bureau officer and Genl. Miles, in which 
the officer endorses your reconnnendation. Also a peti- 
tion signed by W. W. Holden, Deweese, Sol. Pool, and 
C. L. Harris recommending the appointment of a Mr. 
Hogan. I replied that the later petitioners were parti- 
zans and non-residents of Orange, excepting Pool, and en- 
dorsing your recommendation. I conclude the reference 
to me has occasioned some delay in filling the office. My 
letter to Genl. Canby was sent on the 21st inst. 


To B. S. Hedrich. 

Mar. 30 186S. 

Have you some leisure to give any attention to my 
claim for rent as to Governor's mansion ? I would like 
that the case be fully presented. The laws of the State 
entitle the Governor to the occupancy of the mansion as 
much as they do to his salary. The occupancy of the mil- 
itary prevented the enjoyment of this right. I have been 
recognized, at least, as a provisional governor. Does it 
comport with the dignity of the U. S. to occupy the house 

1 Clerk of the Orano-e Court. 

1178 North Carolina Historical Commission. 

provided for the residence of .the Governor, and thus leave 
him to look out for a house, and pay nothing for the oc- 


Opinion as to A niaxini of niv life has been never to despair. I in- 

conditions in the ''^ _ ^ 

iiation. tend to adhere to it to the last : but the action of the ma- 

jority of Congress on the question of the Alabama Con- 
stitution — the apparent acquiescence in this action by 
the jS[orth ; — the ignoble action of the Supreme Court, 
showing that the judges are governed only by the motives 
M^hich control the ignoble judges, have subjected my 
maxim to a severe teste. I now despise the occupants of 
the Supreme Judicial Tribunal of the IT. S. The spell 
which made me regard them as the surest and safest' 
guaranty of civil liberty, — is gone. The judges prove to 
be mere mortals — carried away by the popular current. 
The reconstruction acts are so palpably in violation of 
the Constitution of the U. S. that no sane man could 
hesitate. The judges dare not so declare. The vox populi 
is now the last resort. If it shall sustain the powers that 
be, virtue and intelligence and honor will have no prop 
left and we must drift into a rev(3lution which the eddy- 
ing currents will direct. 1 verily believe that history 
furnishes no example where baser men have acquired con- 
trol — and none where these men have used it more ex- 
clusively for the ignoble purpose of mere partizenship. 
I have not a particle of confidence in the patriotism or 
personal honor of any member of the majority in Con- 
gress. I respect Thad. Stephens as the prince — admire 
his manly courage ; but despise the cringing wretches 
whose actions are governed by the crack of his whip. 

I regard with terror the next phase in our political 
affairs, and on mere personal grounds would fly my coun- 
try — but have decided to abide the fate which awaits us. 
This fate, — I believe — is- first anarchy — and then despot- 
ism. Despotism for the whole United States — now prac- 
tically existing in the Southern States. Although there 
is no man in the United States who has alwavs more ar- 


dentlv desired to preserve the Constitution and the Union, 
than I have, I can perceive in the legislation of Congress 
nothing but party domination. Your friend Bingham 
whom I had regarded as not utterly debased by party ties, 
is now struggling to be placed in the front of those who 
w^ould persecute us. I regard him as having lost all moral 
principle, and hence detest him more than I do the prince 
of darkness whose noble traits of character relieve him 
from petty matters. 

I have indulged in free expression of my sentiments. I 
grieve over the fall of the Supreme Court. Its members 
must be despised by all who retain any manliuess of sen- 
timent. I abhor the Congress which, I think, meditates 
the overthrow of Civil liberty as established by our con- 

You will regard these sentiments as uncharitable. I 
solemnly think they are not. I do not believe there is any 
honest man on the majority benches of Congress, unless 
it may be a few silly enthusiasts form an exception. 

Wasiiixgtox. D. C. 

To Benjamiji Lavender. 

Ealeigh a pi ^ 1868. 

A severe indisposition has prevented an earlier answer 
to yours of the 30th ult. 

As a lawyer I presume you will concur with me (also 
formerly a lawyer) that the Governor can do nothing of- 
ficially in your case. In its present condition it belongs 
to the judicial — not the executive branch of the State gov- 

N'o man can feel more fully than I do that your case 
requires the protection of the laws, and most willingly 
will I give any aid in my power to give you such protec- 
tion, but it seems to me you could file your complaint on 
affidavit, with a magistrate of the Countv in which the 

1180 North Cakolina Historical Commission. 

offence was committed, and if he sliall fail to issue his 
warrant, or any officer bound to obey it, shall neglect his 
duty, he should be indicted. The Solr for the State can- 
not fail to send a bill of indictment on your application, 
and to prosecute with yigor an outrage so wicked and 

I have heard much, in partizan circles, of partiality 
on the part of our judicial officers, in favor of men of 
Southern sentiment against Union men and negroes. In 
every special case to which my attention has been called, 
on inquiry I have found such complaints without color or 
foundation. jSTo one would lament more than I, or lend 
the whole force of his official and personal position to 
punish any instance of such want of judicial upright- 

Assuming that you know, upon the facts set forth in 
your letter, that I have no official authority to take any 
official action (if you should not think so please explain 
what you think I can rightfully do) it occurs to me as 
possible that you think I ought to ask for the extraordi- 
nary interference of the military now exercising domin- 
ion over us. With my present views I cannot do this. If 
your purpose is to ask me to call on the military in aid of 
the civil authorities please explain how you think I, elected 
as Civil Governor, may properly do this, especially where 
no evidence is furnished of any deviation of duty on the 
part of the judicial authorities of the State. 

I feel personally very solicitious to give you any aid I 
can properly use to bring to just punishment the perpe- 
trator of the gTievous wrong done to you. 



To John McCormicJc. 

Raleigh. Apl Jf 1868. 
* ****** 

I am gratified to find our people waking np to their 
political prospect. If the plans of Congress shall be car- 
ried out we are an utterly ruined people. If the negroes 
and the meaner whites are to rule and the most intelligent 
of our people to be excluded from office : If such base 
scam]3S as Holden, Rodman, etc. are to hold the highest 
offices, and we are to pay, the taxes required by the pro- 
posed Constitution, the property of the people of this 
State must pass into other hands. Surely the taste of 
Radicalism which your people get in the per diem bill and 
mileage of the Convention — and particularly the rascally 
greediness of Turner, will insure to Conservatism every 
white man's vote in Harnett^ — excepting the poor devils 
ivlio seeh office to steal the people's money. 

ITaenett C. H. 

To Sion II. Rogers. 

Raleigh Apl. 5 1868. 

Please read inclosed letter — and if you think you can 
make any suggestion to the petitioner, please communicate 
it to me. I know of nothing I can do, as Governor, in 
the premises. 

Please return the letter to me. If you choose to make 
any suggestion you can endorse it or attach it to the letter. 

I presume you know the wunter. I do not. 


1 The delegate from Harnett county who, living only thirty miles 
from Raleigh, certified to 524 miles. 

1182 JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Gaius Winningham. 

Ealeigh Apl 5 1868. 

It distresses me that the continual pressure of public 
responsibilities makes it impossible for me to keep up cor- 
respondence with mj life long friends. 

The new government proposed for us denies to me, who 
am now and always was a better Union man than any 
body who now abuses me, the right to vote or to hold 
office. Under it I am not eligible as a constable, but my 
late slaves — Don, Jordan, etc., can vote and may be 
elected to any office. 

The new government requires the imposition of taxes 
amounting to confiscation. 

If any white man, not an offi.ce seeker, can be found 
willing to adopt such a Constitution, he must be a natural 
fool — and any man willing to ask for office under the terms 
of the proposed constitution is a wretch whose posterior 
every honest man ought to kick. 

To Colonel W. G. Moore. 

Ealeigh, Apl. 8fh 1868. 
Case of Toiar, etc. Papers ou file with the President show (undisputed by 
any body) that some 18 months ago a negro named Beebe 
attempted to commit a rape on a young lady in sight of 
Fayetteville as she was returning from church on Sunday. 
Her character was above reproach. Her screams called to 
her rescue an old negress living hard by, whereby his 
fiendish i^urpose was frustrated. The negro was arrested 
next morning — immediately identified by the intended 
victim and the old negress. The exciting circumstances 
drew together a large multitude at the preliminary trial. 
He was ordered to jail in default of bail. On the trial 
the neck of the young lady was exposed by way of con- 
firming her statement that the monster had chocked her 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1183 

to suppress her cries. It was bruised and lacerated. 
While in custody on the way to jail some one shot him 
through the head and he died immediately. A criminals 
mqnest was held. There was much conflict in the evi- 
dence and the jury reported that they could not decide 
who fired the fatal shot. [The rest of the page cannot he 

One Phillips was accused of the killing of Beebe. The 
prosecution released him and made him a witness. He 
proved that Tolar fired the fatal shot and his testimony 
was confirmed by some negToes and perhaps others — 
while other witnesses of nn questionable character swore 
positively that they saw Phillips shoot the fatal shot. The 
respectable and intelligent citizens of Fayetteville do not 
believe that the convicts are guilty. I am satisfied that the 
prosecution was conducted with great vindictiveness by 
the accnser and judge advocate, Genl. Avery, and that the 
verdict was not warranted by the evidence, and that there 
was evidence against Watkins & Powers which gave color 
of justice to the verdict. 

I am satisfied that Tolar is a man of exemplary charac- 
ter — a member in good standing of a religious society 
and of the ]\Iasonic order. He is a man of family — his 
small property all exhausted in his defence. 

Assuming that the defendants are guilty, their crime 
did not spring from malignity. I earnestly hope the 
President will at once pardon them. Petitions are on 
your files signed by vast numbers of our citizens praying 
for their pardon — and if there be one man in the State — 
black or white — opposed to their pardon, I have not heard 
of such person. 

This letter may be filed, if the President will grant the 
pardon. It is addressed to you because the President's 
time must be so occupied with his defence and other of- 
ficial duties that I fear this just act of beneficence will 
be overlooked, if you do not take interest enough in it to 
call the President's attention to it. I do not write this 

1184 ISToRTH Caeolina Historical Commission. 

letter at the instance of anybody. My feelings have been 
thoroughly moved by the fact which has incidentally come 
to my knowledge, that Capt. Tolar, whom I believe to be 
a good man, of noble impnlses, is sinking into despair. 

I feel the most intense interest, for the sake of Consti- 
tutional liberty — and for the honor of the name of 
America, that at least one-third of the Senate may allow 
the impulses of honor and virtue to restrain their partizan 
proclivities — but I confess the subserviency of the Su- 
preme Court of the United State, in the firmness of which 
I had till lately confided, gives no hope for the future ex- 
cept in the voice of the masses — and when the voice is 
heard by universal suffrage, I feel terrible apprehensions 
that anarchy is not far distant. 

Washington, D. C. 


To S. S. Jackson. 

Kaleigm a pi 9 1868. 

SkSfhe new '^ ^ entertain no doubt that if I w^ere to go to N'ew Salem 
and make a speech against the new Constitution, I would 
be immediately removed from office. There would be no 
justice in said action. The legislature professes to leave 
us free to choose; but we know that all the authorities 
demand that we favor ratification. I look upon the Con- 
stitution as a virtual confiscation of the lands of the State, 
Most of it must soon change hands under the taxation re- 
quired by this proj)osed Constitution. The fountains of 
Justice will be corrupted by the Judiciary system pro- 
posed, and the universal suffrage feature, with the re- 
movals from office prescribed by the Howard amendment, 
would leave property and character and virtue unpro- 
tected. Every impulse of my nature impels me to use 
all the influence I possess to defeat a scheme I deem so 
utterly ruinous — but I feel that I owe it to those Avho 
elected me and that I can best contribute to preserve our 


liberties by bokling on to inj position as long as I can with- 
out dishonor. In this view I decided long ago to make 
no speech and publish no address against the re-construc- 
tion acts as they are falsely called. If I thought or should 
think, that it is necessary to a defeat of the Constitution 
that I surrender my office, I would not hesitate a moment. 
With my present view^s I decline to address the people of 
Xcw Salem and neighborhood. 


To A. M. Tomlinson & Sons. 

Kaleigh A-pl nth 1868. 

I regard the proposed new constitution as virtual con- opinion of the ne\r 
fiscation. ISTo government, based on the will of mere num- 
bers, irrespective of intelligence or virtue, can last long. 
Providence has so ordered it that a majority of mankind 
are improvident. Self interest is a ruling principle of our 
frail nature and hence the non-property holder will be 
antagonistic to the property holder. Civilization consists 
in the possession and protection of property. If we can- 
not defeat the adoption of the proposed Constitution the 
principle will be triumphant that those who have no in- 
terest in the protection of property and the preservation of 

order, will be the ruling powder. 

% ^ * * * * * 

[P. S.] Literary documents are occasionally sent to me 
which I have not time to read. I would like to send some 
of them to our friend Moore, but don't remember his given 
name. Don't let that arch villian A. W. Tourgee get on 
your blind side. 

Bush Hill. 

Vol. 2—34 

1186 ]^ORTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

To Solomon Moss. 

Ealeigh, Apl 13/68. 

TJie lawyer, Thos. H, ]^. McPherson, in Washington 
"City, under date of the 9th inst, sent a note to B. S. Hed- 
rick, through whose agency McPherson was employed, of 
which I inclose a copy. I have been at considerable 
trouble in presenting your claim and making the proofs 
required. As soon as one requirement is met a new one 
is presented. I turn over the matter to you and such 
counsel as you may employ in Indiana. I never desired 
or expected any compensation for my services and have 
lost all confidence and respect for the authorities in Wash- 
ington having this matter in charge. Their conduct is 
not frank and honest and I wish to have nothing more to 
do with them. 

I have from time to time proved all that they required 
until the case showed them what could not he truthfully 
proved, and then they require this proof. I think you 
had better employ some Radical to prosecute your claim 
• — ^but advise you not to give him your indentures or pay 
him anything except on condition of his getting some- 
thing for you. 

Do you intend to redeem your watch ? 
* * * * * * * 

[P. S.] If you cannot get the bounty, I suppose the 
brothers and sisters of the deceased are entitled. I am 
thoroughly disgusted with the shifting quibbles to which 
the officials resort in your case, and hope your future agent 
will correspond with Mr. McPherson. I wish to have 
nothing more to do with the quibbling scoundrels, who 
appear to be fit representatives of the hypocritical crew 
now running the national machine. 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 


To AYilliam Clarh. 

Ealeigh Apl IS 1868. 

I recognise in Sister Louisa's injunction that you and 
I quit writing about the negro, the practical good sense 
which I think characterises our family, and therefore 
will only say that I feel intense abhorrence and dis- 
gust at the schemes of Radicalism which seek to perpetu- 
ate their party domination by Union Leagmes of negroes , 
and baser white men — which seeks to make the lowest 
ignorance, instead of intelligence, the ruling power in the 
South. I abhor and despise a party, which for party 
domination, gives to the basest and most ignorant negro 
the right to vote and hold office, but denies to me and 
thousands of others, better Union men than any one who 
favors this silly and wicked policy, any voice in the gov- 
ernment under which we are to live. All of us who 
struggled to preserve the Union until it was supplanted 
by another government here and who then obeyed the 
scripture injunction to obey the powers that be, are con- 
demned in common with the original agitators and only 
made eligible to office by swearing lies, which most Radi- 
cals swallow with zest. I always hated Secession, because 
it tended to Disunion. I hate Radicalism still worse be- 
cause it tends more to Disunion. I have always loved the 
Quakers — but so far as \^QJ now uuite with Radicalism, 
I abhor and detest them, as I do all other Radicals. I 
know no Radical (unless he be a simpleton) whose mo- 
tives I respect. 

For months past I have generally been confined to my 
bouse by indisposition — At present my health is much 
improved — I am quite restored. I expect to retire from 
political life, and feel quite at sea as to the future Provi- 
dence may allow to me. Xearly all I have is real estate. 
Under the government Radicalism forces on us, land can 
be sold only at a nominal price. Agriculture can't flourish 
when every pig and cow and sheep is stolen by some in- 
dolent negro protected in his indolence and villainy by a 

1188 NoETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

set of poor devils paid by the government to foster hos- 
tility to the whites and protect them by the bayonet against 
just punishment for their crimes, and to furnish them 
from the national Treas. all they can't steal. I don't per- 
ceive how I can get away: — nor any chance to live here: 
and I think I see in the antagonism of races which par- 
tizanism encourages for the sake of party domination, 
internecine war not far ahead. I am undecided what I 
• can do — or how any of us can make a living here, if the 
!Rorth persevere in her policy of making the negro the 
dominant power here — a race wholly incompetent to gov- 
ern, if history is to be respected in forming a conclusion. 

The adoption of the new negro Constitution is advocated 
by the negroes as a unit and Holden, Rodman, and other 
Secession allies and Pool, and Dockery, and Settle and 
other base scoundrels who hope to attain ascendency 
through negro votes, co-operate with them. The contest is 
a doubtful one. 

Our family is generally enjoying good health — some of 
us making a living, other consuming the earnings of for-- 
mer years and hoping for something better "to turn up." 

Economy, Indiana. 

To C. B. Mallett. 

Ealeigii, Apl 21 1868. 

Yours of the 17th inst. reached me by to-day's mail. 

I know nothing, not known to the public, as to Genl. 
Canby's intention to confirm the legislative ordinances of 
the Convention. In this period of Revolution I have 
little confidence in any rules of construction, based on 
precedent. I do not concur in Mr. Haughton's views — 
but I have little confidence in my own or any body else's 
constructions — and do not feel that I can conscientiously 
advise you — I have had no opportunity to examine the or- 
dinance of the Convention touching your Road. It seems 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 3189 

to me that neitlier the Genl. Assembly at its last session,- — - 
nor the Convention, contemplated the payment of the State 
liabilities — contemplated bj their legislation. I regard 
all this legislation as for bnncombe: — If something may 
be realised tending to build your road, you must judge 
whether it is expedient to realise this something. As I 
understand it now, no bonds will be issued under the ordi- 
nance to which you refer, until Genl. Canby shall ratify 
the ordinance. Whether the Governor and the State 
Treasurer will respect his ratification (having had no con- 
sultation with the Pub. Treas.) I cannot say. 

Looking to the interests of your Road, as explained by 
you, I suppose you had better ask Genl. C's. ratification, 
and leave us to act as best we may. 


To Colonel J. V. Bomford. 

Raleigh, 2Iay 1st 1868. 

I am pained to learn this morning that you have been 
displaced as Conmnandant of this Post. 

During the entire period of your command here I have 
had much personal and ofiicial intercourse with you ; and 
candor requires I should say that my unqualified repug- 
nance to the legislation of Congress, which you were re- 
quired to execute, did not predispose me to regard your 
action with undue favor ; but I deem it due to you, and to 
justice, to say to you on retiring, that I heartily concur 
in the judgment of every virtuous and intelligent man in 
this community, that your whole conduct, ofiicial and 
social, has been such as becomes a veteran officer of the 
United States Army — always strictly performing your 
duty — always urbane — and eschewing partizan politics so 
thoroughly that I do not know what are your party prede- 
lictions, if you have any. 

I make this voluntary testimonial to you as an act of 
sheer justice. 

1190 NoETH Carolina Historical Commission. 

HojDing that your manly virtue may be duly appreciated 
wherever you may go, and that prosperity and happiness 
may constantly attend you, I have the honor to be, etc. 


To B. S. Hedricl'. 

May 1 1868. 

Can you gather from the under currents whether meas- 
ures will be taken to install Holden and his associates at 
an earlier date than contemplated by existing Legislation ? 
They are panting to get in; and I have never doubted that 
Congress would at once remove their disabilities, as they 
would at once white wash the Devil, if they deemed it 
necessary to the advancement of Radicalism. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To M. E. Showman. 

Raleigh, ilfa^/ 2 1868. 

Yours of the 30th ult. in which you say "the accompany- 
ing address has been sent hither from friends in England 
for circulation. If willing to distribute some of them 
among those to whom they are respectively addressed thou 
will oblige by doing so, and will please advise how many 
of each thou could use in this way." 

One only of each of the addresses was enclosed, which I 
have read with the careful consideration which I always 
give to publications emanating from your Society. I do 
not doubt the sincere design of the writers to contribute to 
the very wise and benevolent object which they contem- 
plate : but they proceed on the mistaken apprehension that 
the late owners of the slaves of the South feel unfriendly 
to the advancement of the freedmen. Until our conquer- 
ors, under cover of the military power of the U. S., allowed 
and encouraged the banding together of the negroes into 


Loyal leagues, in order to concentrate their votes, to per-, 
petuate the ascendency of the present dominant party, 
there was more kindness and sympathy for them by their 
late masters than by any body else. Since iSTorthern par- 
tizanship has banded them together against the whites the 
antagonism of races, which is the natural, if not the in- 
tended result, is disclosing itself. This, if not corrected, 
will ultimately terminate in the extinction of one race or 
the other. 

I will with pleasure distribute more of the addresses, if 
sent to me. 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 

To Dr. J. G. Eamsey. 

Raleigh^ May 2 1868. 

Your long and friendly letter of the 30th ult. is just 
received and conveys to me the very first intimation that 
there is any-body in this State thinking of another conflict 
of arms to maintain our notions of our jSTational rights. 
Any such design, if it exist, must be confined to a very 
small number whose enthusiasm has got dominion over 
common sense. 

I have a fixed conviction that when the rebellion was constitutional 


suppressed each of the States engaged hi the Rebellion, 
was entitled to its rights under the Constitution. There 
might well exist some doubts as to the proper mode of re- 
organising the machinery of State government. I thought 
it should have been done through the agency of the de 
facto State government — but it was an anomalous question 
and I yielded to the Lincoln-Johnson plan. Consequently 
I felt, at the end of the rebellion, that I owed my allegi- 
ance to the LT. S., bound to obey and entitled to the pro- 
tection of the Constitution of the LT. S. I felt that obli- 
gation quite as binding on me before as after the renewed 
oath I took to support the Constitution of the JJ. S. I 

]192 ]S[oKTPi Carolina Historical Commission. 

,liave regarded the body claiming to be the Congress and 
excluding 10 States of the Union, as a Revolutionary body, 
exercising powers not granted by the National Compact. 
I have regarded and now. regard the whoJe of the legisla- 
tion, called reconstruction, as unconstitutional and Revo- 
lutionary. — I regard, therefore, the call of a Convention 
in this State under military auspices and dictating what 
must be done to entitle us to the benefit of the Constitution 
of the U. S., as unconstitutional — and as a conscientious 
man, believing the Convention to be unconstitutionally 
called, I would not have given my sanction to its call by 
voting to ratify its action, even if I had regarded its action 
as wise. But apart from universal suffrage, even il 
coupled with universal amnesty, I would not sanction it 
by any action of mine — much less would I sanction the 
provisions of the Constitution touching the judiciary — and 
the apprehension that something worse would result from 
refusal to ratify would have had no influence on my 

[P. S.] I stand upon the Constitution of the U. S. 
and will in no way give my sanction to any measure, which, 
in my judgment requires me to violate my solemn duty to 
support it. 

Rowan Mills. 

To S. 8. Jackson. 

Raleigh^ May Jf 1868. 

Yours of the 1st inst. is received. 

I regard it as about settled that the control of our 
State affairs is transferred to the control of those who 
have no property, and consequently no concern for the 
general welfare — while the action of the Convention has 
vastly increased the State debt for objects never likely to 
return revenue to the Treasury, while they require a tax 
to be imposed to meet the interest. The public taxes. 


State, JSTational, County and municipal, if no more direct 
means be 'adopted, seem to me to threaten to destroy the 
property holder. And consequently, as this state of af- 
fairs cannot be changed at the ballot box, at an early day, 
if at all, especially when so many of our people, who have 
property, have allowed partizanship to take away their 
brains, the temptation to leave the State is very strong, if 
there be any place to which we could fly and escape these 
evils. Wher,e can we go ? We can escape negro domina- 
tion by settling in any part of the dominions of our mas- 
ters — a]id I would prefer this, if I could dispose of my 
property here at anything approaching its value. At 
present I see no hope of realising any thing of conse- 
quence from real estate. If, from any cause, we could 
sell our real estate, at any thing like a fair price, I would 
fly — to some of the British dominions ; but as we cannot 
sell noiv, it is inexpedient to say what we ivoidd do, if we 
could sell. Possibly Radicalism triumphant, may bring 
immigration and enable us to sell. In this case I would 
go to Honduras or California. If we cannot emmigrate 
we must manage our boat among the breakers and try to be 
the most skillful navigators in the storm. Whatever the 
government I hope we shall be able to take care of our- 
selves. And if we are compelled to remain here, (as I 
think we shall be) I think we can manage our boat as well 
as anv body else. 

* * * -Sfr * * * 


To Natlianiel Boyden. 

Ealeigh. May If. 186S. 
I inclose a letter from S. F. Burkhead. I cannot inter- 
fere in his behalf without some satisfactory testimonial in 
his bebfl'f. He refers to you. AVill you please inform 
me what you know of him. 

1194 jSTohth Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

I am rejoiced that you are elected to Congress. If the 
conservatives had nominated the whole corps of candidates 
out of men of jowy antecedents the result of the election 
would probably have been different. Our Secession 
friends exhibit injudicious haste to occupy front seats. 


To W. J. Yates. 

Personal. Ealeigh^ May 5 1868. 

Your late editorial/ which has been generally if not 
universally copied by the press of the State, expressing 
your conviction that my administration has been faithful 
and jDatriotic, considering your political stand point, has 
been very gratifying to me. I have no future aspirations 
— and my past career, whether good or evil, has never 
looked to office. I have felt gratified by your article be- 
cause I know that all my actions have sprung from the 
honorable purpose to discharge my duties properly, and 
next to the approval of my own conscience I derive satis- 
faction_ from the approval of my fellow man. Accept my 
thanks for the approving article which I know sprung 
from as honorable and noble motives as I claim to have 
always controlled my own conduct. 


To B. S. Hedriclc. 

RaleicxH May 6, 1868. 

RaS'pSns. "^^01^^1's of the 4th iust. is received. 

It is understood that Holden left here yesterday even- 
ing for Washington City to expedite the inauguration of 
the new^ government. He will probably ask for some leg- 
islation putting him and his associates into office at an 

iln the Charlotte Democrat. 


earlier date than would get in under the reconstruc- 
tion acts. With the views I entertain of the present dom- 
inant party in Congress I do not doubt that he will com- 
pass his object if the majority shall think such action cal- 
culated to strengthen the party. I do not propose to use 
any effort to resist the current, but simply to keep my 
lamp trimmed ready to vacate on a moment's notice. 

It shocks all sense of Justice and of honor that Con- 
gress should grant dispensation to Holden, Rodman, & Co. 
and refuse it to me. 

The party will wrangle so much in bestowing the Sen- 
atorship, that I am not sure that I would stand a fair 
chance to beat Dockery, if a dispensation were granted to 
me. lie voted in Dec. 1860 an appropriation of $300,000. 
to arm the State, and he voted in jMay, 1861 for the Con- 
vention. I spoke and voted against both. My position is 
better every way than his save that he is a Radical. I 
am not. I am now and always have been for the Union 
on the basis of the Constitution, but not for the Union 
Radicalism would force on us. 

The great error, in our late contest, sprang from the 
impatience of the old secessionists to take front seats. I 
do not know the exact strength of parties in the Legis- 

The conviction of the President, which I look upon as 
certain, will be lasting reproach on the nation, and will 
expedite the do^vnfall of Radicalism. 'No honest senator 
can believe that the evidence warrants conviction. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To C. B. Mallett. 

Raleigh, May 6th 1S68. 
Even if the question were free from difficulty as to the Railroad matters, 
issue of bonds for yr. Road provided for by the late Con- 
vention, I do not think it would be prudent for the State 

1196 iNoRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

Tr., for the present, to take measures for issuing them. 
I regard it as entirely probable that we will be suspended 
before the job could be consummated. If the printing of 
the blanks be ordered, Mr. Battle's name, under existing 
laws, would be engraved, and he will probably be out of 
office before the work could be done. Holden is now gone 
to Washington and will probably succeed in getting amend- 
ments to the re-constructions acts as will lead to the im- 
mediate change of the State officers. The engraving and 
printing will cost a considerable sum and ' if the work 
should not be completed and the bonds issued before our 
successors come in they would be worthless. I decline to 
act in the matter, at least until the result of Mr. Holden's 
trip to Washington shall be known. 

To D. R. Goodloe. 

May 8th 1868. 

I thank you for copy of your printed letter to Mr. Sum- 
ner. I have read it with much interest. I think you 
establish your main point by unansw^erable logic — but with 
my notions of the principle which controls the present 
Congress, I cannot hope for immediate effect on that body. 

Although I entirely dissent from your conclusion as to 
the adoption of the Howard amendment and the new State 
Constitution I regard your letter as in admirable contrast 
with the general discussions of these subjects. 



To James R. Doolittle.^ 

May 11 1868. 

As we have no representative in Congress yon will ex- Recoustruction. 
cuse mj calling' your attention to a matter specially affect- 
ing the people of jSForth Carolina, springing from the 
action of Congress. 

You will see that in one thing our new Constitution is 
free from any exception — to-wit ; disfranchisement of the 
intelligence and wealth of the State : — but one of your 
sections of reconstructions acts has been construed to allow 
the election of a govr. for four years — a delegation to Con- 
gress judges for eight years — a General Assembly, etc. in 
which election all the disfranchised, under the Congres- 
sional legislation, say 15 or 20 thousand, had no voice, 
the result of which is about to be that for years the State 
is to be ruled, in its legislative, executive and judicial de- 
partments by officers not elected under our Constitution, 
but under an Act of Congress. All the officers holding and 
certifying such election being appointees of the military 
authority of the U. S. If Congress ratify our Constitu- 
tion, they want to set aside the election of State officers, 
and order a new election in conformity with the new Con- 

I regard all the so-called reconstruction legislation of 
Congress as unconstitutional, unstatesmanlike and unwise : 
- — but surely when we have adopted a constitution in con- 
formity with this legislation. Congress will allow us to 
elect our officers according to its provisions. Surely if the 
State Constitution be ratified, its future government ought 
to be by officers elected under the provisions of such Con- 

I beg you to make an effort to set aside the election held 
under military auspices and congressional enactment, and 

1 Member of the Senate from Wisconsin, and an ardent supporter 
of President Johnson. He was president of the National Union Con- 
A'ention of 1866. 

1198 ISToKTH Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

allow us an election as j)rovided for nnder our Constitu- 

Under the influence of secret leagues, the intelligence 
of the State denied the right to vote — all required to vote 
on one ticket for or against the ratification of the new 
Constitution, and for members of the Genl. Assembly, 
members of Congress, judges, and County officers, it is 
easy to see that the election was controlled by caucus man- 
agement. The result is that we have for Govr. one who 
was an original Secessionist, and who did more than any 
other JSTorth Carolinian to produce and foster the sectional 
alienation which has filled the nation with mourning ; we 
have as one of the judges of our Supreme Court Mr. Rod- 
man, a violent Secessionist who was a military judge in 
the Confederate army; — for another of said judges Mr. 
Dick, who was a member of our Convention which passed 
unanimously our ordinance of Secession — and for a third 
of said judges Mr. Settle, who entered the Confederate 
army as a Captain, and resigned when the contest waxed 
hot — And we have as one of our judges of Superior juris- 
diction, A. W. Tourgee, said to have been a Captain of a 
Ohio Company in the U. S. army — who settled in this 
State after the close of the war — who has never had a 
license to practice law in this State, nor in any other 
State, so far as is known here. These are a few samples 
of the outrageous results of this mockery of an election. 
I do not give more because I would not weary you. 

If our new Constitution, forced upon us by negro votes, 
and disfranchisement, and secret leagues, must be our 
fundamental law, is it possible that we are to be denied the 
privileges of electing our representatives and officers, ac- 
cording to the provisions of this Constitution ? ! ! 

Genl. Canby has issued an order or written a letter to 
Gov. Orr that if Congress do nothing in this interim, he 
will order the installation of the new State officers ten 
days after Congress shall have ratified our Constitutions. 


I had supposed this would be deferred until the Howard 
amendment became a part of the Constitution. 
Washijn'CtTOk, D. C. 

To the Editors of the National Intelligencer. 

May 11 1868. 

You will have observed that in one thing the new Con- JJew*^constumion. 
stitution of this State contrasts favorably Avith the Consti- 
tutions of most of the other Southern States. It disfram 
chises only those convicted for infamous crimes. This 
Constitution is ratified by the votes of those allowed to vote 
and is certified by the military authorities. It will doubt- 
less be ratified by Congress. AVhen so ratified is it not 
obvious that the oificers of the State, its legislators, etc. 
who hold for long terms — Our members of Congress, mem- 
bers of the State Legislature and County ofiicers are 
elected under military officers, at an election held under 
Congressional legislation, at which some 15,000 or 20,000 
entitled to vote under this Constitution were denied the 
privilege. Is it possible that Congress will confirm this 
election ? Is Holden our constitutional Governor, elected 
under military auspices, and not under the Constitution ? 
Is Rodman, a military judge in our Confederate army, to 
be a judge of our Supreme Court for some eight or ten 
years — and Dick, who voted for Secession in our Conven- 
tion of 186] — and Settle, who was a Confederate Captain 
until the war waxed warm, to be judges of the same Court, 
by an election at which at least 15,000 of our people were 
not permitted to vote — the poll-keepers being military ap- 
pointees and the result of the election verified only by 
military certificates ? 

Genl. Canby has published a letter, stating, if Congress 
take no further action the new functionaries will be in- 
stalled 10 days after Congress shall have ratified our Con- 

1200 North Cakolina Historical Commission. 

I am nearly in despair — In fact can see no rational 
ground of hope for good government in this State at any 
early day — but if the late election were set aside and an- 
other election ordered under the new Constitution we 
would probably elect a more worthy set of officers. 

I would not have my name appear in the papers touch- 
ing this matter and submit this idea to you to suggest an 
editorial, if you deem it worth while. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To B. S. Hedrich 

May 11 1868. 

Goodioe's letter I liave read with much interest Mr. Goodloe's letter to 

Mr. Sumner. His logick, on the main point, is answer- 
able, save that I do not doubt that it was the purpose of 
Congress, that our rulers, for the present, should be men 
selected under the auspices of the military and under the 
rules of disfranchisement prescribed by Congress. They 
did not intend that our new Constitution should be opera- 
tive for a few years, lest Radicalism should not be entirely 
dominant : and hence I have no hope that his argument will 
produce any results. For years partizanship has not 
allowed virtue, or honor, or respect for the Constitution 
to be in the way of the attainment of a party end: and 
hence I regard the hope that there may be virtue enough 
in a few Senators to acquit the President, in a case where 
there is no evidence against him, as absurd. It is under- 
stood the verdict will be rendered to-day. I entertain no 
doubt that he will be convicted, having lost all confidence 
in the virtue of our rulers. 

In commending Mr. Goodloe's production, I must not be 
understood as approving his idea that we ought all to have 
voted for the Howard amendment or the new Constitution. 
Whatever ill betides us it is fit that some of us retain self 
respect. I go for neither until I can be convinced that it 


is honorable and expedient to purchase favor by fawning. 
If there had been nothing else objectionable in the new 
Constitution, its provisions as to the Judiciary would have 
made me view it with horror. It is said we might hope 
to amend this and other objectionable features. I regard 
this hope as positively absurd. ISTobody surrenders power. 
If there be any rational hope of future good government 
here it must be looked for in Revolution. At present the 
basis of our government is Ignorance. The dregs of so- 
ciety hereafter rule the State. I still hope (because I am 
naturally hopeful) that anarchy is not to supplant civili- 
zation, but I can give no reason for this hope. 

My lamps are trimmed. I expect this Congress shame- 
lessly to remove the disabilities of Holden, Eodman, Dick, 
Jenkins & Co. and to hold me, and others like me, who 
always desired to preserve the Union, unworthy of trust 
until we become Radicals which is now the only teste of 
Patriotism with the majority of Congress. 


To Editors of the Neiu York World. 

May IJi- 1868. 
You will have seen that the so-called Constitution of 1^. concerning the 

new constitution. 

C. lately adopted exhibits in one particular unusual liber- 
ality on the part of our negroes and their allies. The 
15,000 to 20,000 men, embracing nearly all the property 
and intelligence of the State, disfranchised by the late 
Disruption acts of Congress, are enfranchised — but one 
anomaly of our condition may have escaped your attention. 
Assume that our new constitution is duly framed and rati- 
fied and become our fundamental law. It makes the ju- 
diciary elective by the people, negroes and all, as well as 
the Governor and all the rest of the important ofiicers of 
the State and counties. The Governor's term is raised 
from two to four years — the judges elected for 8 years — 
Vol. 2—35 


tut our Convention took care to cause the election for all 
the officers to be held, legislative, delegation to Congress 
and all, under the auspices of the military authority of 
the U. S. which denied this right of suffrage to this 15,000 
to 20,000 disfranchised men. So we are, under our new 
Constitution, to have a governor, Legislature, judges, dele- 
gation in Congress, etc., not elected under the provisions 
of our fundamental law, but by poll-keepers appointed by 
'Genl. Canby. They can have no evidence of their elec- 
tion but his certificate, and we are to be ruled over for 
years by officers not elected under our fundamental law. 

Under Genl. Canby's orders each voter was required to 
vote on one ticket for all the officers, executive, judicial, 
legislative, Congressional and County, whereby each ticket 
embraced some 50 names. There is not one voter in 100 
in the State who can tell the names of all or over one half 
of the men he voted for. The fitness of the persons voted 
for was not considered. A caucus nominated the candi- 
dates, and the Loyal Leagues and Freeman's Bureau offi- 
cers settled on the names to be chosen and the poor ne- 
groes, ignorant whites and followers of the office seekers 
voted the ticket placed in their hands for the purpose. 

All honest men view with loathing these officers thus 
elected. A sample of the higher officers elected are — 
Holden — whose record you know — and Rodman, a strong 
Secessionist and military judge in the Confederate army, 
- — Dick, who voted the State out of the Union in 1861 — 
Settle, who went into the Confederate army as a Captain 
and resigned when the contest waxed hot — these three are 
elected judges of the Supreme Court, on account of their 
present devotion to the negro. These are some of the least 
exceptionable men appointed to rule over us under the 
mockery of an election. 

I have made this hastily written letter longer than I 
intended. My intention was simply to call your attention 
to the anomily, that the officers of our new government are 
not elected in pursuance of its provisions but by military 
authority and under military supervision. 


I intend these as mere suggestions, but not for publica- 
tion over mv name. 

To James T. Morehead. 

May 15th 1868. 

It would be interesting to know what amount of the 
County and State taxes were paid last year by the mem- 
bers of our late Convention and by the members of the 
Genl Assembly shortly to assemble. Will you furnish 
me this information for your County ? If you cannot an- 
swer before I go out of office, please answer afterwards. 

I would like to have the same information as to each 
of Our members elect to Congress. 


Copy sent to each County. 

To B. S. HedricJc. 

May 17 1868. 
I am more at leisure in this transition state of govern- 
mental affairs than I have been at any time since I as- 
sumed the Gubernatorial robe, and hence find time to an- 
swer yours of the 14th inst. 

You remark that "Johnson has so acted towards the Defense of Presi- 

1111-11 1-1 • 1 • dent Johnson. 

men who elected hnn, that they are as hostile against him 
as they could well be.'' 

If the understanding be that the nominee of a party is 
thereafter to confonn to the new principles his party may 
avow, and that he is to be deemed a traitor if he adhere 
to the principles he had avowed before such election, — and 
if his personal convictions of duty are thereafter to con- 
form to the will of those who elected him : Johnson is a 
;sinner and deserves the denunciation to which you refer: 

1204 JSToKTi-i Cakolina Historical Commission. 

but if, after election, he may honestly stand by the prin- 
ciples he had avowed before said election, Johnson is guilt- 

He has stood firmly by his ante election and well known 
principles. His party has changed its principles. If he 
was honorably bound to surrender the keeping of his con- 
science after election to those who elected him, he is justly 
obnoxious to the hatred to which you refer. If he was 
justifiable in standing firm by his ante-election principles, 
he is still entitled to retain his self-esteem and the respect 
of mankind. If it was his duty to make the convictions of 
his understanding and conscience bend to the variant re- 
sorts of his party, he is the just subject of hatred. I hold 
that no one deserving the appelation of a man, is required 
or will submit to put his conscience in the keeping of 
others. I read with pride Johnson's speeches immediately 
preceding and in the early stages of the war. I regarded 
him then as a pariot, and I regard him now as a patriot, 
in adhering to them, and I abhor the partizans who ''hate" 
him for manly adherence to his principles. 

It is so plain that it is not a debatable question among 
honest men, that no evidence has been adduced furnishing 
colorahle ground of impeachment against the President, 
and that the House of Representatives were so conscious 
of this, that the prominent managers were selected to con- 
duct the prosecution, not on account of legal learning and 
personal probity, but because of their eminence in bully- 

If the further attempt to continue this inquisition and 
persecution be countenanced, it will prove that all virtue 
is lost. 

Although Fessenden and other Republicans who voted 
against the impeachment performed only a duty which 
common honesty required, we have reached a period in 
human affairs when the nerve to be honest, is so rare, 
that we are disposed to accord to them brilliant renown. 
Moral obliguity and turpitude have become so common — 

Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 1205 

we are so familiarized with them that conmioii honesty 
commands fervid gratitude. 

I would not be understood as claiming more virtue for 
one set of politicians than another. Partizan rage IS^orth 
and South, has been heretofore and is now, entirely re- 
gardless of moral rectitude. 

Washington^ D. C. 

To H. J. Harris. 

May 20th 1868. 

Yours of the 18th inst. is to hand. 

In view of the extreme uncertainty resting on my of- 
ficial existence, I perceive no means of serving you offi- 

If, in a few days, as now seems probable, new oflicers 
are to be installed in whose election some 15,000 or 20,000 
have been denied the right to vote, who are entitled to vote 
under the present new Constitution, it would seem inju- 
rious, rather than beneficial, for me to interfere. 

Trinity College^ JST. C. 

To C. K. Lenow. 

Kaleigh IsT. C. May 22/68, 
I cannot answer your inquiry of 22 Jan. last. I can 
refer you to two instances, the one State vs. John Hoover. 
1839, where a master was convicted for the niurder of hisj 
slave — and the judgment of the Superior Court confirmed 
by the Supreme Court. Devereux & Battle's Law Re- 
ports Vols. 3 and 4th page 365. The other State vs. 
Christopher Robins — 1855, Jones' Law Reports page 249. 
In both these cases the Supreme Court confirms the deci- 
sion of the Court below, condemning the master for the 
mui'der of his slave. I suj^pose the convicts were exe- 

1206 TN'oKTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

cuted, but do not know — will ascertain and report here- 
after. I know that public sentiment here would always 
have required conviction in such a case where the proof 
justified conviction. Of course feiu instances of wanton 
depravity would occur where a man would destroy his own 

If these criminals were not executed our Courts are not 
responsible. When I ascertain I will report whether they 
were executed — and if not, why they escaped. 

There may be instances of a conviction of a master for 
the murder of his slave. I do not remember others and 
have not time to make much inquiry. The moral sense 
of the people of this State would always have revolted at 
the murder of a dependent slave by his master, and juries 
would have as readily convicted as in any other class of 

You will find in your State library, or other appropriate 
department, the cases to which I refer, the reading of 
which will show you the axioms of our Courts and juries 
touching said cases. 

ISTew York City. 

To S. S. JacliSon. 

Raleigh ' ilfa^ 22/68. 

I inclose $5. to pay for vinegar and keg, which cost 
$4.50. You do not give the cost of delivery at High Pt. I 
suppose 50 cents will cover it. 

When you again have occasion to send us any thing by 
E. E., let it come by freight. The Express Co. charged 
me $1.25 for this keg. The freight train would have de- 
livered it as safely and expeditiously at much less cost. 

I am quite at sea as to when Holden is to take my place 
— but presume it will be very soon. 



To Dr. J. Jachson. 

Raleigh, May 22/68. 

I believe the Conservatives elected to office pay much 
more tax than the Destructives, and my purpose is to 
exhibit the contrast — and to show that the poor devils, 
now made our rulers, have little interest in the well being 
of the State, so far as property is concerned. 

I have furnished your name to Mr. Badger. If the new 
officers shall be installed under Genl. Canby's orders, I sup- 
pose you will be required to take the iron-clad. If Con- 
gress act further in the matter nobody can guess at their 
action with any degree of certainty. The Supreme Court 
of the U. S. has held this iron-clad oath to be unconstitu- 
tional and that Court, though demoralised, is not yet anni- 
hilated. I would so act as not to surrender my legal 
rights, should it turn out that any legal rights will be 
recognized by the powers that be. I regard the late elec- 
tion as unconstitutional and absurd. l*J^ot a civil officer 
of State has been elected by the electors entitled to vote 
under the new Constitution and not one can establish his 
election save by military certificate — but it is not possible 
to know where the revolution is to end nor what is to be 
the practical result of present legislation. 


To B. S. Hedricl: 

Raleigh, May 22 IS 68. 
We have taken no pains to show the contrast by ante- Radical methods, 
cedents, between the men elected in 1865 and this year, 
for the reason that the Republican party has no respect 
for union antecedents. The only thing they respect is 
present adherence to Radicalism. By this teste the com- 
parison you indicate would bring us into much greater 
disfavor. The men of 1865 were generally noble, patri- 

1208 JN'oKTH Carolina Historical Commission^. 

otic, Union men — Those of 1868 are generally ignoble 
inferior men having no moral principle. The men of 
1865, almost universally, hate Radicalism, as all good 
constitutional Union men do. The latter, of whom Holden 
and Butler are fair specimens, — shout for Radicalism — 
and are embraced by Sumner, Wilson, et id omne genus. 
I may appeal to my whole life to show my devotion to the 
Union, unless my yielding to the powers that were during 
the Rebellion, always ready to see the Union restored and 
never pretending to the contrary, be absurdly held an ex- 
ception — but Sumner, Wilson and every other Republican 
find no difficulty in removing the disabilities of Holden 
while not one of them would place me on the same footing.' 
They are mere partizans, not patriots. I have lost all 
confidence in their virtue and honor. I always detested, 
as I do now, every thing tending to produce sectional alien- 
ation. Hence I abhorred Secessionism, and equally 
abhor Republicanism, as exhibited by reconstruction Leg- 

If Congress, when they white wash Holden, would 
white-wash me, as his late rival and presenting Union 
record infinitely better, I should give them credit for 
some honesty. 

ISTeither Tourgee or Heaton paid any County or State 
tax last year. The great body of the Convention and the 
Radical members of the Genl Assembly, paid next to no 
tax for the support of the State whose guardians they are 
made, under Loyal League and negro suffrage. I am col- 
lecting authentic information on this matter and will 
publish it, when complete. Enough is now ascertained to 
show that the new order of things ignores those whose 
industry and prudence have given them interest in the 
preservation of the fruits of industry, and gives the helms 
of State to the worthless carpet bagger. This is the natu- 
ral sequent of universal negro suffrage. 

Washingtois^, D. C. 



From Rev. Job Berry (colored) to General Canby. 

HiLLSBOBo N'o. Ca. May 25 1868. 

Genl. Canhay Ilonard Sir 

I now sit down to ask a favor of you if you please. Asking aid for ins 

My sone was taken from me when lie was about 10 years 
old. I being a Slave therefore I had no control over him. 
He was haired of from home at the close of the war. At 
the close of the war he went to Wilmington 'No. Ca quite 
a youth. And there he got in-to bad company, was led 
astray and w^as put in prison for live months before his 
trial. And beaing convicted he was sent to the work house 
for 2 years. He has bin there for about nine months. 
He was at first the body ser^^ant of the Hon. Judge JSTash 
of Hillsboro. He has been a good boy and of a good 
charactar. But after the death of the Judge he was hire- 
ard out in the country and got with the wild rapling low 
class boys in the county that he got out of a greate many of 
his old study and going to church ways in fact theare was 
not a church in 6 or 10 miles of the place that he was 
haired. Deare Ser you know how rouning it is to boys to 
be a way from theare parents so long from 10 to the age 
of 19. He will be 21 one years old this July and he is 
my oldest sone and the only one with a trade he is a good 

I am getting advance in years and my wife are afflicted. 
I have a family of 10 children but by the help of God I 
am trying to live I wrote to Wilmington to try to get him 
bailed, it was $200. to get him out but I have not got the 
money so by the help of God nowing that he is in your 
hands and if you will releace him and let him come home 
to me I will try by the help of God to keep him withe me 
for I need his help. If you wish to know my charecter 
you will be so kind as to apply to Hon Hugh D. Waddell 
of Wilmington he raised me from a boy my poor boy have 
been sufring so long I think that he will learn a lesson to 
stay at home My deare Sir I hope that the Lord will en- 
able you to consider my great disstress hoping to heare 

1210 ISToRTM Carolina Historical Commission. 

from you very soon. May the Lord bless you and keep 
you it is my prayers. I am sir your bumble servant 

P. S. My sons name are Mareellus P. Berrv. 

To William P. Fessenden.^ 

Kaleigii, May 26th 1867. 

tions^fu "he'state! '^^® ^^8'-'^ regard I have always had for your character 
as a statesman and your recent exhibition of conscientious- 
ness on the impeachment question, as IsT. C. is unrepre- 
sented in Congress, are my only warrant in calling your 
attention to a matter of the gravest important to us. It 
would be useless to get a member acting in the minority to 
interpose in our behalf. Believing, notwithstanding the 
unjust obloquy now heaped upon you, that you wish to act 
justly and patriotically and to rest your claims for future 
reno^^al upon these elevated grounds, I lay before you 
what I deem awful grievances to the people of IST. C. 
which can be remedied only by Congress. 

The reconstruction measures of Congress profess to 
have in view the establishment of a Civil Government in 
these States, looking alike to the general welfare and the 
future well-being of the States now excluded from par- 
ticipation in ISTational legislation. I assume this is the 
sincere purpose of Congress. 

Under this plan the State has formed a new Constitu- 
tion. Is it not manifest that this new State Government 
ought to be administered by officers chosen in pursuance 
of its provisions ? 

Under Art 6 sec. 1 of this Constitution, a large class 
of our people who are denied the right to vote under these 
reconstruction Acts, are enfranchised. This class em- 

1 Former Secretary of the Treasury and at this time a Senator 
from Maine. He was Chairman of the Joint Committee on Recon- 


braces at least 15,000 — perhaps 20,000 of our citizens 
owning most of the property and comprising the chief in- 
telligence of the State. 

The new Constitution entitles this class to a voice in 
the State Government, but the Convention directed that 
the election of a Governor for four j^ears, Judges for eight 
years, members of the General Assembly, members of Con- 
gress, and all our other inferior olficers, State and County, 
should be elected under the present Military Government 
of the State, those only being allowed to vote who were 
registered by the Military in pursuance of Congressional 
legislation. ISTot one of the State or County officers, whose 
duty it will be to carry out the new State Government, can 
show any other evidence of his election, save the certificate 
of Genl. Canby. If you sanction our new Constitution, is 
it possible you will put this new GoveiTuiient in operation 
by officers not elected by the electors entitled to vote under 
its provisions ? ! ! ! 

I cannot suppose it possible that Congress can approve 
such an anomaly — not to say absurdity. 

This election was held by general ticket for Governor, 
Judges and other State officers and each voter was required 
to vote on the same ticket for members of Congress, Solici- 
tors of the Judicial Circuits, members of the General 
Assembly and County officers. I inclose the orthodox 
ticket for this County to show how this election was con- 
ducted. This was the caucus ticket. I do not believe 
that one in 100 of the voters — even the white voters — can 
tell the names (much less the fitness, of the State officers 
for whom he voted: and not one in one thousand can tell 
the names of all the candidates for whom he voted. Is not 
this a mockery of Ive]3ublican Government. 

It is claimed that the restoration of the Union and the 
establishment of good government was the object of this 

It is notorious that Mr. Holden, by the Standard news- 
paper which he edited, advocated Secession and that he 

1212 ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

did more than any other citizen of the State to alienate 
our citizens against the Union. 

He was a member of our Convention of 1861 and voted 
for the ordinance of Secession and gloried in that vote 
and for years reviled the prominent Union men of the 
ISTorth. When the tide of battle turned against the South, 
he changed his tone, not for the restoration of the Union, 
but for ^^peace and independence." When the war was 
over he claimed to be a par excellence Union man — suc- 
ceeded in getting the President to make him Prov. Gov- 
ernor and for a time exhausted his powers of panageric 
on the President and his policy. 

At the election for Governor in 1865 the real Union 
men of the State, who never did and who never will vote 
for Holden, induced me to run against him. It was well 
known I had always opposed Secession — that as a Senator 
I had voted against the call of a Convention even in May 
1861, after war had actually begun, and although I after- 
wards co-operated with the South : it was well known that 
I desired at all times that hostilities should cease on the 
basis of the Constitution of the U. S. The strong Union 
counties of the State gave me large majorities — and very 
many ultra-sessionists preferred me to one who had for- 
merly acted with them and then turned upon and reviled 
his old political friends. I was elected by a very large 
majority; and re-elected in 1866, without opposition — the 
first instance of the election of a Governor by the people 
of this State without opposition. I refer to this because 
Mr. Holden and a great majority of the ISTorthern press 
have always preteaided that my election was a secession 
triumph — whereas it was a Union triumph. This is but 
incidental. If I should succeed in awakening your atten- 
tion to my main purpose, and you should for any reason 
desire to know more of Mr. Holden, or of me, I beg to 
refer you to B. S. Hedrick of the U. S. Patent Office, an 
honest man who knows all about both of us. 

As soon as it appeared that the Congressional policy was 


likely to prevail over the President's he turned upon and 
reviled him and extolled Congress. His latest demonstra- 
tion is his lying and foolish telegTam j)ublished in the 
Chronicle, that Civil ivar here would be the result of the 
acquittal of the President. 

This is a raj^id sketch of our Civil Governor, elected 
under Military authority, whom you are called upon to 
white-wash and prepare for the wearing of his official robe. 

Wm. B. Eodman, elected a Judge of the Supreme Court, 
was an ultra Secessionist and during the war a Military 
Judge in the Confederate Army, carrying out our Con- 
script laws. These are two conspicuous instances, of 
which there are many minor ones, where new born fervor 
in favor of the Union is rewarded by high office, to the 
utter disgust of all real Union men in this State, of re- 
spectable intelligence. 

Of the men elected to high office, few have any impor- 
tant interest in the well-being of the State ; for instance 

A. W. Tourgee, of the U. S. Army, who settled or 
rather stopped in the State, after the war, is elected a 
Judge of the Superior Court of law. He has never 
practised laiv in this State nor had a license to practice. 
I have been uuable to ascertain that he ever had a 
license to practise in the Courts of Superior jurisdic- 
tion in any other State. He has not listed or paid one 
red cent of County or State tax in the County, Guilford, 
in which he claims citizenship. 

Heaton and French elected members of Congress were 
both late members of the Radical Convention, both recent 
squatters among us, did not pay a dime last year towards 
the expenses of the State Government or County police — 
including support of the poor. Results of like character 
might be enumerated ad infinitum — all the results of uni- 
versal negro suffrage. Loyal Leagues, the Freeman's Bu-% 
reau and disfranchisement of the substantial population. 
In the list of persons elected are very many notoriously 
conspicuous for bringing on the war, negro traders, men 

1214 JSToETii Carolina Histoeical Commission. 

who opposed not only negro suffrage, but were also opposed 
to allowing them to testify. Most remarkable is the con- 
trast between the result of this election and that held 
under the orders of the President in 1865. In the elec- 
tion of 1865 every person elected to Congress, every one 
of our eleven Judges and the Governor elect, always con- 
scientiously ojDposed Secession. After war was actually in- 
augurated and they were compelled to take sides in the 
conflict, they co-operated with the South. The converts 
from Secession to Eadicalism here embrace the meanest of 
their party — but I am amplifying much more than I in- 
tended. If our new Constitution is to be ratified by Con- 
gress, in the name of Justice I beg that Congress annul 
the elections held under Military authority and allow us 
to elect our rulers luider our fundamental law. If we are 
to have Civil Government let the officers who are to carry 
it out, be men elected in pursuance of its provisions. 
Washington, D. C. 

To David Worth. 

May 26 1868. 

Your late letter is received. 
Opinions of the I regard a pretended civil government not one ofiicer of 

new government. or o 

which can prove his office save by Genl. Canby's certificate 
— and in whose election some 15,000 or 20,000 of our 
people, entitled to vote under this new Constitution, were 
denied this right, as coming exactly up to what a common 
sense old friend of mine, calls "compound nonsense." 

The judges for eight years — The Govr. for four — and 
every County and State officer is to hold his office under an 
election inanaged by the military authority and in which 
the great body of our people, having property and intelli- 
gence, were not allowed a voice, is a fair specimen of 
"compound nonsense" and shameless villiany. 

When the great mass of grown up men, — white and 
black — are asked by one general ticket to elect their judges 


for limited periods ; and not one in one hundred can tell 
who he voted for — much less his fitness to fill the office, — 
and protection to character, property and life is mere 
matter of chance — but I can't dwell on these luatters^ — 
Executive duties, though I am soon to give place to my 
successor, crowd upon me. 

If you were to leave x^orth Carolina in the hope of 
better government elsewhere, to what State or government 
would you go ? If you sacrifice the fruits of years of toil, 
are you sure you will better your condition ? Mankind 
has always been plunging into war and other foolery. If 
you lived in a community where there were many negroes. 
I would advise you to fly. It will be a long time before 
they perish out ; and there can be no property where they 
exist in large numbers. They have always been savages 
and drones in a free state and human reason can judge 
of the future only by the past. In view of your age — the 
comforts around you and the small number of black negroes 
around you, I advise you to remain where you are. It 
cannot be long before white negroes come to their senses. 


To C. K. Lenow. 

KaleiCtH. May 29 1868. 

I have information from the Sheriffs of the Counties 
in which Hoover and Robins were convicted for the mur- 
der of their slaves, that both of them were duly hanged. 
I have found these cases because they were reviewed by 
the Supreme Court and the evidence is indubitable.- 
Doubtless inquiry would disclose other cases. Depravity 
has never got such hold here that our Courts and juries 
would not hang a man guilty of murdering his slave as 
soon as any other murdered. 

iSTew York City. 

1216 ISTofiTH Carolina Histokical Commission. 

To W. L. Springs. 

June 1 1868. 

Our late so called Convention cansed only a few copies 
of their Constitution to be printed in pamphlet form, 
those few copies were sent only to the faithful, being ac- 
companied by an address to the people by a committee of 
their body urging the ratification. iSTot a single copy of 
this was sent to me. I cannot furnish you, therefore, 
with a copy of the instrument, unless I can find an old 
news-paper containing it. JSTot -^^g of those who voted 
to ratify it had read it or heard it read. It is a disgrace 
to modern politics that the peojDle are to be governed by a 
constitution, purporting to be ratified by them, when four- 
fifths of those by whose votes it was ratified, could not 
have read it, if they had been furnished a copy, and when 
not one in twenty of them was furnished a copy. By 
order of Genl Canby, each voter was required to vote on 
one ticket for or agaiust the Constitution and for all the 
State and County officers. I send you a ticket. This 
enabled the Loyal Leaguers to put a ticket in the hands 
of each of the faithful. There is not one man in one 
hundred, even of the white voters ; and not one in ten 
thousand of the negro voters, who can give the names of 
the persons for whom he voted. Such a government can- 
not long be respected — and I therefore recommend that 
you make no investment in our securities, based on the 
action of the Convention. While the Constitution makes 
the wdiolesome provision that the Legislature shall provide 
for paying the State debt, the same body authorized the 
issue of some five millions of State bonds, in aid of sun- 
dry works of Internal improvement, which bonds they 
knew would be sold by the several companies at about half 
their face. They did not contemplate their payment. 'No 
debtor who promises to pay a dollar for fifty c